AJPS  Vol.4 No.2 , February 2013
Changes in Inositol Phosphates in Low Phytic Acid Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines during Germination and in Response to Fertilization
Abstract: Inositol phosphates are the main form of phosphorous (P) storage in legume seeds. Mutants low in inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), also known as phytic acid (PA), have been developed to increase iron (Fe) bioavailability and reduce P waste to the environment. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) inositol-P form changes during germination, and 2) the effect of P fertilizer application on seed PA, total P, and Fe concentration of three field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars and two low-PA lines grown under greenhouse conditions. Low-PA field pea lines clearly had lower PA (1.3 - 1.4 mg·g-1) than cultivars (3.1 - 3.7 mg·g-1). Phytic acid concentration in both cultivars and low-PA lines decreased during germination, but tended to increase seven days after germination. Levels of inositol-3-phosphate-phosphate (IP3-P; 0.6 mg·g-1) and inorganic P (1.8 - 2.0 mg·g-1) were higher in low-PA lines than in the field pea cultivars. Reduction of PA in low-PA line seeds may reduce seed Fe and total P concentrations, as levels in the low-PA lines (37 - 42 mg·kg-1 Fe; 4003 - 4473 mg·kg-1 total P) were typically less than in field pea cultivars (37 - 55 mg·kg-1 Fe; 3208 - 4985 mg·kg-1 total P) at different P fertilizer rates. Overall, IP3 is the major form of P present in low-PA field pea lines during germination; however IP6 is the major form of P present in field pea cultivars. Therefore, low-PA field pea lines could be a potential solution to increase Fe bioavailability, feed P utilization, and reduce P waste to the environment.
Cite this paper: D. Thavarajah, P. Thavarajah, D. Amarakoon, A. Fenlason, C. Johnson, P. Knutson and T. Warkentin, "Changes in Inositol Phosphates in Low Phytic Acid Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines during Germination and in Response to Fertilization," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 251-256. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42033.

[1]   V. Raboy, “Progress in Breeding Low Phytate Crops,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 132, No. 3, 2002, pp. 503S-505S.

[2]   K. Cichy and V. Raboy, “Evaluation and Development of Low-Phytate Crops,” Agronomy, Vol. 51, 2009, pp. 177-200.

[3]   A. N. Sharpley, S. C. Charpa, R. Wedepohi, J. Y. Sims, T. C. Daniel and K. R. Reddy, “Managing Agricultural Phosphorus for Protection of Surface Water: Issues and Options,” Journal of Environment Quality, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1994, pp. 437-451. doi:10.2134/jeq1994.00472425002300030006x

[4]   U. Konietzny, K. D. Jany and R. Greiner, “Phytate: An Undesirable Constituent of Plant-Based Foods?” Journal fuer Ernae-hrungsmedizin, Vol. 8, 2006, pp. 18-28.

[5]   V. Raboy, P. F. Gerbasi, K. A. Young, S. D. Stoneberg, A. T. Pickett, A. T. Bauman, P. P. N. Murthy, W. F. Sheridan and D. S. Ertl, “Origin and Seed Phenotype of Maize Low Phytic Acid 1-1 and Low Phytic Acid 2-1,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 124, No. 1, 2000, pp. 355-368. doi:10.1104/pp.124.1.355

[6]   S. R. Larson, K. A. Young, A. Cook, T. K. Blake and V. Raboy, “Linkage Mapping of Two Mutations That Reduce Phytic Acid Content of Barley Grain,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 141-146. doi:10.1007/s001220050878

[7]   S. R. Larson, J. N. Rutger, K. A. Young and V. Raboy, “Isolation and Genetic Mapping of a Non-Lethal Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Low Phytic Acid 1 Mutation,” Crop Science, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1397-1405. doi:10.2135/cropsci2000.4051397x

[8]   M. Guttieri, D. Bowen, J. A. Dorsch, V. Raboy and E. Souza, “Identification and Characterization of a Low Phytic Acid Wheat,” Crop Science, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2004, pp. 418-424. doi:10.2135/cropsci2004.0418

[9]   B. Campion, F. Sparvoli, E. Doria, G. Tagliabue, I. Galasso, M. Fileppi, R. Bollini and E. Nielsen, “Isolation and Characterisation of an lpa (Low Phytic Acid) Mutant in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 118, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1211-1221. doi:10.1007/s00122-009-0975-8

[10]   T. Warkentin, O. Delgerjav, G. Arganosa, A. U. Rehman, K. E. Bett, Y. Anbessa, B. Rossnagel and V. Raboy, “Development and Characterization of Low-Phytate Pea,” Crop Science, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2012, pp. 74-78. doi:10.2135/cropsci2011.05.0285

[11]   V. Raboy, “Low Phytic Acid-Containing Corn Seed Mutant Construction and Selection (US5689054A),” United States Department of Agriculture, 1997.

[12]   FAOSTATS, “Food and Agriculture Organization,” 2010.

[13]   N. Wang, D. W. Hatcher, T. D. Warkentin and R. Toews, “Effect of Cultivar and Environment on Physicochemical and Cooking Characteristics of Field Pea (Pisum sativum),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 118, No. 1, 2009, pp. 109-115. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.082

[14]   D. Amarakoon, D. Thavarajah, K. McPhee and P. Thavarajah, “Iron-, Zinc-, and Magnesium-Rich Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) with Naturally Low Phytic Acid: A Potential Food-Based Solution to Global Micronutrient Malnutrition,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2012, pp. 8-13. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2012.05.007

[15]   R. M. Welch, “Breeding Strategies for Biofortified Staple Plant Foods to Reduce Micronutrient Malnutrition Globally,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 132, 2002, pp. 495S-499S.

[16]   V. Raboy and D. B. Dickinson, “Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Nutrition on Soybean Seed Phytic Acid and Zinc,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 75, No. 4, 1984, pp. 1094-1098. doi:10.1104/pp.75.4.1094

[17]   D. Nikolopoulou, K. Grigorakis, M. Stasini, M. Alexis and K. Iliadis, “Effects of Cultivation Area and Year on Proximate Composition and Antinutrients in Three Different Kabuli-Type Chickpea (Cicer arientinum) Varieties,” European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 223, No. 6, 2006, pp. 737-741. doi:10.1007/s00217-006-0261-9

[18]   P. Thavarajah, D. Thavarajah and A. Vandenberg, “Low Phytic Acid Lentils (Lens culinaris L.): A Potential Solution for Increased Micronutrient Bioavailability,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 19, 2009, pp. 9044-9049. doi:10.1021/jf901636p

[19]   D. Thavarajah, P. Thavarajah, A. Sarker and A. Vandenberg, “Lentils (Lens culinaris Medikus Subspecies culinaris): A Whole Food for Increased Iron and Zinc Intake,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2009, pp. 5413-5419. doi:10.1021/jf900786e

[20]   SAS Institute, “2005 SAS User’s Guide: Statistics,” Cary, North Carolina, 2005.

[21]   V. Raboy, “Approaches and Challenges to Engineering Seed Phytate and Total Phosphorus,” Plant Science,” Vol. 177, No. 4, 2009, pp. 281-296. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2009.06.012

[22]   V. Raboy, S. J. Hudson and D. B. Dickson, “Reduced Phytic Acid Content Does Not Have an Adverse Effect on Germination of Soybean Seeds,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 79, No. 1, 1985, pp. 323-325. doi:10.1104/pp.79.1.323

[23]   S. G. Williams, “The Role of Phytic Acid in the Wheat Grain,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 45, No. 4, 1970, pp. 376-381. doi:10.1104/pp.45.4.376

[24]   N. Wang, D. W. Hatcher and E. J. Gawalko, “Effect of Variety and Processing on Nutrients and Certain Anti-Nutrients in Field Peas (Pisum sativum),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 111, No. 1, 2008, pp. 132-138. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.047

[25]   P. Talamond, S. Doulbeau, I. Rochette and J. P. Guyot, “Anion-Exchange High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Conductivity Detection for the Analysis of Phytic Acid in Food,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 871, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 7-12. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)01226-1

[26]   D. Thavarajah, P. Thavarajah, A. Wijesuriya, M. Rutzke, R. P. Glahn, G. F. Combs and A. Vandenberg, “The Potential of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as a Whole Food for Increased Selenium, Iron, and Zinc Intake: Preliminary Results from a 3 Year Study,” Euphytica, Vol. 180, No. 1, 2011, pp. 123-128. doi:10.1007/s10681-011-0365-6

[27]   R. L. Bernard and R. W. Howell, “Inheritance of Phosphorus Sensitivity in Soybeans,” Crop Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1964, pp. 298-299. doi:10.2135/cropsci1964.0011183X000400030018x