IJG  Vol.4 No.1 A , January 2013
Evidence of Shock Metamorphism Effects in Allochthonous Breccia Deposits from the Colônia Crater, São Paulo, Brazil
ABSTRACT

The 3.6 km-diameter Colonia impact crater, centred at 2352'03"S and 4642'27"W, lies 40 km to the south-west of the S?o Paulo city. The structure was formed on the crystalline basement rocks and displays a bowl-shaped with steeper slope near the top that decreases gently toward the centre of the crater. Over recent years were drilled two boreholes inside the crater, which reached a maximum depth of 142 m and 197 m. Geological profile suggests four different lithological associations: 1) unshocked crystalline basement rocks (197 - 140 m); 2) fractured/brecciated basement rocks (140 - 110 m); 3) polymictic allochthonous breccia deposits (110 - 40 m); and 4) post-impact deposits (40 - 0 m). Petrographic characterisation of the polymictic allochthonous breccia reveals a series of distinctive shock-metamorphic features, including, among others, planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar and mica, ballen silica, granular texture in zircon and melt-bearing impact rocks. The occurrence of melt particles and very high-pressure phase transformation in suevite breccia suggest a shock pressure regime higher than 60 GPa.



Cite this paper
V. Velázquez, C. Riccomini, J. Sobrinho, M. Pletsch, A. Sallun, W. Filho and J. Hachiro, "Evidence of Shock Metamorphism Effects in Allochthonous Breccia Deposits from the Colônia Crater, São Paulo, Brazil," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 274-282. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.41A025.
References
[1]   T. J. Ahrens, T. Takata, J. D. O’Keefe and G. S. Orton, “Impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 21, No. 21, 1994, pp. 1087-1090. doi:10.1029/94GL01325

[2]   B. M. French, “Traces of Catastrophe: A Handbook of Shock-Metamorphic Effects in Terrestrial Meteorite Impact Structures,” LPI Contribution No. 954, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 1998.

[3]   PASSC, “Earth Impact Database,” 2013. http://www.passc.net/AboutUs/index.html

[4]   U. G. Cordani, B. B. Brito Neves and B. B. Brito, “The Geologic Evolution of South America during the Archean and Early Proterozoic,” Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 21, No. 12, 1982, pp. 78-88.

[5]   B. B. Brito, B. B. Brito Neves, U. G. Cordani and R. A. Thomaz Filho, “Influence of Basement Structures on the Evolution of the Major Sedimentary Basins of Brasil,” Journal Geodynamics, Vol. 14, No.1, 1984, pp. 495-510.

[6]   F. F. M. Almeida, B. B. Brito Neves and C. D. R. Car neiro, “The Origin and Evolution of the South American Platform,” Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 41, No. 50, 2000, pp. 77-111. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(99)00072-0

[7]   R. Kollert, A. Bj?rnberg and A. Davino, “Estudos Preli minaries de Uma Depress?o Circular na Regi?o de Co l?nia: Santo Amaro, S?o Paulo,” Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, Vol. 3, No. 10, 1961, pp. 57-77.

[8]   A. P. Crósta, “Estruturas de Impacto No Brasil: Uma Sín tese do Conhecimento Atual,” 32nd Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Anais, Salvador, 1982, pp. 1372-1377.

[9]   A. P. Crósta, “Impact Structures in Brasil,” In: J. Pohl, Ed., Research in Terrestrial Impact Structures, Braun schweig/Wiesbaden, Friedr. Wieweg and Son, 1987, pp. 30-38. doi:10.1007/978-3-663-01889-6_2

[10]   C. Riccomini, B. Turcq, L. Martín and M. Z. Moreira, “The Col?nia Astrobleme,” International Symposium on Global Changes in South America during the Quaternary: Present and Future, Excursion Field Guide, S?o Paulo, 1989, p. 14.

[11]   C. Riccomini, B. Turcq, L. Martín, M. Z. Moreira and M. L. Lorscheitter, “The Col?nia Astrobleme,” Revista do Instituto Geológico, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1991, pp. 87-94.

[12]   U. S. Motta and J.-M. Flexor, “Estudo Gravimétrico da Depress?o Circular de Col?nia, S?o Paulo, Brasil,” 2nd Congresso Internacional da Sociedade Brasileira de Geo física, Anais, Salvador, 1991, pp. 140-142.

[13]   W. C. B. Masero and S. L. Fontes, “Geoelectrical Studies of the Col?nia Impact Structure, Santo Amaro, State of S?o Paulo—Brazil,” Revista Brasileira de Geofísica, Vol 10, No. 5, 1992, pp. 25-41.

[14]   F. A. Neves, “Estudo da Depress?o Circular de Col?nia, SP, Pelo Método Sísmico,” Revista Brasileira de Geo ciências, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1998, pp. 3-10.

[15]   C. Riccomini and B. J. Turcq, “The Col?nia Crater, a Probable Impact Structure in Southeastern Brazil,” Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, No. 5208, 2004, p. A88.

[16]   C. Riccomini, B. J. Turcq, M. -P. Ledru, L. G. Sant'Anna and J. A. Ferrari, “Cratera de Col?nia, SP—Provável Astroblema Com Registros do Paleoclima Quaternário na Grande S?o Paulo,” 2005. http://www.unb.br/ig/sigep/sitio116/sitio116.pdf

[17]   R. A. F Grieve and A. Therriault, “Observations at Ter restrial Impact Structures: Their Utility in Constraining Crater Formation,” Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2004, pp. 199-216. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2004.tb00336.x

[18]   C. Koeberl and B. Milkereit, “Continental Drilling and the Study of Impact Craters and Processes—An IDCP Perspective,” In: U. Harms, C. Koeberl and M. D. Zoback, Eds., Continental Scientific Drilling, Springer, Heilder berg, 2007, pp. 95-161.

[19]   J. K. Pati, K. Prakash and R. Kundu, “Terrestrial Impact Structures and Their Confirmation: Example from Dhala Structure, CENTRAL INDIA,” E-Journal Earth Science India, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2009, pp. 289-298.

[20]   B. M. French, “Distribution of Shock-Metamorphic Features in the Sudbury Basin, Ontario, Canada,” Meteoritics, Vol. 4, 1969, pp. 173-174.

[21]   D. St?f?er, “Deformation and Transformation of Rock Forming Minerals by Natural and Experimental Shock Processes: I. Behaviour of Minerals under Shock Compression,” Fortschritte der Mineralogie, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1972, pp. 50-113.

[22]   D. St?f?er, “Deformation and Transformation of Rock Forming Minerals by Natural and Experimental Shock Processes: II. Physical Properties of Shocked Minerals,” Fortschritte der Mineralogie, Vol. 51, No. 1-4, 1974, pp. 256-289.

[23]   J. G. Spray, “Localized Shock and Friction-Induced Melting in Response to Hypervelocity Impact,” Geological Society of London, Special Publication, Vol. 140, No. 1, 1998, pp. 195-204.

[24]   F. Langenhorst, “Shock Metamorphism of Some Minerals: Basic Introduction and Microstructural Observations,” Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2002, pp. 265-282.

[25]   B. M. French and C. Koeberl, “The Convincing Identification of Terrestrial Meteorite Impact Structures: What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why,” Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 98, No. 3-4, 2010, pp. 123-170. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.10.009

[26]   F. F. M. Almeida, G. Amaral, U. G. Cordani and K. Ka washita, “The Precambrian Evolution of the Southameri can Cratonic Margin South of Amazon River,” In: E. M. Nairn and F. G. Stheli, Eds., The Ocean Basins and Mar gins, Plenun, New York, 1973, pp. 411-446.

[27]   J. M. V. Coutinho, “Carta Geológica da Regi?o Metro politana da Grande S?o Paulo,” Escala 1:100.000. S?o Paulo, EMPLASA, 1980, 2 folhas.

[28]   Y. Hasui, C. D. R. Carneiro and A. M Coimbra,. “The Ribeira Folded Belt,” Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1975, pp. 257-266.

[29]   G. R. Sadowski, “Tect?nica da Serra de Cubat?o, SP,” PhD dissertation, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade de S?o Paulo, S?o Paulo, 1974.

[30]   C. Riccomini, F. A. P. S. Neves and B. J. Turcq, “Astro blema de Col?nia (S?o Paulo, Brasil): Estágio Atual de Conhecimento,” 37 Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, S?o Paulo, Roteiros das Excurs?es, 1992, pp. 1-14.

[31]   C. Riccomini, A. P. Crosta, R. L. Prado, M. -P. Ledru, B. J. Turcq, L. G. Sant’Anna, J. A. Ferrari and W. U. Rei mold, “The Col?nia Structure, S?o Paulo, Brazil,” Meteo ritics & Planetary Science, Vol. 46, No. 11, 2011, pp. 1630-1639. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2011.01252.x

[32]   D. St?ffler and R. A. F. Grieve, “Impactites, Chapter 2.11,” In: D. Fettes, and J. Desmons, Eds., Metamorphic Rocks: A Classification and Glossary of Terms, Recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, pp. 82-92, pp. 111-125 and pp. 126-242.

[33]   S. W. Kieffer, “Shock Metamorphism of the Coconino Sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona,” Journal of Geo physical Research, Vol. 76, No. 23, 1971, pp. 5449-5473. doi:10.1029/JB076i023p05449

[34]   F. Langenhorst and A. Deutsch, “Minerals in Terrestrial Impact Structures and Their Characteristic Features,” In: A. S. Marfunin, Ed., Advanced Mineralogy, Vol. 3, Sprin ger-Verlag, Berlin, 1998, pp. 95-119.

[35]   L. Ferrière, C. Koeberl and W. U. Reimold, “Characterisation of Ballen Quartz and Cristobalite in Impact Breccias: New Observations and Constraints on Ballen For mation,” European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2009, pp. 203-217. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2009/0021-1898

[36]   Sz. Nagi, A. Gucsik, Sz. Bérczi, N. Ninagagua, H. Ni shido, A. Kereszturi, H. Hargitai and T. Okumura, “K Feldspar and Biotites Shock Indicator Minerals from Bo sumtwi Impact Crater,” Lunar and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, No. 1391, 2008, p. 1144.

[37]   H. Schneider, “Shock-Induced Mechanical Dformation in Biotites from Crystalline Rocks of the Ries Crater (Southern Germany),” Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1972, pp. 75-85. doi:10.1007/BF00377308

[38]   W. U. Reimold, H. Leroux and R. L. Gibson, “Shocked and Thermally Metamorphosed Zircon from the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa: A Transmission Electron Microscopic Study,” European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2002, pp. 859-868. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2002/0014-0859

[39]   A. Wittmann, T. Kenkmann, R. T. Schmitt and D. Stof fler, “Shock-Metamorphosed Zircon in Terrestrial Impact Craters,” Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2006, pp. 433-454. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2006.tb00472.x

[40]   N. E. Timms, S. M. Reddy, D. Healy, A. A. Nemchin, M. L. Grange, R. T. Pidgeon and R. Hart, “Resolution of Impact-Related Microstructures in Lunar Zircon: A Shock Deformation Mechanism Map,” Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2012, pp. 120-141. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2011.01316.x

[41]   D. St?ffler, K. Keil and E. R. D. Scott, “Shock Metamorphism of Ordinary Chondrites,” Geochemical and Cos mochemical Acta, Vol. 55, No. 12, 1991, pp. 3845-3867. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(91)90078-J

[42]   D. St?ffler, “Progressive Metamorphism and Classification of Shocked and Brecciated Crystalline Rocks at Impact Craters,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 76, No. 23, 1971, pp. 5541-5551. doi:10.1029/JB076i023p05541

[43]   D. S?ffler, “Glasses Formed by Hypervelocity Impact,” Journal Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 67, No. 1-3, 1984, pp. 465-502. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(84)90171-6

[44]   R. A. F. Grieve, L. Langenhorst and D. St?ffler, “Shock Metamorphism of Quartz in Nature and Experiment: II. Significance in Geosciences,” Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1996, pp. 6-35. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1996.tb02049.x

[45]   H. Leroux, W. U. Reimold, C. Koeberl, U. Hornemann and J.-C. Doukhan, “Experimental Shock Deformation in Zircon: A Transmission Electron Microscopic Study,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 169, No. 3-4, 1999, pp. 291-301. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00082-5

[46]   M.-P. Ledru, D.-D. Rousseau, F. W. J. Cruz, I. Karmann, C. Riccomini and L. Martin. “Paleoclimate Changes during the Last 100 ka from a Record in the Brazilian Atlan tic Rainforest Region and Interhemispheric Comparison,” Quaternary Research, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2005, pp. 444-450. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2005.08.006

[47]   M.-P. Ledru, P. Mourguiart and C. Riccomini, “Related Changes in Biodiversity, Insolation and Climate in the Atlantic Rainforest Since the Last Interglacial,” Palaeo geography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 271, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 140-152. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.10.008

[48]   V. F. Velázquez, J. Hachiro, C. Riccomini, L. G. Sant’ Anna and S. A. P. Godoy, “A Crater de Col?nia Como Parque Temático e Georrecurso,” 43th Congresso Brasi leiro de Geologia, Aracajú, 2006.

[49]   V. F. Velázquez, J. B. Barros, C. Riccomini, J. Hachiro and L. G. Sant’Anna, “A Cratera de Col?nia: Heran?a Geológica e Patrim?nio Natural na Zona sul da Regi?o Metropolitana de S?o Paulo,” 44th Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Curitiba, 2008.

[50]   V. F. Velázquez, C. Riccomini, J. M. Azevedo Sobrinho, A. S. Rankin, A. M. E. Sallun, J. Hachiro and L. G. Sant’ Anna, “Microscopic Evidence of Shock Metamorphism Effects in Detrital Minerals from the Col?nia Crater Sediments, SP,” 45th Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Belem, 2010.

[51]   V. F. Velázquez, J. M. Azevedo Sobrinho, A. M. E. Sallun, W. F. Sallun, M. A. J. S. Pletsch and A. S. Rankin, “Mineralogia e Litogeoquímica dos Sedimentos Que Ocorrem na Parte Interna da Cratera de Col?nia Com Base nas Amostras Provenientes da Sondagem P5,” 46th Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Santos, 2012.

 
 
Top