Health  Vol.5 No.2 , February 2013
Infant mortality rate in Al-Ramadi province from 2000 through 2010, retrospective study
ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the IMR in Al-Ramadi province, the center of Al-Anbar Governorate, Western Iraq, from 2000-2010 with rate comparison of the three different stages of that period. Methods: Data collected from the birth and death certificate center in Al-Ramadi province, Western Iraq, included; name, age, sex, residence, date of birth and death, in three different stages (the first stage 2000-2002, the second stage 2003-2007, and the third stage 2008-2010) in a study period from July to December, 2010. The IMRs were analyzed and compared with other studies. Results: The IMR of the last 3 years of sanction was 54.3/1000, 55.7/1000 and 50.6/1000 respectively, this rate had been increased in the war and violence period to reach its maximum rate 58.6/1000 in 2006, then decreased to reach its minimum rate 44.5/1000 in 2008. Approximately two-third of deaths occurred during the neonatal period and one third in the post neonatal period. Males had higher IMR than females, and rural residence higher than urban. Conclusion: Infant mortality rate is still high in Al-Ramadi province, since the American invasion (2003-2007), when compared with other developing countries. This study found increase of IMR in Al-Ramadi province during that period more than other studied years.


Cite this paper
Aljumaily, H. , Al-Ani, M. and Hantush, M. (2013) Infant mortality rate in Al-Ramadi province from 2000 through 2010, retrospective study. Health, 5, 292-297. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.52039.
References
[1]   Stanton, B. and Behrman, R.E. (2008) The field of pediatrics, history of infant and child health. In: Behrman, R.E., Kliegman, R.M. and Jenson, H.B., Eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th Edition, Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

[2]   Logan, S. (2003) Epidemiology of child health. In: Logan S., McIntosh, N., Helms, P. and Smyth, R., Eds., Forfar and Arneill’s Textbook of Pediatrics. 6th Edition, Churchil Livingstone, Oxford.

[3]   Abuqamar, M., Coomans, D. and Louckx, F. (2011) Correlation between socioeconomic differences and Infant mortality in the Arab World (1990-2009). International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3, 15-21.

[4]   World Health Organization (2000) The World Health Report, Health systems: Improving performance. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[5]   Bernadine Healy, M.D. (2012) Behind the baby count. World Reports, US News.

[6]   MacDorman, M.F. and Mathews, T.J. (2009) Behind international ranking of infant mortality: How the United State compares with Europe. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 23.

[7]   World Health Organization (2011) Humanitarian assistance capacity in Iraq; Part 1. GARE International in Iraq, John Hopkins University Center for International Emergency, Disaster and Refugee Studies.

[8]   Ministry of Health (1990) National child survey 1989. Government of Iraq, Baghdad.

[9]   Global Demographic Ltd. (2011) Mortality rate; infant (per 1000 live births) in Iraq.

[10]   Federation of American Scientist (2011) Child mortality. Iraq morality estimate.

[11]   United Nations Economics and Social Commissions for Western Asia (ESCWA) (1997) Poverty in Iraq before and after Gulf War. Poverty reduction series-4.

[12]   The World Bank (2011) World development report 2001.

[13]   Shawky, S. (2001) Infant mortality in Arab countries; so ciodemographice, perinatal and economic factors. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 7, 956-965.

[14]   Al-Nouri, L. and Al-Rahim, Q. (2003) The effect of sanction of Iraq. Archives of Disease in Children, 88, 92. doi:10.1136/adc.88.1.92

[15]   Abudal Latif, B.L., Al-Diwan, J.K., Al-Hadithi, T.S. and Al-Hadi, A.H. (2006) Low birth weight and prematurity in the neonatal unit of a maternity and pediatric hospital in Iraq. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 52, 147-150.

[16]   Said, N.I. (2003) Trend of perinatal mortality (rate and leading causes). Iraqi Journal of Community Medicine, 12, 28-30.

[17]   Nasheit, N.A. (2003) Perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in Iraq. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 13, 64-67. doi:10.1080/jmf.13.1.64.67

[18]   Ascherio, A., Chase, R., Coté, T. and Dehaes, G. (1992) Effect of the gulf war on infant and child mortality in Iraq. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 931-936. doi:10.1056/NEJM199209243271306

[19]   Awqati, N.A., Ali, M.M., Al-Ward, N.J., Mageed, F.A., Salman, K. and Al-Alak, M. (2009) Causes and differentials of childhood mortality in Iraq. BMC Pediatrics, 9, 40. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-40

[20]   UN Security Council, Global Policy Forum (2003) Council on Foreign Relations, Resolution 986, UN Sanctions, Iraq.

[21]   Events Leading Up to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq (2011) Media coverage of thread posed by Iraq.

[22]   Department of Professional Employees, AFL-CIO (2011) Health consequences of the war in Iraq.

[23]   Al-Ani, Z.R., Al-Hiali, S.J. and Al-Mehimedi, S.M. (2010) Neural tube defect among neonates deliveries in Al Ramadi maternity and children hospital, western Iraq. Saudi Medical Journal, 31, 163-169.

[24]   Al-Ani, Z.R., Al-Hiali, S.J. and Al-Mashhadani, W.S. (2009) Perinatal mortality rate in Al-Ramadi maternity and children hospital, western Iraq. Saudi Medical Journal, 30, 1296-1300.

[25]   Al-Hiali, S.J., Al-Ani, Z.R, Al-Kaseer, E. and Al-Ani, E.R. (2010) Low birth weight in western Iraq. The Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 9, 312-315.

[26]   Roberts, L., Lafta, R., Garfield, R., Khudhairi, J. and Burnham, G. (2004) Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq sample surveys Roberts. Lancet, 364, 1857 1864. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17441-2

[27]   List of countries by Infant mortality rate (2011). www.wikipedia.org

[28]   WHO, Health Statistics (2012) Global health indicators. http://www.who.int/gho/

[29]   Al-Ani, Z.R., Al-Hiali, S.J. and Al-Faraji, H.H. (2011) Secular trend of infant mortality rate during wars and sanctions in western of Iraq. Saudi Medical Journal, 32, 1267 1273.

[30]   Goldani, M.Z., Barbieri, M.A., Bettiol, H., Barbieri, M.R. and Tomkins, A. (2001) Infant mortality rates according to socioeconomic status in a Brazilian city. Revista de Saude Publica, 35, 256-261. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102001000300007

[31]   Garfeild, R. (1997) The Impaction of economic embargoes on the health of women and children. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 15-20.

[32]   Al-Ani, Z.R., Al-Hagi, S.A., Al-Ani, M.M., Al-Dulaimy, K.M., Al-Maraie, A.K. and Al-Ubaidi, B.K. (2012) Incidence, types, geographical distribution, and risk factors of congenital anomalies in Al-Ramadi maternity and children’s teaching hospital, western Iraq. Saudi Medical Journal, 33, 979-989.

[33]   Red Orbit (2012). http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1310570/male_infant_fatality_rate_higher_than_female_infants/

[34]   Global Issue (2011) Poverty around the world. www.globalissue.org

 
 
Top