Smart Grid and Optimization

Author(s)
Murat Ahat^{*},
Soufian Ben Amor,
Marc Bui,
Alain Bui,
Guillaume Guérard,
Coralie Petermann

Affiliation(s)

Laboratory of PRiSM, University Of Versailles SQY, Versailles, France&Laboratory of Econoving, University Of Versailles SQY, Versailles, France.

Laboratory of PRiSM, University Of Versailles SQY, Versailles, France.

Laboratory of Chart, Ecole Pratique Des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France.

Laboratory of PRiSM, University Of Versailles SQY, Versailles, France&Laboratory of Econoving, University Of Versailles SQY, Versailles, France.

Laboratory of PRiSM, University Of Versailles SQY, Versailles, France.

Laboratory of Chart, Ecole Pratique Des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT

With urging problem of energy and pollution, smart grid is becoming ever important. By gradually changing the actual power grid system, smart grid may evovle into different systems by means of size, elements and strategies, but its fundamental requirements and objectives will not change such as optimizing production, transmission and consumption. Studying the smart grid through modeling and simulation provides us with valuable results which can not be obtained in real world due to time and cost related constraints. However, due to the complexity of the smart grid, achieving optimization is not an easy task, even using computer models. In this paper, we propose an complex system based approach to the smart grid modeling, accentuating on the optimization by combining game theoretical and classical methods in different levels. Thanks to this combination, the optimization can be achieved with flexibility and scalability, while keeping its generality.

Cite this paper

M. Ahat, S. Amor, M. Bui, A. Bui, G. Guérard and C. Petermann, "Smart Grid and Optimization,"*American Journal of Operations Research*, Vol. 3 No. 1A, 2013, pp. 196-206. doi: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31A019.

M. Ahat, S. Amor, M. Bui, A. Bui, G. Guérard and C. Petermann, "Smart Grid and Optimization,"

References

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[37] R. Olfati-Saber and R. M. Murray, “Consensus Problems in Networks of Agents with Switching Topology and Time-Delays.” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 49, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1520-1533. doi:10.1109/TAC.2004.834113

[38] R. N. Anderson, A. Boulanger, W. B. Powell and W. Scott, “Adaptive Stochastic Control for the Smart Grid,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1098-1115. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2011.2109671

[1] ABB Inc., “Energy Efficiency in the Power Grid,” ABB Inc., Fort Smith, 2007.

[2] A. Molderink, M. G. C. Bosman, V. Bakker, J. L. Hurink and G. J. M. Smit, “Simulating the Effect on the Energy Efficiency of Smart Grid Technologies,” Proceedings of the 2009 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), Austin, 13-16 December 2009, pp. 1530-1541. doi:10.1109/WSC.2009.5429305

[3] S. Borenstein, M. Jaske and A. Rosenfeld, “Dynamic Pricing, Advanced Metering, and Demand Response in Electricity Markets,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 128, No. 12, 2002, pp. 4136-4145.

[4] S. Robinson, “Simulation: The Practice of Model Development and Use,” John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2003.

[5] M. Amin and B. F. Wollenberg, “Toward a Smart Grid,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2005, pp. 34-38. doi:10.1109/MPAE.2005.1507024

[6] A. Keyhani, “Chpater 1: Smart Power Grids, Smart Power Grids,” Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 1-25.

[7] “A Vision for the Modern Grid,” Technical Report, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, 2008.

[8] M. Amin and J. Stringer, “The Electric Power Grid: Today and Tomorrow,” MRS Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2008, pp. 399-407. doi:10.1557/mrs2008.80

[9] National Institute of Standards and Technology, “NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 2010.

[10] X. Fang, S. Misra, G. Xue and D. Yang, “Smart Grid— The New And Improved Power Grid: A Survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (COMST), Vol. 14, No. 4, 2012, pp. 944-980. doi:10.1109/SURV.2011.101911.00087

[11] N. Boccara, “Modeling Complex Systems. Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics series,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004.

[12] S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by Simmulated Annealing,” Science, Vol. 220, No. 4598, 1983, pp. 671-680. doi:10.1126/science.220.4598.671

[13] M. E. J. Newman, “The Structure and Function of Complex Networks,” SIAM Review, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2003, pp. 167-256. doi:10.1137/S003614450342480

[14] C. M. Macal and M. J. North, “Tutorial on Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation,” Journal of Simulation, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2010, pp. 151-162. doi:10.1057/jos.2010.3

[15] A. Borshchev and A. Filippov, “From System Dynamics and Discrete Event to Practical Agent Based Modeling: Reasons, Techniques, Tools,” Proceedings of System Dynamics Conference, Oxford, 25-29 July 2004.

[16] M. Cossentino, N. Gaud, V. Hilaire, S. Galland and A. Koukam, “Aspecs: An Agent-Oriented Software Process for Engineering Complex Systems,” Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2012, pp. 260-304. doi:10.1007/s10458-009-9099-4

[17] G. Guérard, S. Ben Amor and A. Bui, “Survey on Smart Grid Modelling,” International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2012, pp. 262-279.

[18] J. J. Grefenstette, “Optimization of Control Parameters for Genetic Algorithms,” Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1986, pp. 122-128. doi:10.1109/TSMC.1986.289288

[19] P. Erdos and A. Rényi, “On Random Graphs,” Publicationes Mathematicae (Debrecen), Vol. 6, 1959, pp. 290-297.

[20] A. L. Barabási and R. Albert, “Statistical Mechanics Complex Networks,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 74. No. 1, 2002, pp. 47-97.

[21] R. V. Solé, M. Rosas-Casals, B. Corominas-Murtra and S. Valverde, “Robustness of the European Power Grids under Intentional Attack,” Physics and Society, November, 2007.

[22] X. Yu, “Smart Grids: A Complex Network View,” IECON 2011, Melbourne, 7-10 November 2011.

[23] G. A. Pagani and M. Aiello, “The Power Grid as a Complex Network: A Survey,” Physics and Society, Vol. 97, No. 6, 2012.

[24] A. L. Barabasi and R. E. Crandall, “Linked: The New Science of Networks,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2003, pp. 409-410. doi:10.1119/1.1538577

[25] D. J. Watts, “Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age,” W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2004.

[26] M. Mitchell, “Complex Systems: Network Thinking,” Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 170, No. 18, 2006, pp. 1194-1212. doi:10.1016/j.artint.2006.10.002

[27] L. A. Segel and I. R. Cohen, “Design Principles for the Immune System and Other Distributed Autonomous Systems,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.

[28] R. Albert, I. Albert and G. L. Nakarado, “Structural Vulnerability of the North American Power Grid,” Physical Review E, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2004. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.69.025103

[29] D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, “Collective Dynamics of Small-World Networks,” Nature, Vol. 393, No. 6684, 1998, pp. 440-442. doi:10.1038/30918

[30] D. P. Chassin and C. Posse, “Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model,” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, Vol. 355, No. 2-4, 2005, pp. 667-677.

[31] A. D. Peacock and M. Newborough, “Controlling Micro-CHP Systems to Modulate Electrical Load Profiles,” Energy, Vol. 32, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1093-1103. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2006.07.018

[32] R. J. Aumann and S. Hart, “Handbook of Game Theory,” North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992.

[33] M. J. Osborne and A. Rubinstein, “A Course in Game Theory,” The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1994.

[34] W. Saad, Z. Han, H. V. Poor and T. Basar, “Game Theoretic Methods for the Smart Grid,” Information Theory, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, 2012, pp. 1-177.

[35] C. Block, D. Neumann and C. Weinhardt, “A Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids,” Proceedings of the 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikoloa, 7-10 January 2008, pp. 172-182. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2008.27

[36] A. Arenas, A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno and C. Zhou, “Synchronization in Complex Networks,” Physics Reports, Vol. 469, No. 3, 2008, pp. 93-153. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2008.09.002

[37] R. Olfati-Saber and R. M. Murray, “Consensus Problems in Networks of Agents with Switching Topology and Time-Delays.” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 49, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1520-1533. doi:10.1109/TAC.2004.834113

[38] R. N. Anderson, A. Boulanger, W. B. Powell and W. Scott, “Adaptive Stochastic Control for the Smart Grid,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1098-1115. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2011.2109671