ABB  Vol.4 No.2 , February 2013
The RAPD techniques used to assess the genetic diversity in Draba dorneri, a critically endangered plant species
Abstract: A successful management and preservation of the natural populations is depending on accurate assessment of genetic diversity. Knowledge of genetic diversity within a population is important for the conservation of the species. Our aim was to assess the genetic diversity in Draba dorneri Heuff. population (Brassicaceae family)—an endemic plant species of conservative interest using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The plant species is strictly protected at national level as well as at international level through “Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats”, Bern, 1979 European Council. In this study, a total of 52 primers were scored initially. A total of 77 repro- ducible bands with an average of 6.41 bands per primer were obtained from the 12 primers selected. A cluster analysis (UPGAMA) was used to generate a dendrogram based on Dice coefficient. We found 67% similarity between the samples from the two analyzed slopes. Comparing with other rare plants species, our data revealed a higher level of genetic diversity in D. dorneri population in Retezat Mountains.
Cite this paper: Catană, R. , Mitoi, M. and Ion, R. (2013) The RAPD techniques used to assess the genetic diversity in Draba dorneri, a critically endangered plant species. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 164-169. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.42024.

[1]   Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press (2001) Draba. Flora of China, 8, 66.

[2]   Dragulescu, C. (2008) Draba dorneri. Natura 2000 in Romania Species Fact-Sheet, 238-239.

[3]   Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (1990) A note on the Chilean endemic Draba thlaspiformis (Brassicaceae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 71, 385-387.

[4]   Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2002) Six new species of Draba (Brassicaceae) from the Himalayas. Novon, 12, 314-318. doi:10.2307/3393072

[5]   Al-Shehbaz, I.A. and Koch, M.A. (2003) Drabopsis is united with Draba (Brassicaceae). Novon, 13, 172-173. doi:10.2307/3393511

[6]   Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2004) Novelties and notes on miscellaneous Asian Brassicaceae. Novon, 14, 153-157.

[7]   Al-Shehbaz, I.A. and Windham, M.D. (2007) New or noteworthy North American Draba (Brassicaceae). Harvard Papers in Botany, 12, 409-419. doi:10.3100/1043-4534(2007)12[409:NONNAD]2.0.CO;2

[8]   Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2007) Two new species of Draba and Eutrema (Brassicaceae) from Sichuan, China. Harvard Papers in Botany, 11, 277-279. doi:10.3100/1043-4534(2007)11[277:TNSODA]2.0.CO;2

[9]   Anand, A., Rao, C.S., Eganathan, P., et al. (2004) Saving an endangered Taxon: Syzygium travancoricum Gamble: A case study focusing on its genetic diversity and reintroduction. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 10, 233-242.

[10]   Ayres, D.R. and Ryan, F.J. (1999) Genetic diversity and structure of the narrow endemic Wyethia reticulata and its congener W. bolanderi (Asteraceae) using RAPD and allozyme techniques. American Journal of Botany, 86, 344-353. doi:10.2307/2656756

[11]   Barrett, S.C.H. and Kohn, J.R. (1991) Genetic and evolutionary consequences of small population sizes in plants: Implications for conservation. In: Falk, D.A. and Holsinger, K.A., Eds., Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants, Oxford University Press, New York, 3-30.

[12]   Beilstein, M.A. and Windham, M.D. (2003) A phylogenetic analysis of Western North American Draba (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from the ITS region. Systematic Botany, 28, 584-592.

[13]   Brauner, S., Crawford, D.J. and Stuessy, T.F. (1992) Ribosomal DNA and RAPD variation in the rare plant family Lactoridaceae. American Journal of Botany, 79, 14361439. doi:10.2307/2445144

[14]   Brochmann, C. (1992) Polyploid evolution in artic-alpine Draba (Brassicaceae). Sommerfeltia, 4, 1-37.

[15]   Brochmann, C., Borgen, L. and Stedje, B. (1993) Crossing relationships and chromosome numbers of Nordic populations of Draba (Brassicaceae), with emphasis on the D. alpina complex. Nordic Journal of Botany, 3, 121-147. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1993.tb00023.x

[16]   Dannemann, A. (2000) Der einfluss von fragmentierung und populationsgr?sse auf die genetische variation und fitness von seltenen pflanzenarten am beispiel von Biscutella Laevigata (Brassicaceae). Cramer, Berlin.

[17]   Dice, L.R. (1945) Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology, 26, 297-302. doi:10.2307/1932409

[18]   Dihoru, Ghe. and Negrean, G. (2009) Cartea rosie a plantelor vasculare din Romania. Editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti.

[19]   Elven, R. and Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2008) Draba simmonsii (Brassicaceae), a new species of the D. micropetala complex from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Novon, 18, 325-329. doi:10.3417/2007178

[20]   Fu, C., Qiu, Y. and Kong, H. (2003) RAPD analysis for genetic diversity in Changium smyrnioides (Apiaceae), an endangered plant. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 44, 13-18.

[21]   Grundt, H.H., Popp, M., Brochmann, C., et al. (2004) Polyploid origins in a circumpolar complex in Draba (Brassicaceae) inferred from cloned nuclear DNA sequences and fingerprints. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32, 695-710. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.04.006

[22]   Grundt, H.H., Obermayer, R. and Borgen, L. (2005) Ploidal levels in the arctic alpine polyploidy Draba lactea (Brassicaceae) and its low-ploid relatives. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 147, 333-347. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2005.00377.x

[23]   Jordon-Thaden, I.E. and Koch, M.A. (2008) Diversity patterns in the genus Draba: A first global perspective. Plant Ecology and Diversity, 1, 255-263. doi:10.1080/17550870802349112

[24]   Jordan-Thaden, I.E., Hase, I., Al-Shehbaz, I., et al. (2010) Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the genus Draba (Brassicaceae) and identification of its most closely related genera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55, 524-540. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.012

[25]   Jover, M.A., del Castillo-Agudo, L., Garcia-Carrascosa, M., et al. (2003) Random amplified polymorphic DNA assessment of diversity in western Mediterranean populations of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. American Journal of Botany, 9, 364-369. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.3.364

[26]   Keiper, F.J. and McConchie, R. (2000) An analysis of genetic variation in natural populations of Sticherus flabellatus [R. Br. (St John)] using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Molecular Ecology, 9, 571-581. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00901.x

[27]   Koch, M.A. and Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2002) Molecular data indicates complex intraand intercontinental differentiation of American Draba (Brassicaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 89, 88-109. doi:10.2307/3298659

[28]   K?lliker, R., Stadelmann, F.J., Reidy, B., et al. (1998) Fertilization and defoliation frequency affect genetic diversity of Festuca pratensis Huds. in permanent grasslands. Molecular Ecology, 7, 1557-1567. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00486.x

[29]   Maki, M. and Hories, S. (1999) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers reveal less genetic variation in the endangered plant Cerastium fisherianum var. mollethan in the widespread conspecific C. fisherianum var. fisherianum (Caryophyllaceae). Molecular Ecology, 8, 145-150. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.1999.00517.x

[30]   Martín, C., González-Benito, M.E. and Iriondo, J.M. (1997) Genetic diversity within and among populations of a threatened species: Erodium paularense Fern. Gonz. & Izco. Molecular Ecology, 6, 813-820. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1997.tb00135.x

[31]   Mulligan, G.A. and Findlay, J.N. (1970) Sexual reproduction and agamospermy in the genus Draba. Canadian Journal of Botany, 48, 269-270. doi:10.1139/b70-040

[32]   Mulligan, G.A. (1974) Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba nivalis and its close allies in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany, 52, 1793-1801. doi:10.1139/b74-232

[33]   Nebauer S.G., del Castillo-Agudo, L. and Segura, J. (1999) RAPD variation within and among natural populations of outcrossing willow-leaved foxglove (Digitalis obscura L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 98, 985-994. doi:10.1007/s001220051159

[34]   Nebauer, S.G., del Castillo-Agudo, L. and Segura, J. (2000) An assessment of genetic relationships within the genus Digitalis based on PCR-generated RAPD markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 100, 1209-1216. doi:10.1007/s001220051426

[35]   Neel, M.C. and Ellstrand, N.C. (2003) Conservation of genetic diversity in the endangered plant Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum. Conservation Genetics, 4, 337352. doi:10.1023/A:1024017029933

[36]   Nybon, N. and Bartish, I. (2000) Effects of life history traits and sampling strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 3, 93114. doi:10.1078/1433-8319-00006

[37]   Pei, Y.L., Zou, Y.P., Yin, Z., et al. (1995) Preliminary report of RAPD analysis in Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and P. rockii. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 33, 350-356.

[38]   Prasad, M.N.V., Padmalatha, K., Jayaram, K., et al. (2007) Medicinal plants from Deccan ecoregion, India: Traditional knowledge, ethnopharmacology, cultivation, utilization, biotechnology and conservation—Opportunities and impediments. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology, 1, 155-208.

[39]   Price, R.A. and Rollins, R.C. (1991) New taxa of Draba (Cruciferae) from California, Nevada and Colorado. Harvard Papers in Botany, 3, 71-77.

[40]   Reisch, C. and Gmünd, S. (2001) Climatic oscillations and the fragmentation of plant populations—Genetic diversity within and among populations of the glacial relict plants Saxifraga paniculata (Saxifragaceae) and Sesleria albicans (Poaceae). Biologie und Vorklinische Medizin der Universit?t Regensburg, Berlin.

[41]   Rollins, R.C. (1984) Draba (Cruciferae) in Mexico and Guatemala. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium, 213, 1-10.

[42]   Rollins, R.C. and Price, R.A. (1988) High-elevation Draba (Cruciferae) of the White Mountains of California and Nevada. Aliso, 12, 17-27.

[43]   Rossetto, M., Weaver, P.K. and Dixon, K.W. (1995) Use of RAPD analysis in devising conservation strategies for the rare and endangered Grevillea scapigera (Proteaceae). Molecular Ecology, 4, 321-329. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1995.tb00225.x

[44]   Scheen, A.C., Elven, R. and Brochmann, C. (2002) A molecular-morphological approach solves taxonomic controversy in arctic Draba (Brassicaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 80, 59-71. doi:10.1139/b01-132

[45]   Skrede, I., Brochmann, C., Borgen, L., et al. (2008) Genetics of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in a circumpolar plant species Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae). Evolution, 62, 1840-1851. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00418.x

[46]   Skrede, I., Carlsen, T., Rieseberg, L.H., et al. (2008) Microsatellites for three distantly related genera in the Brassicaceae. Conservation Genetics, 10, 643-648. doi:10.1007/s10592-008-9598-x

[47]   Smith, J.F. and Pham, T.V. (1996) Genetic diversity of the narrow endemic Allium aaseae (Alliaceae). American Journal of Botany, 83, 717-726. doi:10.2307/2445848

[48]   Su, Y.J., Wang, T. and Huang, C. (1999) RAPD analysis of different population of Dacydium pierrei. Acta Scientiarum. Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 38, 99-101.

[49]   Tansley, S.A. and Brown, C.R. (2003) RAPD variation in the rare and endangered Leuca dendronelimense (Proteaceae): Implications for their conservation. Biological Conservation, 95, 39-48. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00015-X

[50]   Widmer, A. and Baltisberrger, M. (1999) Molecular evidence for allopolyploid speciation and a single origin of the narrow endemic Draba ladina (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany, 86, 1282-1291. doi:10.2307/2656776

[51]   Wang, X.Q., Zou, Y.P., Zhang, D.M., et al. (1996) RAPD analysis for genetic polymorphism in Cathaya argyrophylla. Science in China, 26, 437-441.