Back
 AJPS  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2013
Effect of 1-MCP on Gas Exchange and Carbohydrate Concentrations of the Cotton Flower and Subtending Leaf under Water-Deficit Stress
Abstract: Ethylene is an endogenous plant hormone that increases under adverse environmental conditions, resulting in leaf and fruit abscission and ultimately yield reduction. In cotton, however, the effects of water-deficit stress on ethylene production have been uncertain. In this study it was hypothesized that application of an ethylene inhibitor 1-Methylcyclo- propene (1-MCP) would prevent ethylene production and result in alleviation of water-deficit stress consequences on the physiology and metabolism of the cotton flower and subtending leaf. To test this hypothesis, growth chamber experiments were conducted in 2009-2010 with treatments consisting of (C) untreated well-watered control, (C + 1MCP) well-watered plus 1-MCP, (WS) untreated water-stressed control, and (WS + 1MCP) water-stressed plus 1-MCP. The plants were subjected to two consecutive drying cycles during flowering, approximately 8 weeks after planting, and 1-MCP was foliar applied at a rate of 10g. ai/ha at the beginning of each drying cycle. The results showed that 1-MCP application had no significant effect on gas exchange functions and did not prevent reductions from water stress in leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance. However, application of 1-MCP resulted in a decrease in sucrose content of water-stressed pistils compared to the control indicating that 1-MCP has the potential to interfere in carbohydrate metabolism of reproductive units.
Cite this paper: D. Loka and D. Oosterhuis, "Effect of 1-MCP on Gas Exchange and Carbohydrate Concentrations of the Cotton Flower and Subtending Leaf under Water-Deficit Stress," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 142-152. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.41019.
References

[1]   P. J. Kramer, “Water Deficits and Plant Growth,” In: P. J. Kramer Ed., Water Relations of Plants, Academic Press, New York, 1983, pp. 342-389. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-425040-6.50015-1

[2]   A. Massaci, S. M. Nabiev, L. Petrosanti, S. K. Nematov, T. N. Chernikova, K. Thor and J. Leipner , “Response of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to the Onset of Drought Stress Under Field Conditions Studied by Gas-Exchange Analysis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2008, pp. 189-195. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.10.006

[3]   H. N. Le Houerou, “Climate Changes, Drought and Desertification,” Journal of Arid Environment, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1996, pp. 133-185. doi:10.1006/jare.1996.0099

[4]   J. A. Lee “Cotton as a World Crop,” In: R. J. Kohel and C. F. Lewis, Eds., Cotton Agronomy Monogram 24. American Statistical Association, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, 1984, pp. 1-25.

[5]   D. M. Oosterhuis and S. D. Wullschleger, “Osmotic Adjustment in Cotton (Gossypium Hisrsutum L.) Leaves and Roots in Response to Water Stress,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 84, No. 4, 1987, pp. 1154-1157. doi:10.1104/pp.84.4.1154

[6]   A. L. Nepomuceno, D. M. Oosterhuis and J. M. Stewart, “Physiological Responses of Cotton Leaves and Roots to Water Deficit Induced by Polythelene Glycol,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1998, pp. 29-41. doi:10.1016/S0098-8472(98)00018-5

[7]   V. V. Kuznetsov, V. Rakitin and V. N. Zholkevich, “Effects of Preliminary Heat-Shock Treatment on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Drought Resistance in Cotton Plants during Water Deficiency,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 107, No. 4, 1999, pp. 399-406. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.1999.100405.x

[8]   J. J. Burke, J. L. Hatfield, R. R. Klein and J. E. Mullet, “Accumulation of Heat Shock Proteins in Field Grown Soybean,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1985, pp. 394-398. doi:10.1104/pp.78.2.394

[9]   R. C. Ackerson, D. R. Krieg, T. D. Miller and R. E. Zartman, “Water Relations of Field Grown Cotton and Sorghum: Temporal and Diurnal Changes in Leaf Water, Osmotic, and Turgor Potentials,” Crop Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1977, pp. 76-78. doi:10.2135/cropsci1977.0011183X001700010022x

[10]   J. E. Quisenberry and B. Roark, “Influence of Indeterminate Growth Habit on Yield and Irrigation Water-Use Efficiency in Upland Cotton,” Crop Science, Vol. 16, No. 1976, pp. 762-765. doi:10.2135/cropsci1976.0011183X001600060005x

[11]   H. Basal, C. W. Smith, P. S. Thaxton and J. K. Hemphill, “Seedling Drought Tolerance in Upland Cotton,” Crop Science, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2005, pp. 766-771. doi:10.2135/cropsci2005.0766

[12]   F. B. Abeles, “Regulation of Ethylene Production by Internal, Environmental and Stress Factors. IV. Abiotic Stress,” In: F. B. Abeles, P. W. Morgan and M. E. Saltveit, Eds., Ethylene in Plant Biology, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 1973, pp. 83-101.

[13]   P. W. Morgan, C. J. He, J. A. De Greef and M. P. De Proft, “Does Water Deficit Stress Promote Ethylene Synthesis by Intact Plants?” Plant Physiology, Vol. 94, No. 4, 1990, pp. 1616-1624. doi:10.1104/pp.94.4.1616

[14]   P. W. Morgan and M. C. Drew, “Ethylene and Plant Responses to Stress,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 100, No. 3, 1997, pp. 620-630. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb03068.x

[15]   I. Narayana, S. Lalonde and H. S. Saini, “Water- Stress-Induced Ethylene Production in Wheat,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 96, 1991, pp. 406-410. doi:10.1104/pp.96.2.406

[16]   N. J. Stumpff and J. D. Johnson, “Ethylene Production by Loblolly Pine Seedlings Associated with Water Stress,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 69, No. 1, 1987, pp. 167-172. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1987.tb01962.x

[17]   J. J. Irigoyen, D. W. Emerich and M. Sanchez-Diaz, “Alfalfa Leaf Senescence Induced by Drought Stress: Photo- synthesis, Hydrogen Peroxide Lipid Metabolism, Lipid Peroxidation and Ethylene Evolution,” Physiologia Plan- tarum, Vol. 84, No. 1, 1992, pp. 67-72. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992.tb08766.x

[18]   S. P. Klassen and B. Bugbee, “Ethylene Synthesis and Sensitivity in Crop Plants,” Horticulture Science, Vol. 39, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1546-1552.

[19]   B. L. McMichael, W. R. Jordan and R. D. Powell, “An Effect of Water Stress on Ethylene Production by Intact Cotton Petioles,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 49, 1972, pp. 658-660. doi:10.1104/pp.49.4.658

[20]   B. L. McMichael, W. R. Jordan and R. D. Powell, “Abscission Processes in Cotton: Induction by Plant Water Deficit,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 65, No. 2, 1973, pp. 202-204. doi:10.2134/agronj1973.00021962006500020005x

[21]   G. Guinn, “Water Deficit and Ethylene Evolution by Young Cotton Bolls,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 57, No. 3, 1976, pp. 403-405. doi:10.1104/pp.57.3.403

[22]   B. Bugbee, “Effect of environment on ethylene synthesis and cotton,” In: D. M Oosterhuis, Ed., Stress Physiology in Cotton, The Cotton Foundation, Cordova, 2011, pp. 85-96.

[23]   E. C. Sisler and M. Serek, “Inhibitors of Ethylene Responses in Plants at the Receptor Level: Recent Developments,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 100, No. 3, 1997, pp. 577-582. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb03063.x

[24]   S. M. Blanken-ship and J. M. Dole, “1-Methylcyclopropene: A Review,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-25. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00246-6

[25]   L. Dong, H. Zhou and S. Lurie, “Ripening of Red Rosa Plums: Effect of Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 28, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1039-1045.

[26]   J. D. Jeong, D. J. , Huber and S. A. Sargent, “Influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on Ripening and Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharides of Avocado (Persea ameri- cana) Fruit,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2002, pp. 241-256. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(01)00184-3

[27]   X. T. Fan and J. P. Mattheis, “Yellowing of Broccoli in Storage Is Reduced by 1-Methylcyclopropene” Horticulture Science, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2000, pp. 885-887.

[28]   W. B. Jiang, Q. Sheng, X. J. Zhou, M. J. Zhang and X. J. Liu, “Regulation of Detached Coriander Leaf Senescence by 1-Methylcyclopropene and Ethylene,” Post-harvest Bi- ology and Technology, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2002, pp. 339-345. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00068-6

[29]   E. M. Kawakami, D. M. Oosterhuis and J. L. Snider, “Physiological Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene on Well-Watered and Water-Stressed Cotton Plants,” Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2010, pp. 280- 288. doi:10.1007/s00344-009-9134-3

[30]   V. A. Da Costa and J. T Cothren, “Drought Effects on Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll, and Plant Growth of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treated Cotton,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1230-1241. doi:10.2134/agronj2010.0479

[31]   M. N. Andersen, F. Asch, F. Wu, C. R. Jensen, H. Naested, V. O. Mogensen and K. E. Koch, “Soluble Invertase Expression Is an Early Target of Drought Stress during the Critical, Abortion-Sensitive Phase of Young Ovary Development in Maize,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 130, No. 2, 2002, pp. 591-604. doi:10.1104/pp.005637

[32]   J. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ye, Z. Wang, Q. Zhu and L. Liu, “Involvement of Abscisic Acid and Ethylene in the Responses of Rice Grains to Water Stress during Grain Filling,” Plant Cell and Environment, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2004, pp. 1055-1064. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01210.x

[33]   H. Bielorai and P. A. M. Hopmans, “Recovery of Leaf Water Potential, Transpiration, and Photosynthesis of Cotton during Irrigation Cycles,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 67, No. 5, 1975, pp. 629-632. doi:10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700050011x

[34]   J. E. Ephrath, A. Marani and B. A. Bravdo, “Effects of Moisture Stress on Stomatal Resistance and Leaf Water Potential in Cotton (Gosssypium Hirsutum): I. Controlled Levels of Stress” Field Crops Research, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1990, pp. 117-131. doi:10.1016/0378-4290(90)90107-M

[35]   R. C. Ackerson, D. R. Krieg, C. L. Haring and N. Chang, “Effects of Plant Water Status on Stomatal Activity, Photosynthesis, and Nitrate Reductase Activity of Field Grown Cotton,” Crop Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1977, pp. 81-84. doi:10.2135/cropsci1977.0011183X001700010023x

[36]   D. L. Hendrix, “Rapid Extraction and Analysis of Nonstructural Carbohydrates in Plant Tissues,” Crop Science, Vol. 33, No. 6, 1993, pp. 1306-1311. doi:10.2135/cropsci1993.0011183X003300060037x

[37]   T. C. Hsiao, “Plant Responses to Water Stress,” Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology, Vol. 24, 1973, pp. 519-570. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.24.060173.002511

[38]   J. E. Pallas and S. J. Kays, “Inhibition of Photosynthesis by Ethylene—A Stomatal Effect,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 70, 2, 1982, pp. 598-601. doi:10.1104/pp.70.2.598

[39]   C. Vitogliano and G. V. Hoad, “Leaf Stomatal Resistance, Ethylene Evolution and ABA-Levels as Influenced by 2-Chloroethyl-Phosphonic Acid,” Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1978, pp. 101-106. doi:10.1016/0304-4238(78)90013-4

[40]   W. Verelst, A. Skirycz and D. Inze, “Abscisic Acid, Ethylene and Gibberellic Acid Act at Different Developmental Stages to Instruct the Adaptation of Young Leaves to Stress,” Plant Signaling and Behavior, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2010, pp. 473-475. doi:10.4161/psb.5.4.11421

[41]   M. J. Lacape, J. Wery and D. J. M. Annerose, “Relationships between Plant and Soil Water Status in Five Field- Grown Cotton Cultivars,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1998, pp. 29-43. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(97)00111-1

[42]   W. T. Pettigrew, “Physiological Consequences of Moisture Deficit Stress in Cotton,” Crop Science, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1265-1272. doi:10.2135/cropsci2004.1265

[43]   J. Flexas, J. Bota, J. Galmes, H. Medrano and M. Ribas- Carbo, “Keeping A Positive Carbon Balance under Adverse Conditions: Responses of Photosynthesis and Respiration to Water Stress,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 127, No. 3, 2006, pp. 343-352. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.2006.00621.x

[44]   D. W. Lawlor and W. Tezara, “Causes of Decreased Photosynthetic Rate and Metabolic Capacity in Water-Deficient Leaf Cells: A Critical Evaluation of Mechanisms and Integration of Processes,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2009, pp. 561-579. doi:10.1093/aob/mcn244

[45]   F. W. T. De Vries, J. M. Witlage and D. Kremer, “Rates of Respiration and of Increase in Structural Dry Matter in Young Wheat, Ryegrass and Maize Plants in Relation to Temperature, to Water Stress and to Their Sugar Content,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 44, No. 5, 1979, pp. 595-609.

[46]   K. J. McCree, C. E. Kallsen and S. G. Richard-son, “Carbon Balance of Sorghum Plants during Osmotic Adjustment to Water Stress,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 76, No. 4, 1984, pp. 898-902. doi:10.1104/pp.76.4.898

[47]   M. Ribas-Carbo, N. L. Taylor, L. Giles, S. Busquets, P. M. Finnegan and D. A. Day, “Effects of Water Stress on Respiration in Soybean Leaves,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 139, No. 1, 2005, pp. 466-473. doi:10.1104/pp.105.065565

[48]   J. Ghashgaie, M. Duranceau, F. W. Badeck, G. Cornic, M. T. Adeline and E. Deleens,” Δ C13 of CO2 Respired in the Dark in Relation to Δ C13 of Leaf Metabolites: Comparison between Nicotiana sylvestris and Helianthus annuus under Drought,” Plant Cell and Environment, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2001, pp. 505-515. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2001.00699.x

[49]   D. W. Lawlor and H. Fock, “Water Stress Induced Changes in the Amounts of Some Photosynthetic Assimilation Products and Respiratory Metabolites of Sunflower Leaves” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1977, pp. 329-337. doi:10.1093/jxb/28.2.329

[50]   J. E. Pallas, B. E. Michel and D. G. Harris, “Photosynthesis, Transpiration, Leaf Temperature, and Stomatal Activity of Cotton Plants under Varying Water Potentials,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1967, pp. 76-88. doi:10.1104/pp.42.1.76

[51]   C. A. Gunderson and G. E. Taylor, “Ethylene Directly Inhibits Foliar Gas Exchange in Glycine max,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 95, No. 1, 1991, pp. 337-339. doi:10.1104/pp.95.1.337

[52]   G. E. Taylor and C. A. Gunderson, “The Response of Foliar Gas Exchange to Exogenously Applied Ethylene,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 82, No. 3, 1986, pp. 653-657. doi:10.1104/pp.82.3.653

[53]   C. He and F. T. Davies, “Ethylene Reduces Plant Gas Exchange and Growth of Lettuce Grown from Seed to Harvest under Hypobaric and Ambient Total Pressure,” Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 169, No. 4, 2012, pp. 369-378. doi:10.1016/j.jplph.2011.11.002

[54]   F. Liu, C. R Jensen and M. N. Andersen, “Drought Stress Effect on Carbohydrate Concentration in Soybean Leaves and Pods during Early Reproductive Development: Its Implication in Altering Pod Set,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-13. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00165-5

[55]   B. Teulat, C. Borries and D. This, “New QTLs Identified for Plant Water Status, Water-Soluble Carbohydrate and Osmotic Adjustment in a Barley Population Grown in a Growth-Chamber under Two Water Regimes,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 103, No. 1, 2001, pp. 161-170. doi:10.1007/s001220000503

[56]   F. M. Eaton and D. R. Ergle, “Carbohydrate Accumulation in the Cotton Plant at Low Moisture Levels,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1948, pp. 169-187. doi:10.1104/pp.23.2.169

[57]   J. D. Timpa, J. J. Burke, J. E Quisenberry and C. W. Wendt, “Effects of Water Stress on the Organic Acid and Carbohydrate Composition of Cotton Plants,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 82, No. 3, 1986, pp. 724-728. doi:10.1104/pp.82.3.724

[58]   A. K. Parida, V. S. Dagaonkar, M. S. Phalak, G. V. Umalkar and L. P. Aurangabadkar, “Alterations in Photosynthetic Pigments, Protein and Osmotic Components in Cotton Genotypes Subjected to Short-Term Drought Stress Followed by Recovery,” Plant Biotechnology Reports, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007, pp. 37-48. doi:10.1007/s11816-006-0004-1

[59]   L. Zhou, J. C. Jang, T. L. Jones and J. Sheen, “Glucose and Ethylene Signal Transduction Cross-Talk Revealed by an Arabidopsis Glucose-Insensitive Mutant,” Plant Biology, Vol. 95, No. 17, 1998, pp. 10294-10299.

[60]   F. Rolland, E. Baena-Gonzalez and J. Sheen, “Sugar Sensing and Signaling in Plants: Conserved and Novel Mechanisms,” Annual Reviews of Plant Biology, Vol. 57, 2006, pp. 675-709. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105441

[61]   P. Leon and J. Sheen, “Sugar and Hormone Connections,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2003, pp. 110-116. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(03)00011-6

[62]   K. E. Koch, “Sucrose Metabolism:Regulatory Mechanisms and Pivotal Roles in Sugar Sensing and Plant Development,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2004, pp. 235-246. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2004.03.014

[63]   D. A. Ashley, “14C-Labelled Photosynthate Translocation and Utilization in Cotton Plants,” Crop Science, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1972, pp. 69-72. doi:10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200010023x

[64]   J. R. Schussler and M. E. Westgate, “Assimilate Flux Determines Kernel Set at Low Water Potential in Maize,” Crop Science, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1995, pp. 1074-1080. doi:10.2135/cropsci1995.0011183X003500040026x

[65]   C. Zinselmeier, B. R. Jeong and J. S. Boyer, “Starch and the Control of Kernel Number in Maize at Low Water Potentials,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 121, No. 1, 1999, pp. 25-35. doi:10.1104/pp.121.1.25

[66]   H. S. Saini, and M. E. Westgate, “Reproductive Development in Grain Crops during Drought,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 68, 1999, pp. 59-96. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60843-3

[67]   R. A. Saftner, “Effect of Ethylene on Sucrose Uptake in Root Discs of Sugar Beet,” Plant Cell Physiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1986, pp. 853-860.

[68]   C. Chervin, N. Terrier, A. Ageorges, F. Ribes and T. Kuapunyakoon, “Influence of Ethylene on Sucrose Accumulation in Grape bErry,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2006, pp. 511-513.

[69]   K. Ishizawa and Y. Esashi, “Action Mechanism of Ethylene in the Control of Sugar Translocation in Relation to Rice Coleoptiles Growth. I. Sucrose Metabolism,” Plant Cell Physiology, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1988, pp. 131-141.

[70]   J. Xu, G. H. Pemberton, E. C. Almira, D. R. McCarty and K. E. Koch, “The Ivr1 Gene for Invertase in Maize,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 108, No. 3, 1995, pp. 1293-1294. doi:10.1104/pp.108.3.1293

[71]   P. K. Mohapatra, P. K. Naik and R. Patel, “Ethylene Inhibitors Improve Dry Matter Partitioning and Development of Late Flowering Spikelets on Rice Panicles,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2000, pp. 311-323. doi:10.1071/PP99057

[72]   P. K. Naik and P. K. Mohapatra, “Ethylene Inhibitors Enhanced Sucrose Synthase Activity and Promoted Grain Filling of Basal Rice Kernels,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 27, No. 11, 2000, pp. 997-1008.

[73]   J. A. Lipe and P. W. Morgan, “Ethylene, a Regulator of Young Fruit Abscission,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 51, No. 5, 1973, pp. 949-953. doi:10.1104/pp.51.5.949

[74]   J. K. Burns, “1-Methylcyclopropene Applications in Preharvest Systems: Focus on Citrus,” HortScience, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2008, pp. 112-114.

 
 
Top