N. Y. Kim, M. K. Jang, D. G. Lee, K. H. Yu, H. J. Jang, M. Kim, S. G. Kim, B. H. Yoo and S. H. Lee, “Comparison of Methods for Proanthocyanidin Extraction from Pine (Pinus densiflora) Needles and Biological Activities of Extracts,” Nutrition Research and Practice, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2010, pp. 16-22. doi:10.4162/nrp.2010.4.1.16
 J. B. Jeong, E. W. Seo and H. J. Jeong, “Effects of Extracts of Pine Needle against Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced by Hydroxyl Radical via Antioxidant Activities,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2009, pp. 2135-2141. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.05.034
 M. J. Jung, H. A. Jung, S. S. Kang, G. S. Hwang and J. S. Choi, “A New Abietic Acid-Type Diterpene Glucoside from the Needles of Pinus densiflora,” Archives of Phar acal Research, Vol. 32, No. 12, pp. 1699 1704.
 J. H. Kwon, J. H. Kim, S. E. Choi, K. H. Park and M. W. Lee, “Inhibitory Effects of Phenolic Compounds from Needles of Pinus ensiflora on Nitric Oxide and PGE2 Production,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, Vol. 33, No. 12, 2010, pp. 2011-2016. doi:10.1007/s12272-010-1217-y
 J. R. Jeon and J. Y. Kim, “Effects of Pine Needle Extract on Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and Obesity in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats,” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 10, 2006, pp. 2111-2115. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.2111
 S. P. Ford, L. K. Christenson, J. P. Rosazza and R. E. Short, “Effects of Ponderosa Pine Needle Ingestion on Uterine Vascular Function in Late-Gestation Beef Cows,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 70, No. 5, pp. 1609 1614.
 F. C. Chow, K. J. Hanson, D. W. Hamer and R. H. Udall, “Reproductive Failure of Mice Caused by Pine Needle Ingestion,” Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1972, pp. 169-172. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0300169
 B. Subramaniam and D. Talmor, “Echocardiography for Management of Hypotension in the Intensive Care Unit,” Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 8, 2007, pp S401 S407. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000270277.29661.3B