ABSTRACT A resistance training protocol of low intensity and short duration allows for increased training frequency and improved compliance. This study aimed to examine the short-term (response of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone after one exercise session) and long-term (change of fitness level and body fat percentage after the exercise period) effects of slow movement resistance training using the individual’s body mass (hiroNARI training) in adult women and to clarify their subjective sense of training continuity. Nineteen healthy adult women performed hiroNARI training three times a week for 12 weeks. This protocol consisted of 12 types of exercise for 7 muscle groups. GH and testosterone increased significantly after one exercise session (70% and 23.3%, p < 0.05, respectively). Height and the circumferences of the upper arm (flexed), chest, waist, hip, and thigh changed significantly. Except for the upper arm circumference, these parameters improved significantly after 6 weeks. There were significant improvements in measurements of physical fitness after 6 weeks including one leg raise with eyes closed, side step, and repeated sit ups for 30 s. After 12 weeks, anteflexion from a long sitting position improved as well. Triglycerides and HDL and LDL cholesterol changed significantly after 12 weeks. In conclusion, resistance training may have positive effects and is associated with high compliance. However, it will be necessary to reexamine the training protocol for increasing back and lower limb muscle strength and necessary variations to prevent overtraining of certain muscle groups.
Cite this paper
nullYamaji, S. , Demura, S. , Watanabe, N. and Uchiyama, M. (2010) Slow movement resistance training in women. Health, 2, 1156-1162. doi: 10.4236/health.2010.210169.
 Nelson, M.E., Fiatarone, M.A., Morganti, C.M., Trice, I., Greenberg, R.A. and Evans, W. (1994) “Effects of high- intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(24), 1909-1914.
Winett, R.A. and Carpinelli, R.N. (2001) Potential health-related benefits of resistance training. Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 503-513.
Hurley, B.F. and Roth, S.M. (2000) Strength training in the elderly: Effects on risk factors for age-related diseases. Sports Medicine, 30(4), 249-268.
Ryan, A.S., Pratley, R.E., Elahi, D. and Goldberg, A.P. (1995) Resistive training increases fat-free mass and maintains RMR despite weight loss in postmenopausal women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79(3), 818-823.
Boulé, N.G., Haddad, E., Kenny, G.P., Wells, G.A. and Sigal, R.J. (2001) Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta- analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(10), 1218-1227.
Kelley, G.A. and Kelley, K.S. Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension, 35(3), 2000, 838-843.
Hurley, B.F., Hagberg, J.M., Goldberg, A.P., Seals, D.R., Ehsani, A.A., Brennan, R.E. and Holloszy, J.O. (1988) Resistive training can reduce coronary risk factors without altering VO2max or percent body fat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20(2), 150-154.
Martel, G.F., Hurlbut, D.E., Lott, M.E., Lemmer, J.T., Ivey, F.M., Roth, S.M., Rogers, M.A., Fleg, J.L. and Hurley, B.F. (1999) Strength training normalizes blood pressure in 65- to 73-year-old men and women with high normal blood pressure. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 478(10), 1215- 1221.
Koffler, K.H., Menkes, A., Redmand, R.A., Whitehead, W.E., Pratley, R.E. and Hurley, B.F. (1992) Strength training accelerates gastrointestinal transit in middle- aged and older men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(2), 415-419.
Feigenbaum, M.S. and Pollock, M.L. (1999) Prescription of resistance training for health and disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(1), 38-45.
Kraemer, W.J. and Ratamess, N.A. (2005) Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Medicine, 35(4), 339-361.
McDonagh, M.J. and Davies, C.T. (1984) Adaptive response of mammalian skeletal muscle to exercise with high loads. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 52(2), 139-155.
Hass, C.J., Feigenbaum M.S. and Franklin, B.A. (2001) Prescription of resistance training for healthy populations. Sports Medicine, 31(14), 953-964.
American College of Sports Medicine, (2006) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 6th Edition, Williams Wilkins, Lippincott.
Tanimoto, M. and Ishii, N. (2006) Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(4), 1150-1157.
Stevens, V.K., Vleeming, A., Bouche, K.G., Mahieu, N.M., Vanderstraeten, G.G. and Danneels, L.A. (2007) Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers. European Spine Journal, 16(5), 711- 718.
Stevens, V.K., Coorevits, P.L., Bouche, K.G., Mahieu, N.N., Vanderstraeten, G.G. and Danneels, L.A. (2007) The influence of specific training on trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects during stabilization exercises. Manual Therapy, 12(3), 271-279.
Kraemer, W.J., Gordon, S.E., Fleck, S.J., Marchitelli, L.J., Mello, R., Dziados, J.E., Friedl, K., Harman, E., Maresh, C. and Fry, A.C. (1991) Endogenous anabolic hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise in males and females. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(2), 228-235.
Weiss, L.W., Cureton, K.J. and Thompson, F.N. (1983) Comparison of serum testosterone and androstenedione responses to weight lifting in men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 50(3), 413-419.
Aizawa, K., Akimoto, T., Inoue, H., Kimura, F., Joo, M., Murai, F. and Mesaki, N. (2003) Resting serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level increases after 8-week resistance training among young females. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 90(5-6), 575-580.
Raastad, T., Bj?ro, T. and Hallén, J. (2000) Hormonal responses to high- and moderate-intensity strength exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 82(1-2), 121-128.
Beckham, S.G. and Earnest, C.P. (2000) Metabolic cost of free weight circuit weight training. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 40(2), 118-125.
Phillips, W.T. and Ziuraitis, J.R. (2003) Energy cost of the ACSM single-set resistance training protocol. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(2), 350- 355.
Wilmore, J.H., Parr, R.B., Ward, P., Vodak, P.A., Barstow, T.J., Pipes, T.V., Grimditch, G. and Leslie, P. (1978) Energy cost of circuit weight training. Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(2), 75-78.
Reilly, T., Tyrrell, A. and Troup, J.D. (1984) Circadian variation in human stature. Chronobiology International, 1(2), 121-126.
Tyrrell, A.R., Reilly, T. and Troup, J.D. (1985) Circadian variation in stature and the effects of spinal loading. Spine, 10(2), 161-164.
Tremblay, A. and Therrien, F. (2006) Physical activity and body functionality: implications for obesity prevention and treatment. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 84(2), 149-156.
Westcott, W.L., Winett, R.A., Anderson, E.S., Wojcik, J.R., Loud, R.L., Cleggett, E. and Glover, S. (2001) Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 41(2), 154-158.
Sidney, K. and Jetté, M. (1992) Characteristics of women performing strength training: comparison of participants and dropouts. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 32(1), 84-95.