JEP  Vol.4 No.2 , February 2013
Changes in Epipelic Diatom Diversity from the Savannah River Estuary

Littoral zones can be characterized with temporal exposure of algae to diurnal desiccation at low tides. Combinations of diverse freshwater, marine, and brackish diatoms dominate exposed mud samples. With enlargement of the delta of the Savannah River, Georgia and other anthropogenic influences, changes in the rich epipelic community will not be estimated accurately without baseline data. In the current study, mud samples were taken from the Savannah River estuary along with physicochemical characteristics every two months throughout 2011. Live algal communities were assessed in every sample and live to dead diatom proportions in the communities were calculated. Cleaned diatoms were analyzed following standard protocols. Community indices were compared between sampling events and with literature reports from similar habitats in the Southeastern USA diverse diatom community of 241 species was documented and 39 of those species should be described as new to science. Decrease in species richness and diversity was due to dominance of representatives of the genera Cymatosira and Minidiscus during the summer months.

Cite this paper
K. Manoylov and J. Dominy Jr., "Changes in Epipelic Diatom Diversity from the Savannah River Estuary," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 172-179. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.42020.

[2]   P. V. Winger, P. J. Lasier, D. H. White and J. T. Seginak, “Effects of Contaminants in Dredge Material from the Lower Savannah River,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2000, pp. 128-136. doi:10.1007/s002449910016

[3]   P. C. Vos and H. De Wolf, “Paleo-Environmental Research on Diatoms in Early and Middle Holocene Deposits in Central North Holland (The Netherlands),” Netherland Journal of Aquatic Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1994, pp. 97-115. doi:10.1007/BF02334250

[4]   H. L. MacIntyre, R. J. Geider and D. C. Miller, “Microphytobenthos: The Ecological Role of the ‘Secret Garden’ of Unvegetated, Shallow-Water Marine Habitats. I. Distribution, Abundance and Primary Production,” Estuaries, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1996, pp. 186-201. doi:10.2307/1352224

[5]   B. B. Jorgensen and N. P. Revesbegh, “Photosynthesis and Structure of Benthic Microbial Mats: Microelectrode and SEM Studies of Four Cyanobacterial Communities,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1983, pp. 1075-1093. doi:10.4319/lo.1983.28.6.1075

[6]   F. Hustedt, “Marine Littoral Diatoms of Beaufort, North Carolina,” Duke University Marine Station Bulletin, Vol. 6, 1995, p. 67.

[7]   S. R. Cooper, “Diatoms in Sediment Cores from the Mesohaline Chesapeake Bay,” USA Diatom Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1995, pp. 39-89. doi:10.1080/0269249X.1995.9705329

[8]   E. E. Gaiser and J. Johansen, “Freshwater Diatoms from Carolina Bays and Other Isolated Wetlands on the Atlan tic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA, with Descriptions of Seven Taxa New to Science,” Diatom Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2000, pp. 75-130. doi:10.1080/0269249X.2000.9705487

[9]   A. K. S. K. Prasad, J. A. Nienow and R. J. Livingston, The Genus Cyclotella (Bacillariophyceae) in Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida, with Special Reference to C. striata and C. choctawhatcheeana sp. nov.,” Phycologia, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1990, pp. 418-436. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-29-4-418.1

[10]   R. Patrick and D. M. Palavage, “The Value of Species as Indicators of Water Quality,” Proceedings Academy National Science Philidelphia, Vol. 145, 1994, pp. 55-92.

[11]   B. L. Sherrod, H. B. Rollins and S. K. Kennedy, “Subrecent Intertidal Diatoms from St. Catherines Island, Georgia: Taphonomic Implications,” Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1989, pp. 665-667.

[12]   APHA, “Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1998.

[13]   R. J. Stevenson and L. L. Bahls, “Chapter 6: Periphyton Protocols. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish,” 2nd Edition, US EPA Office of Water, Washington DC, 2006.

[14]   C. M. Palmer and T. E. Maloney, “A New Counting Slide for Nanoplankton,” American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Special Publication, Waco, 1954, p. 6.

[15]   G. R. Hasle and G. A. Fryxell, “Diatoms: Cleaning and Mounting for Light and Electron Microscopy,” Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1970, pp. 469-474. doi:10.2307/3224555

[16]   K. Krammer and H. Lange-Bertalot, “Bacillariophyceae. 1. Teil: Naviculaceae,” In: H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer, Eds., Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena, 1986, pp. 1-876.

[17]   K. Krammer and H. Lange-Bertalot, “Bacillariophyceae. 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae,” In H. Ettl, H. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer, Eds., Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, 1988, pp. 1-596.

[18]   K. Krammer and H. Lange-Bertalot, “Bacillariophyceae. 3. Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae,” In: H. Ettl, H. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer, Eds., Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, 1991, pp. 1-576.

[19]   K. Krammer and H. Lange-Bertalot, “Bacillariophyceae. 4. Teil: Achnanthaceae. Kritische Erg?nzungen zu Navicula (Lineolatae) und Gomphonema,” In: H. Ettl, G. G?rtner, J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer, Eds., Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, 1991, pp. 1-437.

[20]   A. Witkowski, H. Lange-Bertalot and D. Metzeltin, “Dia tom Flora of Marine Coasts, Annotated Diatom Micro graphs,” Diversity-Taxonomy-Identification, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 925.

[21]   G. Hofmann, M. Werum und H. Lange-Bertalot, “Diatomeen im Sü?wasser-Benthos von Mitteleuropa. Bestimmungsflora Kieselalgen für die ?kologische Praxis. über 700 der h?ufigsten Arten und ihre ?kologie. A.R.G.” Gantner Verlag K.G., 2011.

[22]   Anonymous, “Proposals for Standardization on Diatom Terminology and Diagnoses,” Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft, Vol. 53, 1975, pp. 323-354.

[23]   F. E. Round, R. M. Crawford and D. G. Mann, “The Diatoms: Biology and Morphology of the Genera,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990, p. 747.

[24]   E. Pielou, “An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969.

[25]   C. Shannon and W. Weaver, “The Mathematical Theory of Communication,” University of Illinois, Urbana, 1949.

[26]   T. S?rensen, “Method of Establishing Groups of Equal Amplitude in Plant Sociology Based on Similarity of Species Content,” Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Vol. 4, 1948, pp. 1-34.

[27]   G. J. C. Underwood, “Seasonal and Spatial Variation in Epipelic Diatom Assemblages in the Severn Estuary,” Diatom Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1994, pp. 451-472. doi:10.1080/0269249X.1994.9705319

[28]   K. Sabbe, B. Vanelslander, L. Ribeiro, A. Witkowski, K. Muylaert and W. Vvyerman, “A new Genus, Pierre comperia gen. nov., a New Species and Two New Com binations in the Marine Diatom Family Cymatosiraceae,” Life and Environment, Vol. 60, No. 3, 2010, pp. 243-256.

[29]   G. R. Hasle, “Using the Inverted Microscope,” In: A. Sournia, Ed., Phytoplankton Manual, UNESCO, Paris, 1978, pp. 191-196.

[30]   G. R. Hasle, “Thalassiosiraceae, a New Diatom Family,” Nordic Journal of Botany, Vol. 20, 1973, pp. 67-69.

[31]   G. R. Hasle, “Some Marine Plankton Genera of the Diatom Family Thalassiosiraceae,” Nova Hedwig, Beih, Vol. 45, 1973, pp. 1-49.

[32]   C. R. Tomas, “Identifying Marine Phytoplankton,” Academic Press, San Diego, 1997.

[33]   J. R. Taylor, “Phytoplankton of the South Western Indian Ocean,” Nova Hedwig, Beih, Vol. 12, 1967, pp. 433-476.

[34]   Z. Cheng, Y. Gao and S. Liu, “Nanodiatoms from Fujian Coast,” China Ocean Press, Beijing, 1993.

[35]   W. Admiraal and H. Peletier, “Sulphide Tolerance of Benthic Diatoms in Relation to Their Distribution in an Estuary,” British Phycological Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1979, 185-196. doi:10.1080/00071617900650201

[36]   J. A. Ake-Castillo, M. E. Hernandez-Becerril and M. E. M. Del Castillo and E. Bravo-Sierra, “Species of Minidiscus (Bacillariophyceae) in Mexican Pacific Ocean,” Cryptogamie Algologie, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2001, pp. 101 107. doi:10.1016/S0181-1568(00)01051-5

[37]   I. Quiroga and M. J. Chrétiennot-Dinet, “A New Species of Minidiscus (Diatomophyceae, Thalassiosiraceae) from the Eastern English Channel, France,” Botanica Marina, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2004, pp. 341-348. doi:10.1515/BOT.2004.040

[38]   I. Kaczmarska, C. Lovejoy, M. Potvin and M. MacGillivary, “Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Selected Species of Minidiscus (Bacillariophyta, Thalassiosiraceae),” European Journal of Phycology, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2009, pp. 461-475. doi:10.1080/09670260902855873

[39]   J. S. Kang, S. H. Kang, D. Kim and D. Y. Kim, “Planktonic Centric Diatom Minidiscus Chilensis Dominated Sediment Trap Material in Eastern Bransfield Strait, Antarctica,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 255, 2003, pp. 93-99. doi:10.3354/meps255093

[40]   P. Rivera and P. Koch, “Contribution to Diatom Flora of Chile II,” In: D. G. Mann, Ed., Proceedings of the 7th International Diatom Symposium, O. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 1984, pp. 279-298.

[41]   K. B. Lange, “Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Diatom Assemblages off the Argentinean Coast (South Western Atlantic),” Oceanologica Acta, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1985, pp. 361-369.

[42]   C. Sancetta, “Occurrence of Thalassiosiraceae (Bacillariophyceae) in Two Fjords of British Columbia,” Nova Hedwig, Beih, Vol. 100, 1990, pp. 199-215.

[43]   K. R. Buck, F. P. Chavez and A. S. Davis, “Minidiscus Trioculatus, a Small Diatom with a Large Presence in the Upwelling System of Central California,” Nova Hedwig, Beih, Vol. 133, 2008, pp. 1-6.