WET  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2013
Time-Reversal UWB Positioning Beacon for Railway Application
Abstract: This paper studies a new positioning beacon for railway transport using Ultra Wideband (UWB) radio and Time Reversal (TR) techniques. UWB radio has the potential to offer a good level of performance in terms of localization accuracy. Time Reversal channel pre-filtering facilitates signal detection and also helps increasing the received energy in the targeted area. In this paper, we evaluate the characteristics of TR technique in terms of temporal focusing. The theoretical and simulation results for Power Delay Profile, equivalent channel model and focusing gain of TR-UWB are given. We analyze the contribution of Time Reversal associated with UWB technology to enhance the localization resolution. The IEEE 802.15.3achannel models are used to evaluate the performance of this system. In terms of localization error, the theoretical and simulation results show that TR-UWB technique delivers improved performance over the UWB localization approach.
Cite this paper: B. Fall, F. Elbahhar, M. Heddebaut and A. Rivenq, "Time-Reversal UWB Positioning Beacon for Railway Application," Wireless Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 28-39. doi: 10.4236/wet.2013.41005.

[1]   H. Saghir, M. Heddebaut, F. Elbahhar, J. M. Rouvaen and A. Rivenq, “Train-to-Wayside Wireless Communication in Tunnel Using Ultra-Wideband and Time Reversal,” Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009, pp. 81-97. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2008.09.003

[2]   M. N. Benslimen, “Recherche de Procedure de Caractérisation de l’Environnement Elecromagnétique Ferroviaire Adaptées au Contexte des Systèmes de Communications Embarqués,” Ph.D. Thesis, Lille University, Lille, 2009.

[3]   N. Maaref, P. Millot, X. Ferriéres, C. Pichot and O. Picon, “Electromagnetic Imaging Methode Based on Time Reversal Processing Applied to through the Wall Target Localization,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 1, 2008, pp. 59-67.

[4]   B. Fall, M. F. Elbahhar, M. Heddebaut and A. Rivenq, “Time Reversal and UWB Techniques for Positioning System in Transport Applications,” International Symposium on Signal, Image, Video and Communications (ISIVC), Valenciennes, 4-6 July 2012, pp. 1-4.

[5]   M. L. Welbom, “System Considerations for Ultra-WideBand Wireless Networks,” IEEE: Radio and Wireless Conference RAWCON, Boston, 19-22 August 2001, pp. 5-8.

[6]   H. Saghir, M. Heddebaut, F. Elbahhar, A. Rivenq and J. M. Rouvaen, “Time Reversal UWB Wireless Communication-Based Train Control in Tunnel,” Journal of Communications, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2009, pp. 248-256.

[7]   W. Suwansantisuk, M. Z. Win and L. A. Shepp, “On the Performance of Wide-Bandwidth Signal Acquisition in Dense Multipath Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 54, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1584-1594.

[8]   W. Suwansantisuk and M. Z. Win, “Multipath Aided Rapid Acquisition: Optimal Search Strategies,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 53, 2006, pp. 174193.

[9]   M. Fink, “Ondes et Renversement du Temps,” Bulletin de L’union des Professeurs de Physique et de Chimie, 2005, pp. 25-31.

[10]   M. Fink, “Time Reversal Waves and Super Resolution,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 124. 4th AIP International Conference and the 1st Congress of the IPIA, 2008.

[11]   A. Derode, P. Roux and M. Fink, “Robust Acoustic Time Reversal with High Order Multiple Scattering,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 75, No. 23, 1995, pp. 4206-4209.

[12]   L. G. Van Atta, “Electromagnetic Reflector,” US Patent 2 908 002, 1959.

[13]   B. E. Henty and D. D. Stancil, “Multipath-Enabled Super-Resolution for RF and Microwave Communication Using Phase-Conjugate Arrays,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 93, No. 24, 2004, pp. 1-4.

[14]   T. Strohmer, M. Emami, J. Hansen, G. Papanicolaou and A. Paulraj, “Application of Time-Reversal with MMSE Equalizer to UWB Communications,” Proceedings of Globecom Conference, Dallas, December 2004, pp. 31233127.

[15]   G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, A. Derode, G, Montaldo and M. Fink, “Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Waves,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 92, No. 19, 2004, pp. 1-3.

[16]   X. Liu, B.-Z. Wang, S. Xiao and J. Deng, “Performance of Impulse Radio UWB Communication Based on Time Reversal Technique,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 79, Vol. 79, No. 11, 2008, pp. 401-413. doi:10.2528/PIER07102205

[17]   D. Abassi-Moghadam and D. T. Vakili, “Channel Characterization of Time Reversal UWB Communication Systems,” Wiley International Journal of Communication Systems, Vol. 65, No. 9-10, 2010, pp. 601-614.

[18]   C. Zhou, “Time Reversal Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Based on Measured Spatial Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 6, 2009, pp. 2884-8898.

[19]   C. Zhou, “Impulsive Radio Propagation and Time Reversal MIMO System for UWB Wireless Communications,” Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of the Graduated School, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, 2008.

[20]   P. Pagani, F. T. Talom, P. Pajusco and B. Uguen, “Ultra Wide Band Radio Propagation Channels, A Practical Approach,” ISTE Ltd. and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, 2008, 239 p. doi:10.1002/9780470611715

[21]   J. A. Gubner K. Hao, “The IEEE 802.15.3a UWB Channel Model as a Two-Dimensional Augmented Cluster Process,” IEEE Transaction on Information Theory, 2006, pp. 1-9.

[22]   I. H. Naqvi, “Application of Time Reversal (TR) Technique to Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) and Multi-Antenna (MIMO) Communication Systems,” Ph.D. Thesis, Institute National des Sciences Appliquées de Rennes, 2009.

[23]   A. Malish, “Ultra Wideband Propagation Channels—Theory, Measurement and Modeling?,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 54, No. 5, 2005, pp. 15281545. doi:10.1109/TVT.2005.856194

[24]   J. A. Gubner and K. Hao, “Analysis of the IEEE 802.15.3a UWB Channel Model,” IEEE Journal on Selected Area in Communications, 2005, pp. 1-8.

[25]   Y. Chen and N. C. Beaulieu, “Moment Based Interference Analysis of CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 UZB Systems,” IEEE GLOBECOM Proceedings, 2007, Washington, pp. 3858-3862.

[26]   W. Klaus and P. Marco, “Statistical Analysis of UWB Channel Correlation Functions,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2008, pp. 13591373.

[27]   A. Adel, M. Saleh, A. Reinaldo and A. Valenzuela “A Statistical Model for Indoor Multipath Propagation,” IEEE Journal Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987, pp. 128-137.

[28]   D. P. Dhiraj, “On the Simulations of Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels Using Sum of Sinusoids Method,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, 2006.

[29]   F. Elbahhar, B. Fall, M. Heddebaut, A. Rivenq and J. M. Rouvaen, “Indoor Positioning System Based on the UWB Technique,” IPIN 2011, 21-23 September 2011, Guimar?es, pp. 1-4.

[30]   A. Elabed, F. Elbahhar, Y. Elhillali, A. Rivenq and R. Elassali, “UWB Communication System Based on Bipolar PPM with Orthogonal Waveforms,” Wireless Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2012, pp. 181188. doi:10.4236/wet.2012.33026

[31]   M. Ghavami, L. V. Michael and R. Kohno, “Ultra Wide Band Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering,” Wiley, London, 2007, 247 p. doi:10.1002/9780470060490

[32]   R. I. Reza, “Data Fusion for Improved TOA/TDOA Position Determination in Wireless Systems,” Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2000.

[33]   X. Wang, Z. Wang and B. O’Dea, “A TOA-Based Location Algorithm Reducing the Errors Due to Non-Lineof-Sight (NLOS) Propagation,” IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2003, pp. 112-116.