D. M. Anderson, “Geospatial Methods and Data Analysis for Assessing Distribution of Grazing Livestock,” Proceedings of the 4th Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference Western Section American Society of Animal Science, Estes Park, 9-10 July 2010, pp. 57-92.
 R. J. Kilgour, “In Pursuit of ‘Normal’: A Review of the Behavior of Cattle at Pasture,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 138, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-11.
 R. J. Kilgour, K. Uetake, T. Ishiwata and G. J. Melville, “The Behavior of Beef Cattle at Pasture,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 138, No. 1, 2012, pp. 12-17.
 J. Hancock, “Studies of Grazing Behavior in Relation to Grassland Management I. Variations in Grazing Habits of Dairy Cattle,” Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1954, pp. 420-433.
 S. E. Curtis and K. A. Houpt, “Animal Ethology: Its Emergence in Animal Science,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1983, pp. 234-247.
 W. Youatt, “Cattle: Their Breeds, Management, and Diseases; with an Index,” Grigg & Elliot, Philadelphia, 1836.
 J. H. Sheppard, “The Trail of the Short Grass Steer,” North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 154, 1921, 8 pages.
 V. L. Cory, “Activities of Livestock on the Range,” Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 367, 47 pp.
 D. B. Johnstone-Wallace and K. Kennedy, “Grazing Management Practices and Their Relationship to the Behavior and Grazing Habits of Cattle,” The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 34, No. 4, 1944. pp. 190-197.
 J. N. Reppert, “Forage Preference and Grazing Habits of Cattle at the Eastern Colorado Range Station,” Journal of Range Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1960, pp. 58-65.
 W. E. Pinchak, M. A. Smith, R. H. Hart and J. W. Waggoner Jr., “Beef Cattle Distribution Patterns on Foothill Range,” Journal of Range Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1991, pp. 267-275. doi:10.2307/4002956
 L. D. Howery, F. D. Provenza, R. E. Banner and C. B. Scott, “Differences in Home Range and Habitat Use among Individuals in a Cattle Herd,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 49, No. 3, 1996, pp. 305-320.
 H. Zuo and M. S. Miller-Goodman, “An Index for Description of Landscape Use by Cattle,” Journal of Rangeland Management, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2003, pp. 146-151.
 T. M. Ballard and W. C. Krueger, “Cattle and Salmon I: Cattle Distribution and Behavior in Northeastern Oregon Riparian Ecosystem,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 58, No. 3, 2005, pp. 267-273.
 R. C. D. Goulart, M. Corsi, D. W. Bailey and S. S. Zocchi, “Cattle Grazing Distribution and Efficacy of Strategic Mineral Mix Placement in Tropical Brazilian Pastures,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 61, No. 6, 2008, pp. 656-660. doi:10.2111/08-137.1
 D. M. Anderson, C. Winters, R. E. Estell, E. L. Fredrickson, M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, D. Rus, D. James and B. Nolen, “Characterizing the Spatial and Temporal Activities of Free-Ranging Cows from GPS Data,” The Rangeland Journal, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2012, pp.149-161.
 R. Rosenthal, “Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research,” Halsted Press, New York, 1976.
 R. Manor and D. Saltz, “Impact of Human Nuisance Disturbance on Vigilance and Group Size of a Social Ungulate,” Ecological Applications, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1830-1834. doi:10.1890/01-5354
 P. H. Hemsworth, G. J. Colemann, J. L. Barnett and S. Borg, “Relationship between Human-Animal Interactions and Productivity of Commercial Dairy Cows,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 78, No. 11, 2000, pp. 2821-2831.
 S. Waiblinger, X. Boivin, V. Pedersen, M.-V. Tosi, A. M. Janczak E. K. Visser and R. B. Jones, “Assessing the Human-Animal Relationship in Farmed Species: A Critical Review,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 101, No. 3, 2006, pp. 185-242.
 G. M. Burghardt, J. N. Bartmess-LeVasseur, S. A. Browning, K. E. Morrison, C. L. Stec, C. E. Zachau and T. M. Freeberg, “Perspectives-Minimizing Observer Bias in Behavioral Studies: A Review and Recommendations,” Ethology, Vol. 118, No. 6, 2012, pp. 511-517.
 H. E. Grelen and G. W. Thomas, “Livestock and Deer Activities on the Edwards Plateau of Texas,” Journal of Range Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1957, pp. 34-37.
 D. W. Bailey, R. Welling and E. T. Miller, “Cattle Use of Foothills Rangeland near Dehydrated Molasses Supplement,” Journal of Range Management, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2001, pp. 338-347. doi:10.2307/4003101
 G. J. Bishop-Hurley, D. L. Swain, D. M. Anderson, P. Sikka, C. Crossman and P. Corke, “Virtual Fencing Applications: Implementing and Testing an Automated Cattle Control System,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2007, pp. 14-22.
 J. Altmann, “Observational Study of Behavior: Sampling Methods,” Behaviour, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, 1974, pp. 227-266. doi:10.1163/156853974X00534
 A. Spink, C. Cole and M. Waller, “Multitasking Behavior,” Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2009, pp. 93-118.
 P. N. Lehner, “Handbook of Ethological Methods,” Garland STPM Press, New York, 1979.
 C. Lavers, K. Franks, M. Floyd and A. Plowman, “Application of Remote Thermal Imaging and Night Vision Technology to Improve Endangered Wildlife Resource Management with Minimal Animal Distress and Hazard to Humans,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 15, No. 16, 2005, pp. 207-212.
 N. L. Allison and S. Destefano, “Equipment and Techniques for Nocturnal Wildlife Studies,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2006, pp. 1036-1044.
 M. Moritz, E. Soma, P. Scholte, N. Xiao, L. Taylor, T. Juran and S. Kari, “An Integrated Approach to Modeling Grazing Pressure in Pastoral Systems: The Case of the Logone Floodplain (Cameroon),” Human Ecology, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2010, pp. 775-789.
 J. S. Fehmi, and E. A. Laca, “A Note on Using a Laser-Based Technique for Recording of Behavior and Location of Free-Ranging Animals,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2001, pp. 335-339.
 C. D. Le Munyan, W. White, E. Nybert and J. J. Christian, “Design of a Miniature Radio Transmitter for Use in Animal Studies,” Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1959, pp. 107-110. doi:10.2307/3797755
 P. E. Petrusevics and T. W. Davisson, “A Biotelemetry System for Cattle Behaviour Studies,” Proceedings Institution of Radio and Electronics Engineers (IREE),” Vol. 36, 1975, pp. 72-76.
 R. E. Kenward, “A Manual for Wildlife Radio Tracking,” Academic Press, San Diego, 2001.
 J. J. Millspaugh and J. M. Marzluff, “Radio Tracking and Animal Populations,” Academic Press, New York, 2001.
 B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and E. Wasle, “GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems GPS, GLONASS, Galileo & More,” Springer Wien, New York, 2008.
 N. Bonnor, “A Brief History of Global Navigation Satellite Systems,” The Journal of Navigation, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-14. doi:10.1017/S0373463311000506
 B. Parkinson and S. T. Powers, “The Origins of GPS, Part 2: Fighting to Survive Five Challenges, One Key Technology, the Political Battlefield and a GPS Mafia,” GPS World, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2010, pp. 8-18.
 S. T. Powers and B. Parkinson, “The Origins of GPS and the Pioneers Who Launched the System, Part 1,” GPS World, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2010, pp. 30-32.
 S. Cojocaru, E. Birsan, G. Batrinca and P. Arsenie, “GPS-GLONASS-GALILEO: A Dynamical Comparison,” Journal of Navigation, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2009, pp. 135-150.
 T. A. Springer and R. Dach, “Innovation: GPS, GLONASS and More,” GPS World, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2010, pp. 48-54.
 S. M. Tomkiewicz, M. R. Fuller, J. G. Kie and K. K. Bates, “Global Positioning System and Associated Technologies in Animal Behavior and Ecological Research,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 365, 2010, pp. 2163-2176.
 T. A. Herring, “The Global Positioning System,” Scientific American, Vol. 274, 1996, pp. 44-50.
 J. B. Bancroft, A. Morrison and G. Lachapelle, “Validation of GNSS under 500,000 V Direct Current (DC) Transmission Lines,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 83, 2012, pp. 58-67.
 A. Grant, P. Williams, N. Ward and S. Basker, “GPS Jamming and the Impact on Maritime Navigation,” Journal of Navigation, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2009, pp. 173-187.
 T. E. Humphreys, B. M. Ledvina, M. L. Psiaki, W. O’Hanlon and P. M. Kintner Jr., “Assessing the Spoofing Threat: Development of a Portable GPS Civilian Spoofer,” 2008 Institute of Navigation (ION) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Conference, Savanna, 16-19 September , 2008.
 A. R. Rodgers, “Tracking Animals with GPS: The First 10 Years,” Proceedings of the Conference on Tracking Animals with GPS’,” The Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen, 12-13 March 2001, pp. 1-10.
 G. J. Creager, B. R. Bush, P. D. Teel and R. C. Maggio, “GPS Data Collection for Evaluation of Animal-Ecology Interactions or Cows in Space,” GIS/LIS ’96 Proceedings American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Falls Church, 19-26 November 1997, pp. 368-374.
 L. W. Turner, M. C. Udal, B. T. Larson and S. A. Shearer, “Monitoring Cattle Behavior and Pasture Use with GPS and GIS,” Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 80, No. 3, 2000, pp. 405-413. doi:10.4141/A99-093
 L. Nagl, R. Schmitz, S. Warren, T. S. Hildreth, H. Erickson and D. Andersen, “Wearable Sensor System for Wireless State-of-Health Determination in Cattle,” Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Cancun, 17-21 September 2003, pp. 3012-3015.
 R. P. Wilson, E. L. C. Shepard and N. Liebsch, “Prying into the Intimate Details of Animal Lives: Use of a Daily Diary on Animals.” Endangered Species Research, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 123-137. doi:10.3354/esr00064
 H. K. Adriansen and T. T. Nielsen, “The Geography of Pastoral Mobility: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of GPS Data from Sahelian Senegal,” GeoJournal, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2005, pp. 177-188. doi:10.1007/s10708-005-5646-y
 N. R. Harris, D. E. Johnson, N. K. McDougald and M. R. George, “Social Associations and Dominance of Individuals in Small Herds of Cattle,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2007, pp. 339-349.
 B. G. J. S. Sonneveld, M. A. Keyzer, K. Georgis, S. Pande, A. S. Ali and A. Takele, “Following the Afar: Using Remote Tracking Systems to Analyze Pastoralists’ Trekking Routes,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 73, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1046-1050.
 R. Dobos, “Understanding Land Use Patterns by Livestock,” International Specialized Skills Institute, Melbourne, 2011.
 D. L. Swain, M. A. Friend, G. J. Bishop-Hurley, R. N. Handcock and T. Wark, “Tracking Livestock Using Global Positioning Systems—Are We Still Lost?” Animal Production Science, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 167-175.
 J. D. Davis, M. J. Darr, H. Xin, J. D. Harmon and J. R. Russell, “Development of a GPS Herd Activity and Well-Being Kit (GPS HAWK) to Monitor Cattle Behavior and the Effect of Sample Interval on Travel Distance,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2011, pp. 143-150.
 P. E. Clark, D. E. Johnson, M. A. Kniep, P. Jermann, B. Huttash, A. Wood, M. Johnson, C. McGillivan and K. Titus, “An Advanced, Low-Cost, GPS-Based Animal Tracking System,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2006, pp. 334-340. doi:10.2111/05-162R.1
 L. Quaglietta, B. H. Martins, A. deJongh, A. Mira and L. Boitani, “A Low-Cost GPS GSM/GPRS Telemetry System: Performance in Stationary Field Tests and Preliminary Data on Wild Otters (Lutra lutra),” PloS One, Vol. 1, 2012, e29235.
 J. D. Davis, M. J. Darr, H. Xin, J. D. Harmon and T. M. Brown-Brandl, “Development of a Low-Cost GPS Herd Activity and Welfare Kit (HAWK) for Livestock Monitoring,” Proceeding of the Seventh International Livestock Environment VII Symposium, Beijing, 18-20 May 2005, pp. 607-612.
 J. D. Davis, “Remote Characterization of Locomotion, Grazing and Drinking Behavior in Beef Cattle Using GPS and Ruminant Temperature Dynamics,” Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, 2007.
 D. Putfarken, J. Dengler, S. Lehmann and W. Hardtle, “Site Use of Grazing Cattle and Sheep in a Large-Scale Pasture Landscape: A GPS/GIS Assessment,” Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 111, No. 1, 2008, pp. 54-67. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2007.05.012
 B. Butt, A. Shortridge and A. M. G. A. WinklerPrins, “Pastoral Herd Management, Drought Coping Strategies, and Cattle Mobility in Southern Kenya,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 99, No. 2, 2009, pp. 1-26. doi:10.1080/00045600802685895
 B. Butt, “Seasonal Space-Time Dynamics of Cattle Behavior and Mobility among Maasai Pastoralists in Semi-Arid Kenya,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2010, pp. 403-413. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.09.025
 R. Sárová, M. Spinka, J. L. A. Panamá and P. Simeck, “Graded Leadership by Dominant Animals in a Herd of Female Beef Cattle on Pasture,” Animal Behaviour, Vol. 79, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1037-1045.
 J. K. Da Trindade, C. E. Pinto, F. P. Neves, J. C. Mezzalira, C. Bremm, T. C. Genro, M. R. Tischler, C. Nabinger, H. L. Gonda and P. C. F. Carvalho, “Forage Allowance as a Target of Grazing Management: Implications on grazing Time and Forage Searching,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2012, pp. 382-393.
 M. Moritz, Z. Galehouse, Q. Hao and R. B. Garabed, “Can One Animal Represent an Entire Herd? Modeling Pastoral Mobility Using GPS/GIS Technology,” Human Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2012, pp. 623-630.
 H. Sickel, M. Ihse, A. Norderhaug and M. A. K. Sickel, “How to Monitor Semi-Natural Key Habitats in Relation to Grazing Preferences of Cattle in Mountain Summer Farming Areas: An Aerial Photo and GPS Method Study,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 67, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 67-77. doi:10.1016/S0169-2046(03)00029-X
 D. M. Anderson, C. S. Hale, R. Libeau and B. Nolen, “Managing Stocking Density in Real-Time,” In: H. Allsopp, A. R. Palmer, S. J. Milton, K. P. Kirkman, G. H. I. Kerley, C. R. Hunt and C. J. Brown, Eds., Proceedings of the 7th International Rangeland Congress, Durbin, 26 July-1 August 2003, pp. 840-843.
 Z. Butler, P. Corke, R. Peterson and D. Rus, “From Robots to Animal Virtual Fences for Controlling Cattle,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 25, No. 5-6, 2006, pp. 485-508.
 C. Lee, K. C. Prayaga, A. D. Fisher and J. M. Henshall, “Behavioral aspects of electronic bull separation and mate allocation in multiplesire mating paddocks,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 86, 2008, pp. 1690-1696.
 D. L. Swain, T. Wark and G. J. Bishop-Hurley, “Using High Fix Rate GPS Data to Determine the Relationships between Fix Rate, Prediction Errors and Patch Selection,” Ecological Modeling, Vol. 212, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 273-279. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.10.027
 Y. Guo, G. Poulton, P. Corke, G. J. Bishop-Hurley, T. Wark and D. L. Swain, “Using Accelerometer, High Sample Rate GPS and Magnetometer Data to Develop a Cattle Movement and Behavior Model,” Ecological Modeling, Vol. 220, No. 17, 2009, pp. 2068-2075.
 R. N. Handcock, D. L. Swain, G. J. Bishop-Hurley, K. P. Patison, T. Wark, P. Valencia, P. Corke and C. J. O’Neill, “Monitoring Animal Behavior and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing,” Sensors, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2009, pp. 3586-3603. doi:10.3390/s90503586
 C. Lee, J. M. Henshall, T. J. Wark, C. C. Crossman, M. T. Reed, H. G. Brewer, J. O’grady and A. D. Fisher, “Associative Learning by Cattle to Enable Effective and Ethical Virtual Fences,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 119, No. 1, 2009, pp. 15-22.
 J. Ruiz-Mirazo, G. J. Bishop-Hurley and D. L. Swain, “Automated Animal Control: Can Discontinuous Monitoring and Aversive Stimulation Modify Cattle Grazing Behavior?” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2011, pp. 240-248.
 K. Betteridge, D. Costall, S. Balladur, M. Upsdell and K. Umemura, “Urine Distribution and Grazing Behavior of Female Sheep and Cattle Grazing a Steep New Zealand Hill Pasture,” Animal Production, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2010, pp. 624-629. doi:10.1071/AN09201
 K. Betteridge, C. Hoogendoorn, D. Costall, M. Carter and W. Griffiths, “Sensors for Detecting and Logging Spatial Distribution of Urine Patches of Grazing Female Sheep and Cattle,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 73, No. 1, 2010, pp. 66-73.
 M. G. Trotter, D. W. Lamb, G. N. Hinch and C. N. Guppy, “Global Navigation Satellite System Livestock Tracking: System Development and Data Interpretation,” Animal Production Science, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2010, pp. 616-623. doi:10.1071/AN09203
 M. G. Trotter, D. W. Lamb, G. N. Hinch and C. N. Guppy, “GNSS Tracking of Livestock: Towards Variable Fertilizer Strategies for the Grazing Industry,” 10th International Conference on Precision Agriculture, Denver, 18-20 July 2010. http://core.icpaonline.org/proceedings/
 D. A. Bear, J. R. Russell and D. G. Morrical, “Physical Characteristics, Shade Distribution, and Tall Fescue Effects on Cow Temporal/Spatial Distribution in Midwestern Pastures,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2012, pp. 401-408.
 LotekWireless Inc., “Corporate Profile,” 2012.
 B. A. Hampson, J. M. Morton P. C. Mills, M. G. Trotter, D. W. Lamb and C. C. Pollitt, “Monitoring Distances Travelled by Horses Using GPS Tracking Collars,” Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 88, No. 5, 2010, pp. 176-181. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2010.00564.x
 R. J. Gau, R. Mulders, L. M. Ciarniello, D. C. Heard, C.-L. B. Chetkiewicz, M. Boyce, R. Munro, G. Stenhouse, B. Chruszcz, M. L. Gibeau, B. Milakovic and K. L. Parker, “Uncontrolled Field Performance of Televilt GPS-SimplexTM
Collars on Grizzly Bears in Western and Northern Canada,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2004, pp. 693-701.
 M. Hebblewhite and D. T. Haydon, “Distinguishing Technology from Biology: A Critical Review of the Use of GPS Telemetry Data in Ecology,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 365, 2010, pp. 2303-2312.
 R. G. D’Eon, “Effect of a Stationary GPS Fix-Rate Bias on Habitat-Selection Analyses,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2003, pp. 858-863.
 B. Williams, V. Pandey, K. Lackmann and M. Williams, “Determining the Optimum Number of GPS Collars for Livestock Distribution Studies or How Many Tracking Collars Does It Take?” Society for Range Management and American Forage and Grassland Council Joint Annual Meetings, Louisville, 2008.
 D. S. Wilson, “Adaptive Individual Differences within Single Populations,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences London, Vol. 353, 1998, pp. 199-205.
 F. W. Oudshoorn, T. Kristensen and E. S. Nadimi, “Dairy Cow Defecation and Urination Frequency and Spatial Distribution in Relation to Time-Limited Grazing,” Livestock Science, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2008, pp. 62-73.
 D. L. Otis and G. C. White, “Autocorrelation of Location Estimates and the Analysis of Radiotracking Data,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1999, pp. 1039-1044. doi:10.2307/3802819
 C. Rutz and G. C. Hays, “New Frontiers in Biologging Science,” Biology Letters, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2009, pp. 289-292. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0089
 J. L. Hull, G. P. Lofgreen and J. H. Meyer, “Continuous versus Intermittent Observations in Behavior Studies with Grazing Cattle,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1960, pp. 1204-1207.
 S. Yasuhiro, M. Yohei and M. Kazuyuki, “Affect Transferring of Watering Place on the Home Range of Grazing Cattle in Forest,” Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2005, pp. 39-49. doi:10.2508/chikusan.76.39
 B. Dumont and G. R. Iason, “Can We Believe the Results of Grazing Experiments? Issues and Limitations in Methodology,” In: A. J. Rook and P. D. Penning, Eds., Grazing Management: The Principle and Practice of Grazing for Profit and Environmental Gain within Temperate Grassland Systems, Occasional Symposium BGS No. 34 Harrogate, 2000, pp. 171-180.
 E. D. Ungar, I. Schoenbaum, S. Henkin, A. Dolev, Y. Yehuda and A. Brosh, “Inference of the Activity Timeline of Cattle Foraging on Mediterranean Woodland Using GPS and Pedometry,” Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011, pp. 362-383. doi:10.3390/s110100362
 M. Schwager, D. M. Anderson, Z. Butler and D. Rus, “Robust Classification of Animal Tracking Data,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2007, pp. 46-59. doi:10.1016/j.compag.2007.01.002
 N. I. Dopico, A. Gutiérrez and S. Zazo, “Performance Assessment of a Kinetically-Powered Network for Herd Localization,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 87, 2012, pp. 74-84.
 J. C. Withey, T. D. Bloxton and J. M. Marzluff, “Effects of Tagging and Location Error in Wildlife Radiotelemetry Studies,” In: J. J. Millspaugh and J. M. Marzluff, Eds., Radio Tracking and Animal Populations, Academic Press, San Diego, 2001, pp. 43-69.
 C. Brooks, C. Bonyongo and S. Harris, “Effects of Global Positioning System Collar Weight on Zebra Behavior and Location Error,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2008, pp. 527-534. doi:10.2193/2007-061
 Y. Ropert-Coudert and R. P. Wilson, “Subjectivity in Bio-Logging Science: Do Logged Data Mislead?” Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research, Vol. 58, Special Issue, 2004, pp. 23-33.
 E. Schlecht, C. Hülsebusch, F. Mahler and K. Becker, “The Use of Differentially Corrected Global Positioning System to Monitor Activities of Cattle At Pasture,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 85, No. 3, 2004, pp. 185-202. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2003.11.003
 I. A. R. Hulbert, J. T. B. Wyllie, A. Waterhouse, J. French and D. McNulty, “A Note on the Circadian Rhythm and Feeding Behavior of Sheep Fitted with a Lightweight GPS Collar,” Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1998, pp. 359-364.
 E. Schlecht, P. Hiemaux, I. Kadaouré, C. Hülsebusch and F. Mahler, “A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forage Availability and Grazing and Excretion Behavior of Herded and Free Grazing Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Western Niger,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 113, No. 1-4, 2006, pp. 226-242. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.09.008
 C. T. Agouridis, D. R. Edwards, S. R. Workman, J. R. Bicudo, B. K. Koostra, E. S. Vanzant and J. L. Taraba, “Streambank Erosion Associated with Grazing Practices in the Humid Region,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2005, pp. 181-190.
 A. L. Kolz and R. E. Johnson, “Self-Adjusting Collars for Wild Mammals Equipped with Transmitters,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1980, pp. 273-275. doi:10.2307/3808387
 S. Thurner, G. Neumaier P. O. Noack and G. Wendl, “Reduction of Labour Input by a GPS-Based Livestock Tracking System on Alpine Farms with Young Cattle,” In: E. Quendler and K. Kossler, Eds., Book of Abstracts with Papers on CD of the XXXIV CIOSTA CIGR V Conference, University of Natural Resources and Applied Live Sciences, Vienna, 2011, pp. 139-142.
 D. M. Anderson, “Virtual Fencing: Past, Present and Future,” The Rangeland Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2007, pp. 65-78. doi:10.1071/RJ06036
 Y. Ropert-Coudert and R. P. Wilson, “Trends and Perspectives in Animal-Attached Remote Sensing,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 3, No. 8, 2005, pp. 437-444.
 G. MacLean, “Weak GPS Signal Detection in Animal Tracking,” Journal of Navigation, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1-21. doi:10.1017/S037346330800502X
 J. B. Schleppe, G. Lachapelle, C. W. Booker and T. Pittman, “Challenges in the Design of a GNSS Ear Tag for Feedlot Cattle,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2010, pp. 84-95.
 T. Haddrell J. P. Bickerstaff and M. Phocas, “Realisable GPS Antennas for Integrated Hand Held Products,” Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2005), Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, 2005, pp. 679-689.
 A. R. Tiedemann, T. M. Quigley, L. D. White, W. S. Lauritzen J. W. Thomas and M. L. McInnis, “Electronic (Fenceless) Control of Livestock,” United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station PNW-RP-510, 1999.
 D. Rutledge, “Innovation: Accuracy versus Precision,” GPS World, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2010, pp. 42-49.
 L. S. Monteiro, T. Moore and C. Hill, “What Is the Accuracy of DGPS?” Journal of Navigation, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2005, pp. 207-225. doi:10.1017/S037346330500322X
 D. Karsky, “Comparing Four Methods of Correcting GPS Data: DGPS, WAAS, L-Band, and Postprocessing, Tech Tip 0471-2307-MTDC,” Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Missoula, 2004.
 T. Stombaugh, J. Cole, S. Shearer and B. Koostsra, “A Test Facility for Evaluating Dynamic GPS Accuracy,” Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Precision Agriculture Uppsala, Sweden, 8-10 June 2005, pp. 605-612.
 T. Chosa, M. Omine, K. Itani and R. Ehsani, “Evaluation of the Dynamic Accuracy of a GPS Receiver,” Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food (EAEF), Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011, pp. 54-61.
 C. T. Agouridis, T. S. Stombaugh, S. R. Workman, B. K. Koostra, D. R. Edwards and E. S. Vanzant, “Suitability of a GPS Collar for Grazing Studies,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1321-1329.
 N. J. De Cesare, J. R. Squires and J. A. Kolbe, “Effect of Forest Canopy on GPS-Based Movement Data,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005, pp. 935-941.
 R. G. D’Eon, R. Serrouya, G. Smith and C. O. Kochanny, “GPS Radiotelemetry Error and Bias in Mountainous Terrain,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2002, pp. 430-439.
 M. R. Recio, R. Mathieu, P. Denys, P. Sirguey and P. J. Seddon, “Lightweight GPS-Tags, One Giant Leap for Wildlife Tracking? An Assessment Approach,” PLos One, Vol. 6, No. 12, 2011, e28225.
 M. Hebblewhite, M. Percy and E. H. Merrill, “Are All Global Positioning System Collars Created Equal? Correcting Habitat-Induced Bias Using Three Brands in the Central Canadian Rockies,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 71, No. 6, 2007, pp. 2026-2033.
 A. Buerkert and E. Schlecht, “Performance of Three GPS Collars to Monitor Goats’ Grazing Itineraries on Mountain Pastures,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2009, pp. 85-92.
 F. van Diggelen, “GNSS Accuracy, Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics,” GPS World, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2007, pp. 26-32.
 O. Chassagne, “The Future of Satellite Navigation On-Centimeter Accuracy with PPP,” Inside GNSS, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2012, pp. 49-54.
 J. L. Frair, J. Fieberg, M. Hebblewhite, F. Cagnacci, N. J. DeCesare, and L. Pedrotti, “Resolving Issues of Imprecise and Habitat-Biased Locations in Ecological Analyses Using GPS Telemetry Data,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 365, 2010, pp. 2187-2200.
 R. Moen, J. Pastor and Y. Cohen, “Accuracy of GPS Telemetry Collar Locations with Differential Correction,” Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1997, pp. 530-539. doi:10.2307/3802612
 R. Bajaj, S. L. Ranaweera and D. P. Agrawal, “GPS: Location-Tracking Technology,” Computer, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2002, pp. 92-94. doi:10.1109/MC.2002.993780
 A. L. Hancock, E. K. Strand and K. L. Launchbaugh, “Wish upon a Satellite: Applying GPS to Rangeland Management,” Rangelands, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2007, pp. 51-56. doi:10.2111/1551-501X(2007)29[51:WUASAG]2.0.CO;2
 C. Adrados, I. Girard, J. P. Gendner and G. Janeau, “Global Positioning System (GPS) Location Accuracy Improvement Due to Selective Availability Removal,” Comptes Rendus Biologies, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2002, pp. 165-170.
 R. S. Rempel and A. R. Rodgers, “Effects of Differential Correction on Accuracy of a GPS Animal Location System,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1997, pp. 525-530. doi:10.2307/3802611
 T. Springer, “Some Sources of Bias and Sampling Error in Radio-Triangulation,” Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1979, pp. 926-935. doi:10.2307/3808276
 B. C. Augustine, P. H. Crowley and J. J. Cox, “A Mechanistic Model of GPS Collar Location Data: Implications for Analysis and Bias Mitigation,” Ecological Modeling, Vol. 222, No. 19, 2011, pp. 3616-3625.
 K. A. Sager-Fradkin, K. J. Jenkins, R. A. Hoffman, P. J. Happe, J. J. Beecham and R. G. Wright, “Fix Success and Accuracy of Global Positioning System Collars in Old-Growth Temperate Coniferous Forests,” The Journal of Wildlife management, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1298-1308. doi:10.2193/2006-367
 M. Schwager, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, D. M. Anderson and D. Rus, “Data-Driven Identification of Group Dynamics for Motion Prediction and Control,” Journal of Field Robotics, Vol. 25, No. 6-7, 2008, pp. 305-324.
 E. S. Nadimi, V. Blanes-Viddal, R. N. Jørgensen and S. Christensen, “Energy Generation for an Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network-Based Monitoring System Using Animal Head Movement,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 75, No. 2, 2010, pp. 238-242.
 D. T. Booth and S. E. Cox, “Art to Science: Tools for Greater Objectivity in Resource Monitoring,” Rangelands, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2011, pp. 27-34.
 A. Rango, A. Laliberte, J. E. Herrick, C. Winters, K. Havstad, C. Steele and D. Browning, “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Remote Sensing for Rangeland Assessment, Monitoring, and Management,” Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2009, Article ID: 033542.
 S. M. Rutter, “The Integration of GPS, Vegetation Mapping and GIS in Ecological and Behavioural Studies,” Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Vol. 36, 2007, pp. 63-70.
 H. L. Perotto-Baldivieso, S. M. Cooper, A. F. Cibils, M. Figueroa-Pagán, K. Udaeta and C. M. Black-Rubio, “Detecting Autocorrelation Problems from GPS Collar Data in Livestock Studies,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 136, No. 2, 2012, pp. 117-125.
 M. S. Boyce, J. Pitt, J. M. Northrup,A. T. Morehouse, K. H. Knopff, B. Cristescu and G. B. Stenhouse, “Temporal Autocorrelation Functions for Movement Rates from Global Positioning System Radiotelemetry Data,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 365, 2010, pp. 2213-2219.
 A. R. Frost, C. P. Schofield, S. A. Beaulah, T. T. Mottram, J. A. Lines and C. M. Wathes, “A Review of Livestock Monitoring and the Need for Integrated Systems,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1997, pp. 139-159. doi:10.1016/S0168-1699(96)01301-4
 E. A. Laca, “Precision Livestock Production: Tools and Concepts,” Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Vol. 38, 2009, pp. 123-132.
 J. M. Beukers, “Global Radionavigation: The Next 50 Years and beyond,” Journal of Navigation, Vol. 53, 2000, pp. 207-214. doi:10.1017/S037346330000878X
 M. G. Trotter, D. W. Lamb and G. N. Hinch, “Interrogation of GPS Tracking Data to Determine Spatial Grazing Preferences of Livestock.” 13th Symposium on Precision Agriculture in Australasia: GPS Livestock Tracking Workshop, Armidale, 10-11 September 2009, p. 100.
 G. Stassen, “Sirion, the New Generation in Global Satellite Communications: Livestock GPS Tracking and Traceback,” 13th Symposium on Precision Agriculture in Australasia: GPS Livestock Tracking Workshop, Armidale, 10-11 September 2009, pp. 68-70.
 L. Bian, “The GIS Representation of Wildlife Movements: A Framework,” In: A. C. Millington, S. J. Walsh and P. E. Osborne, Eds., GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in Biogeography and Ecology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, 2001, pp. 213-227.
 D. W. Bailey, J. E. Gross, E. A. Laca, L. R. Rittenhouse, M. B. Coughenour, D. M. Swift and P. L. Sims, “Mechanisms That Result in Large Herbivore Grazing Distribution Patterns,” Journal of Range Management, Vol. 49, No. 5, 1996, pp. 386-400. doi:10.2307/4002919
 J.-M. Gaillard, M. Hebblewhite, A. Loison, M. Fuller, R. Powell, M. Basille and B. Van Moorter, “Habitat-Performance Relationships: Finding the Right Metric at a Given Scale,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 365, 2010, pp. 2255-2265.
 M. G. Trotter, D. L. Swain and D. W. Lamb, “GPS Livestock Tracking: An Opportunity for a Coordinated Approach to Research, Development and Extension,” 13th Symposium on Precision Agriculture in Australasia: GPS Livestock Tracking Workshop, Armidale, 2009, p. 64.
 F. Urbano, F. Cagnacci, C. Calenge, H. Dettki, A. Cameron and M. Neteler, “Wildlife Tracking Data Management: A New Vision,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 365, 2010, pp. 2177-2185.
 D. M. Anderson, “Tools to Study and Manage Grazing Behavior at Multiple Scales to Enhance the Sustainability of Livestock Production Systems,” Society 9th International Rangeland Congress on Diverse Rangelands for a Sustainable, Rosario, 3-10 April 2011, pp. 559-564.
 C. M. Sheehy, “Comparison of Spatial Distribution and Resource Use by Spanish and British Breed Cattle in Northeastern Oregon Prairie Ecosystems,” M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2007.
 C. T. Agouridis, D. R. Edwards, E. Vanzant, S. R. Workman, B. K. Koostra, J. A. Bicudo, J. L. Taraba and R. S. Gates, “Influence of BMPs on Cattle Position Preference,” American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual Meeting, Canaian Society of Agricultural Engineers meeting, Ontario, 1-4 August, Paper 042182, 2004.
 Y. Aharoni, Z. Henkin, A. Ezra, A. Dolev, A. Shabtay, A. Orlov, Y. Yehuda and A. Brosh, “Grazing Behavior and Energy Costs of Activity: A Comparison between Two Types of Cattle,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 87, No. 8, 2009, pp. 2719-2731. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1505
 G. P. Austin, “Investigations of Cattle Grazing Behavior and Effects of the Red Imported Fire Ant,” Ph.D. Thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, 2003.
 D. W. Bailey and R. Welling, “Evaluation of Low-Moisture Blocks and Conventional Dry Mixes for Supplementing Minerals and Modifying Cattle Grazing Patterns,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2007, pp. 54-64. doi:10.2111/05-138R1.1
 D. W. Bailey and D. Jensen, “Method of Supplementation May Affect Cattle Grazing Patterns,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2008, pp. 131-135.
 D. W. Bailey, M. R. Keil and L. R. Rittenhouse, “Research Observations: Daily Movement Patterns of Hill Climbing and Bottom Dwelling Cows,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2004, pp. 20-28.
 D. W. Bailey, H. C. Van Wagoner and R. Weinmeister, “Individual Animal Selection Has the Potential to Improve Uniformity of Grazing on Foothill Rangeland,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2006, pp. 351-358. doi:10.2111/04-165R2.1
 D. W. Bailey, H. C. Van Wagoner, R. Weinmeister and D. Jensen, “Comparison of Low-Moisture Blocks and Salt for Manipulating Grazing Patterns of Beef Cows, “Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1271-1277. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0578
 D. W. Bailey, H. C. Van Wagoner, R. Weinmeister and D. Jensen, “Evaluation of Low-Stress Herding and Supplement Placement for Managing Cattle Grazing in Riparian and Upland Areas,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2008, pp. 26-37. doi:10.2111/06-130.1
 D. W. Bailey, M. G. Thomas, J. W. Walker, B. K. Witmore and D. Tolleson, “Effect of Previous Experience on Grazing Patterns and Diet Selection of Brangus Cows in the Chihuahuan Desert,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2010, pp. 223-232.
 M. Barbari, L. Conti, B. K. Koostra, G. Masi, F. S. Guerri and S. R. Workman, “The Use of Global Positioning and Geographical Information Systems in the Management of Extensive Cattle Grazing,” Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 95, No. 2, 2006, pp. 271-280.
 J. R. Bicudo, C. T. Agouridis, S. R. Workman, R. S. Gates and E. S. Vanzant, “Effects of Air and water Temperature, and Stream Access on Grazing Cattle Water Intake Rates,” American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) Paper 03-4034, St. Joseph, 2003.
 C. M. Black Rubio, A. F. Cibils, R. L. Endecott, M. K. Petersen and K. G. Boykin, “Pinon-Juniper Woodland Use by Cattle in Relation to Weather and Animal Reproductive State,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 61, No. 4, 2008, pp. 394-404. doi:10.2111/07-056.1
 C. Braunreiter, M. Rothmund, G. Steinberger and H. Auernhammer, “Potentials of GPS-Collar Application in Pasture Farming,” In: S. Cox, Ed., Precision Livestock Farming ’07 Section 2. Sensor Technology in Animal Husbandry, Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2007, pp. 87-93.
 A. Brosh, Z. Henkin,E. D. Ungar, A. Dolev, Y. Orlov, Y. Yehuda and Y. Aharoni, “Energy Cost of Cows’ Grazing Activity: Use of the Heart Rate Method and the Global Positioning System for Direct Field Estimation,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 84, No. 7, 2006, pp.1951-1967.
 A. Brosh, Z. Henkin, E. D. Ungar, A. Dolev, A. Shabtay, A. Orlov, Y. Yehuda and Y. Aharoni, “Energy Cost of Activities and Locomotion of Grazing Cows: A Repeated Study in Larger Plots,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 88, No. 1, 2010, pp. 315-323. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2108
 N. A. Brown, K. E. Rucksstuhl, S. Donelon and C. Corbett, “Changes in Vigilance, Grazing Behavior and Spatial Distribution of Bighorn Sheep Due to Cattle Presence in Sheep River Provincial Park, Alberta,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2010, pp. 226-231. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2009.10.001
 B. Butt, “Pastoral Resource Access and Utilization: Quantifying the Spatial and Temporal Relationships between Livestock Mobility, Density and Biomass Availability in Southern Kenya,” Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2010, pp. 520-539. doi:10.1002/ldr.989
 H. L. Byers, M. L. Cabrera, M. K. Mathews, D. H. Franklin, J. G. Andrae, D. E. Radcliffe M. A. McCann, H. A. Kuykendall, C. S. Hoveland and V. H. Calvert II, “Phosphorous, Sediment, and Escherichia coli Loads in Unfenced Streams of the Georgia Piedmont, USA,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 34, No. 6, 2005, pp. 2293-2300. doi:10.2134/jeq2004.0335
 A. F. Cibils, J. A. Miller, M. Encinias, K. G. Boykin and B. F. Cooper, “Monitoring Heifer Grazing Distribution at the Valles Caldera National Preserve,” Rangelands, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2008, pp. 19-23.
 S. M. Cooper, H. L. Perotto-Baldivieso, M. K. Owens and M. G. Meek, “Distribution and Interaction of White-Tailed Deer and Cattle in a Semi-Arid Grazing System,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 127, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 85-92. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2008.03.004
 S. M. Cooper, H. M. Scott, G. R. de la Garza, A. L. Deck and J. C. Cathey, “Distribution and Interspecies Contact of Feral Swine and Cattle on Rangeland in South Texas: Implications for Disease Transmission,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2010, pp. 152-164.
 A. L. Deck, “Spatio-Temporal Relationships between Feral Hogs and Cattle with Implications for Disease Transmission,” M.S. Thesis, Texas A & M University, College Station, 2006.
 G. R. De La Garza III, “Effective Contact of Cattle and Feral Swine Facilitating Potential Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Transmission in Southern Texas,” M.S. Thesis, Texas A & M University, College Station, 2007.
 I. Draganova, I. Yule, M. Hedley, K. Betteridge and K. Stafford, “Monitoring Dairy Cow Activity with GPS-Tracking and Supporting Technologies,” 10th International Conference on Precision Agriculture (ICPA), Denver, 18-21 July 2010.
 D. H. Franklin, M. L. Cabrera, H. L. Byers, M. K. Matthews, J. G. Andrae, D. E. Radcliffe, M. A. McCann, H. A. Kuykendall, C. S. Hoveland and V. H. Calvert II, “Impact of Water Troughs on Cattle Use of Riparian Zones in the Georgia Piedmont in the United States,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 87, No. 6, 2009, pp. 2151-2159.
 D. Ganskopp, “Manipulating Cattle Distribution with Salt and Water in Large Arid-Land Pastures: A GPS/GIS Assessment,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2001, pp. 251-262.
 D. Ganskopp and D. Bohnert, “Do Pasture-Scale Nutritional Patterns Affect Cattle Distribution on Rangelands?” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2006, pp. 189-196.
 D. C. Ganskopp and D. D. Johnson, “GPS Error in Studies Addressing Animal Movements and Activities,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2007, pp. 350-358.
 M. R. George, N. K. McDougald, W. A. Jensen, R. E. Larsen, D. E. Cao and N. R. Harris, “Effectiveness of Nutrient Supplement Placement for Changing Beef Cow Distribution,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2008, pp. 11-17.
 M. M. Haan, J. R. Russell, D. Morrical and D. Strohbehn, “Effect of Grazing Management on Cattle Distribution Patterns in Relation to Pasture Streams,” Iowa State University Animal Industry Report A.S. Leaflet R2268, Ames, 2008.
 M. M. Haan, J. R. Russell, J. D. Davis and D. G. Morrical, “Grazing Management and Microclimate Effects on Cattle Distribution Relative to a Cool Season Pasture System,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 63, No. 5, 2010, pp. 572-580.
 A. Hessle, M. Rutter and K. Wallin, “Effect of Breed, Season and Pasture Moisture Gradient on Foraging Behavior in Cattle on Semi-Natural Grasslands,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 111, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 108-119.
 L. P. Hunt, S. Petty, R. Cowley, A. Fisher, A. J. Ash and N. MacDonald, “Factors Affecting the Management of Cattle Grazing Distribution in Northern Australia: Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Paddock Size and Water Points,” The Rangeland Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2007, pp. 169-179.
 D. D. Johnson and C. C. Ganskopp, “GPS Collar Sampling Frequency: Effects on Measures of Resource Use,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 61, No. 2, 2008, pp. 226-231.
 D. E. Johnson, M. Wilson, K. D. Wilson, L. L. Larson, J. Williams, S. K. Ndzeidze, T. DelCurto and P. Clark, “Spatial Behavior and Distribution of Cattle Grazing Riparian Zones in Northeastern Oregon,” Oregon State University Extension Publication, 2010, pp. 1-10.
 S. Kjellqvist, “Determining Cattle Pasture Utilization Using GPS-Collars,” 2008.
 B. K. Koostra, C. T. Agouridis and S. R. Workman, “GIS Analysis of GPS Position Data of Beef Cattle,” 2003 ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, 7-11 July 2003.
 K. H. Kwong, T.-T. Wu, H. G. Goh, K. Sasloglou, B. Stephen, I. Glover, C. Shen, W. Du, C. Michie and I. Andonovic, “Practical Considerations for Wireless Sensor Networks in Cattle Monitoring Applications,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 81, 2012, pp. 33-44.
 I. Laporte, T. B. Muhly, J. A. Pitt, M. Alexander and M. Musiani, “Effects of Wolves on Elk and Cattle Behaviors: Implications for Livestock Production and Wolf Conservation,” PLoS One, Vol. 5, No. 8, 2010, e11954.
 S. Larson-Praplan, “Modeling Animal Movement to Manage Landscapes,” Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2009.
 P. Laube and R. S. Purves, “How Fast Is a Cow? Cross-Scale Analysis of Movement Data,” Transactions in GIS, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2011, pp. 401-418.
 F. Lopes, “Assessment of Prior Grazing Experiences on Adaptation to Pasture and Performance of Dairy Heifers as Lactating Cows,” MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2010.
 Y. Pandey, G. A. Kiker, K. L. Campbell, M. J. Williams and S. W. Coleman, “GPS Monitoring of Cattle Location near Water Features in South Florida,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2009, pp. 551-562.
 H. R. Peinetti, E. L. Fredrickson, D. P. C. Peters, A. F. Cibils, J. O. Roacho-Estrada and A. S. Laliberte, “Foraging Behavior of Heritage versus Recently Introduced Herbivores on Desert Landscapes of the American Southwest,” Ecosphere, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011, p. 57.
 K. Polojarvi, A. Colpaert, K. Matengu and J. Kumpula, “GPS Collars in Studies of Cattle Movement: Cases of Northeast Namibia and North Finland,” In: S. D. Brunn, Ed., Engineering Earth: The Impacts of Mega Engineering Projects, Springer Science +Business, Netherlands, 2011, pp. 173-187.
 M. J. Rinella, M. Vavra, B. J. Naylor and J. M. Boyd, “Estimating Influence of Stocking Regimes on Livestock Grazing Distributions,” Ecological Modeling, Vol. 222, No. 3, 2011, pp. 619-625.
 M. L. Russell, D. W. Bailey, M. G. Thomas and B. K. Witmore, “Grazing Distribution and Diet Quality of Angus, Brangus, and Brahman Cows in the Chihuahuan Desert,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2012, pp. 371-381.
 C. S. Schauer, D. W. Bohnert and D. C. Ganskopp, “Influence of Protein Supplementation Frequency on Cows Consuming Low-Quality Forage: Performance, Grazing Time, Distance Traveled, Distance from Water, and Distribution,” Proceedings, Western Section, Animal Society of Animal Science, Vol. 54, 2003, pp. 72-76.
 C. S. Schauer, D. W. Bohnert, D. C. Ganskopp, C. J. Richards and S. J. Falck, “Influence of Protein Supplementation Frequency on Cows Consuming Low-Quality Forage: Performance, Grazing Behavior, and Variation in Supplement Intake,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 83, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1715-1725.
 K. A. Schwarte, J. R. Russell and D. G. Morrical, “Effects of Pasture Management and Off-Stream Water on Temporal/Spatial Distribution of Cattle and Stream Bank Characteristics in Cool-Season Grass Pastures,” Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol. 89, No. 10, 2011, pp. 3236-3247.
 K. R. Smith, “Temperature Influences on Cattle Distribution and Behavior in the Central California Foothills,” M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2006.
 B. Stephen, C. Dwyer, J. Hyslop, M. Bell, D. Ross, K. H. Kwong, C. Michie and I. Andonovic, “Statistical Interaction Modeling of Bovine Herd Behaviors,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2011, pp. 820-829.
 D. T. Thomas, M. G. Wilmot, R. W. Kelly and D. K. Revell, “Adaption Behavior of Local and Rangeland Cattle Relocated to a Temperate Agricultural Pasture,” Animal Production Science, Vol. 51, No. 12, 2011, pp. 1088-1097.
 N. Tomkins and P. O. O’Reagain, “Global Positioning Systems Indicate Landscape Preferences of Cattle in the Subtropical Savannas,” The Rangeland Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2007, pp. 217-222.
 N. W. Tomkins P. J. O’Reagain, D. Swain, G. Bishop-Hurley and E. Charmley, “Determining the Effect of Stocking Rate on the Spatial Distribution of Cattle for the Subtropical Savannas,” The Rangeland Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2009, pp. 267-276.
 M. C. Udal, L. W. Turner, B. T. Larson, L. J. Driedger and S. A. Shearer, “Grazing Time and Assessment for Beef Cows on Pasture Using GPS,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1999, p. 203.
 E. D. Unger, Z. Henkin, M. Gutman, A. Dolev, A. Genizi and D. Ganskopp, “Inference of Animal Activity from GPS Collar Data on Free-Ranging Cattle,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 58, No. 3, 2005, pp. 256-266.
 K. Wagner, L. Redmon, T. Gentry, D. Harmel and A. Jones, “Environmental Management of Grazing Lands Final Report,” Texas Water Resources Institute Technical Report TR-334, Texas Water Resources Institute, College Station, 2008.
 N. Watanabe, K. Umemura, S. Sakanoue, T. Kozakai and K. Kawamura, “Utilization by Cattle of Pasture Including Aged Hilly Sections,” Grassland Science, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2010. pp. 160-167.
 R. L. Wesley, A. F. Cibils, J. T. Mulliniks, E. R. Pollak, M. K. Petersen and E. L. Fredrickson, “An Assessment of Behavioural Syndromes in Rangeland-Raised Beef Cattle,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 139, No. 3-4, 2012, pp. 183-194.
 K. D. Wilson, “Landscape Occupancy by Free Ranging Cattle in Northeast Oregon,” M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2010.
 M. A. Wilson, “Distribution and Behavior of Cattle Grazing Riparian Pastures,” M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2011.