is the commonest procedure performed in health care
settings. A review of literature and search on complications of
venepuncture and blood collection. This procedure is without complications,
which sometime can be fatal. Complications that can arise from venepuncture
include haematoma formation, nerve damage, pain, haemaconcentration, extravasation,
iatrogenic anaemia, arterial puncture, petechiae, allergies, fear and phobia, infection, syncope and fainting, excessive bleeding, edema and
 Gelena, H.J. (1992) Complications occurring from diagnostic venipuncture. The Journal of Family Practice, 34, 582-584.
 World Health Organization (2010) WHO guidelines on drawing blood: Best practices in phlebotomy.
 West Tennessee Health Care Integrated Laboratory. Venepuncture. Physicians’ laboratory handbook.
 Complications in blood collection. Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board 1223/1023, 66-71.
 The BD Vascutainer Blood Collection System. Helping all people live healthy lives. Uhttp://www.bd.com/vascutainer
 Edtexx Medical Cooperation (2007) Fundamentals of phlebotomy. 2nd Edition, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, 43-53. www.depts.ttu.edu
 Kagel, E.M. and Rayan, G.M. (2004) Intravenous catheter complication in the hand and forearm. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care, 56, 123-127.
 University Section of Anesthesia, Pain and Critical Care Medicine. Venepuncture and intravenous cannulation. Clinical skills, 16. www.gla.ac.uk
 Phlebotomists Association of Ireland Ltd. (2010) Phlebotomy guidelines. 25-26.
 Morris, W. and Tay, M.H. (2008) Strategies for preventing peripheral intravenous cannula infection. British Journal of Nursing, 7, S14-S21.
 Ohrishi, H., Watanabe, M. and Watanabe, T. (2012) Butterfly needles reduce the incidence of nerve injury during phlebotomy. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 136, 352. HUdoi:10.5858/arpa.2011-0431-LEU
 Cole, E. Cannulation and venepuncture.