This article investigates
the causes of workers’ health problems which are integrated with their daily
work in the tanning industry, and with their daily life pattern. The
tanning industry has two opposing aspects; it brings economic prosperity for
the country, on the other hand, it causes health problems for the workers.
Moreover, it has detrimental effects on surrounding environment as well. The
workers labor in polluted workplace inside of the industry, and live in
unhygienic dwelling outside of the industry. While the workers practice daily
life culture in personal life, they practice tannery culture in their work
place, and both create health problems for them. Workers’ health has
relationship with surrounding areas, equipments, workplace floor, chemicals,
ways of dealing with the machines, and so on, and all variables determine the
workers’ health individually or as a whole. Notably, one matter is not
responsible for the suffering of the tannery workers. We need to consider it
from the holistic point of view.
 Ahsan, M. R. et al. (1999). Work-related problems in metal handling tasks in Bangladesh: Obstacles to the development of safety and health measures. Ergonomics, 42, 385-396.
 Andreas et al. (n.d.). Indian leather sector report. Sector overview and SWOT analysis. India: ASIAPROECO.
 Arias-Barreiro, C. R. et al. (2010). Ecotoxicological characterization of tannery wastewater in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31, 471-475.
 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2001). Household, population, sex ration and literacy rate—2001. Upazila/Thana: Hazaribagh Thana. Dhaka: Bangladesh Government.
 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistic (2007). Report on Bangladesh Census of Manufacturing Industries 2001-2002. Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistic.
 Bangladesh Asiatic Society (2011). Banglapedia. URL (last checked 24 December 2011).
 Barth, F. (1956). Ecological relationship of ethnic groups in swat, North Pakistan. American Anthropologist, 58, 1079-1108.
 Billah, S. M. R. et al. (2000). Heath of the tannery workers. Dhaka: SHED.
 Bhuiyan, M. A. S. et al. (2011). Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 175, 633-649. doi:10.1007/s10661-010-1557-6
 Cambridge Dictionaries Online (2012). URL (last checked 17 January 2012).
 Das, B., & Grady, R. M. (1983). Industrial workplace layout design. An application of engineering anthropometry. Ergonomics, 26, 433-447.
 Douglas, M. (1996) Natural symbols. London: Routledge.
 Dauglas, M., & Wildavsky (1982). An essay on the selection of technological and environmental dangers. Risk and Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
 Food and Agriculture Organization (2011). World statistical compendium for raw hides and skins, leather and footwear 1990-2009. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
 Fuentes, A. (2010). Naturalcultural encounters in Bali: Monkeys, temples, tourists, and ethnoprimatology. Cultural Anthropology, 25, 600624. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1360.2010.01071.x
 Helman, C. G. (2007). Culture, health and illness. London: Hodder Arnold.
 Hill, M. K. (2010). Understanding environment pollution. UK: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511840654
 Hossain, A. M. M. M et al. (2007). Heavy metal concentration in tannery solid wastes used as poultry feed and the ecotoxicological consequences. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 42, 397-416.
 Huda, K. M. N. (2008). Municipal solid waste management. Bangladesh perspective. Dhaka: Academic Press and Publishers Library.
 Institute for Environment and Development Studies (2003). Aquatic ecology and dangerous sustances: Bangldesh perspective. Dhaka: IEDS.
 International Labor Organization (2008). Decent work country program, Bangladesh. International Labor Office.
 International Council of Tanners (2011). Introduction to leather. URL (last checked 12 July 2012).
 Islam, K. M. N. et al. (2011). Efficiency of different coagulants combination for the treatment of tannery effluents: A case study of Bangladesh. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 5, 409-419.
 Islam, T. (2000). Hell for leather. Asia Times.
 Liverman, C. T. et al. (1997). Toxicology and environmental health information resources. Washington: National Academic Press.
 Little, P. E. (1999). Environment and environmentalism in anthropological research: Facing a new millennium. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 253-84. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.28.1.253
 Martin, E. (1992). The end of the body? American Ethnologist, 19, 121140. doi:10.1525/ae.1992.19.1.02a00070
 Mauss, M. (1973). Techniques of the body. Economy and Society, 2, 70-88. doi:10.1080/03085147300000003
 Nuwayhid, I. A. (2004). Occupational health research in developing countries: A partner for social justice. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.11.1916
 Olajos, E. J., & Salem, H. (2000). Risk assessment and risk management: Pathways toward process enhancement. In H. Salem, & E. J. Olajos (Eds.), Toxicology in risk assessment (pp. 269-310). Philadelphia, PA: Tailor & Francis.
 Panter-Brick, C., & Fuentes, A. (2009). Health, risk, and adversity: A contextual view from anthropology. In C. Panter-Brick, & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Health, risk and adversity (pp. 1-12). New York: Berghahn Books.
 Penningroth, S. (2010). Essentials of toxic chemical risk. science and society. New York: CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203022627
 Popielarz, P. A., & Neal, Z. P. (2007). The niche as a theoretical tool. The Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 65-84.
 Qattous, M., & McCallin, T. (2009). A mission for accomplishment of a comprehensive sector study regarding the opportunities of complementarities and Industrial Integration in the Leather and Shoes Sector in the member countries of the Agadir Agreement (Egypt-Jordan-Morocco and Tunisia). Amman: ATU.
 Roberts, C. (2009). Understanding health. In C. Panter-Brick, & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Health, risk and adversity (pp. 13-25). New York: Berghahn Books.
 Saha, G. C. et al. (2001). Groundwater contamination in Dhaka City from tannery waste. Journal of Civil Engineering, 29, 151-166.
 Salam, F. M. A., & Gain, P. (2009). Leather industry: Environmental pollution and mitigation measures. In P. Gain (Ed.), Investigative reports: Environment and human rights (pp. 150-157). Dhaka: SEHD.
 Scheper-Hughes, N., & Lock, M. M. (1987). The mindful body: A prolegomenon to future work in medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 1, 6-41. doi:10.1525/maq.1987.1.1.02a00020
 Schwartz, J. (1994). Air pollution and daily mortality: A review and meta analysis. Environmental Research, 64, 36-52.
 Sharif, M. I., & Mainuddin, K. (2003). Country case study on environmental requirements for leather and footwear export from Bangladesh. Dhaka: Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies.
 Smith, A. O. (1996). Anthropological research on hazards and disasters. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 303-328.
 St. Christian, D. D. (2002). Elusive fragments. Making power, propriety & health in Somoa. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
 Tanimowo, M. O. (2000). Air pollution and respiratory health in Africa: A riview. East African Medical Journal, 77, 71-75.
 USAID (2009). Leather processing: Cleaner production. Fact Sheet and Resource Guide. USAID.
 Vayda, A. P., & McCay, B. J. (1975). New directions in ecology and ecological anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 4, 293306. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.04.100175.001453
 Wagner, R. (1986). Symbol that stand for themselves. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
 Wolanski, N. (1980). Environmental hazard and the future of man. In I. P. Singh, & S. C. Tiwari (Eds.), Man and his environment (pp. 1-28). New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
 Wolputte, S. V. (2004). Hang on to yourself. Of bodies, embodiment, and selves. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 251-269.
 World Health Oorganization (2006). Declaration on workers health. Stresa, Italy: WHO.
 Zonabend, F. (2009). The nuclear everyday. In M. Mollona et al. (Eds.), Industrial work and life. An anthropological reader (Vol. 78, pp. 167-188). New York: Berg, London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology.