combination of spectral and chromatographic analytical methods has been executed
to monitor chemicals in the hair of Vietnamese people. Methods were developed for
the determination of some chemical elements in hair by inductively coupled-plasma
atomic emission spectroscopy with limits of detection reaching 1 - 100 μg·l－1.
A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and clean-up procedures were established
for isolating organochlorine pollutants (OCPs) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs)
from the hair of the Vietnamese test subjects. Eight OCPs and OPPs were determined
by SFE with carbon dioxide only and methanol-modified carbon dioxide extraction
at 350 bar and 45℃, followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.
The results indicated that OCPs can be extracted quantitatively using CO2 only, whereas OPPs require a modifier for extraction.
The limits of detection that were found were between 0.7 to 1.3 μg·g－1,
and good linearity (r2 > 0.9861) was achieved within the tested ranges. The activitiesof the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and the monooxygenases cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) were determined and compared to the acetylation
and oxidation phenotypes of healthy Vietnamese
test subjects. The variations in the
concentration of chemical elements in human hair were shown to be dependent
upon the activities of the two-phase metabolic
system, on the individual’s gender and the duration of residence within
Cite this paper
Cuong, L. , Thuy, L. and Evgenev, M. (2013) Biomonitoring of organic and inorganic chemicals in the hair of Vietnamese people via spectral and chromatographic analysis. Journal of Biophysical Chemistry, 4, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/jbpc.2013.41001.
 Le, P.C., Evgen’ev, M.I. and Gumerov, F.M. (2012) Determination of pesticides in the hair of Vietnamese by means of supercritical CO2 extraction and GC-MS analysis. The Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 61, 86-91.
 Evgenev, M.I., Garmonov, S.Y., Evgeneva, I.I., Goryunova, S.M., Pogoreltsev, V.I. and Levinson, F.S. (1998) Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of isoniazide in human urine as a test of the genetically predetermined type of biotransformation by acetylation. Talanta, 47, 891-898.
 Covaci, A., Tutudaki, M., Tsatsakis, A.M. and Scepens, P. (2002) Hair analysis: Another approach for the assessment of human exposure to selected persistent organochlorine pollutants. Chemosphere, 46, 413-418.
 Skalnuj, A.V. and Rudakov, I.A. (2003) Bioelements in medicine. Moscow, 272.
 Le, P.C. and Evgen’ev, M.I. (2010) Polymorphisms of metabolic systems in the Vietnamese community in Russia. Journal of Science and Development of Danang City, 153, 23-26.
 Cholodov, L.E. and Yakovlev, V.P. (1985) Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Moscow, 191.
 Nebert, D.W. and Roe, A.L. (2001) Ethnic and genetic differences in metabolism genes and risk of toxicity and cancer. Science of the Total Environment, 274, 93-102.
 Borella, P., Rovesti S., Caselgrandi, E. and Bargellini, A. (1996) Quality control in hair analysis: A systematic study on washing procedures for trace element determination. Mikrochim Acta, 123, 271-280. doi:10.1007/BF01244400
 Evans, G.J. and Jervis, R.E. (1987) Hair as a bioindicator: Limitations and complications in the interpretation of results. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 110, 613-625. doi:10.1007/BF02035550
 Tutudaki, M., Tsatsakis, A.M. and Covaci, A. (2001) Hair analysis: An alternative methods of assessing exposure to organochlorine pollutants. Toxicology, 164, 85-86.
 Bogdanov, A.V., Glazkov, I.N., Polenova, T.V., Marutsenko, I.V. and Revel’skii, I.A. (2007) Determination of organic compounds in human hair. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 61, 936-951.
 Dauberschmidt, C. and Wennig, R. (1998) Organochlorine pollutants in human hair. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 22, 610-611.
 Glazkov, I.N., Revelsky, I.A., Efimov, I.P. and Zolotov, Y.A. (1999) Supercritical fluid extraction of water samples containing ultratrace amounts of organic micropollutants. Journal of Microcolumn Separations, 11, 729-736. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-667X(1999)11:10<729::AID-MCS6>3.0.CO;2-2
 Hashimi, A.A., Krishnan, S.S. and Jervis, R.E. (1992) Human hair as a pollutant dosimeter. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 161, 171-180.
 Hawthorne, S.B., Miller, D.J., Nivens, D.E. and White, D.C. (1992) Supercritical-fluid extraction of polar analytes using in situ chemical derivatization. Analytical Chemistry, 64, 405-412. doi:10.1021/ac00028a015
 Neuber, K., Merkel, G. and Randow, F.F.E. (1999) Indoor air pollution by lindane and DDT indicated by head hair samples of children. Toxicology Letters, 107, 189-192.
 Schramm, K.W. (1997) Hair: A matrix for non-invasive biomonitoring of organic chemicals in mammals. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 59, 396-402. doi:10.1007/s001289900491
 Crimele, V., Kintz, P., Majdalani, R. and Mangin, P. (1995) Supercritical fluid extraction of drugs in drug addict hair. Journal of Chromatography B, 673, 173-181.
 Mohammad, A. R., Omar, D., Islam, M.Z., Morshed, M.M. and Rashid, K.N. (2010) Supercritical fluid extraction and quantification of chlorpyrifos insecticides in fresh vegetables by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 4, 548-555.
 Nebert, D.W. and Dalton, T.P. (2006) The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in endogenous signalling pathways and environmental carcinogenesis. Nature Reviews Cancer, 12, 947-960. doi:10.1038/nrc2015
 Society of Hair Testing (2004) Recommendations for hair testing in forensic cases. Society of Hair Testing. Forensic Science International, 145, 83-84.