OJPsych  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2013
Mental disorders and sociodemographic variables in pop-ulation assisted by the Family Health Program in Brazil

Objectives: This paper aims to estimate the associations between common mental disorders (CMD) as well as cases of alcohol abuse/dependence (ADD) with sociodemographic variables in population assisted by Family Health Program (FHP) in Santa Cruz do Sul, Southern Brazil. Methods: All residents over 14 years of age from 3 areas assisted by the FHP were invited to participate between 10 February 2006 to 10 February 2007. Results: Of 2921 participants, the prevalence estimates of suspected cases of CMD and ADD were 29.93% and 12.07%, respectively. Female, unfavorable employment situation, low schooling and low income showed a positive and independent association with CMD. Male, unfavorable employment situation and CMD showed an independent association with ADD. Conclusions: Groups with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions present the highest risk and should be taken into account when planning public mental health policies.

Cite this paper
Gonçalves, D. and Camey, S. (2013) Mental disorders and sociodemographic variables in pop-ulation assisted by the Family Health Program in Brazil. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 3, 32-40. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31006.
[1]   WHO. (2001) The World Health Report 2001: Mental health new understanding, new hope. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[2]   WHO. (2004) The treatment gap in mental health care. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82.

[3]   Grandes, G., Montoya, I., Arietaleanizbeaskoa, M.S., Arce, V. and Sanchez, A. (2011) The burden of mental disorders in primary care. European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 26, 428-435. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.11.002

[4]   Pereira, M.G. (2001) Indicadores de saúde [health indicators]. In: Pereira, M.G., Epidemiologia: Teoria e prática [Epidemiology: Theory and Practice], Guanabara-Koogan, Rio de Janeiro, 49-73.

[5]   Barros, M.B.A., Botega, N.J., Dalgalarrondo, P., Marín-León, L. and Oliveira, H.B. (2007) Prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in a population-based study. Revista de Saúde Pública, 41, 502-509. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102006005000032

[6]   Ministério da Saúde, Informacoes de Saúde—Estatísticas Vitais. Sistema de informacoes sobre mortaliade/MS/ SUS/DASIS. http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br

[7]   Harding, T.W., de Arango, M.V., Baltazar, J., Climent, C.E., Ibrahim, H.H., Ladrido-Ignacio, L., Murthy, R.S. and Wig, N.N. (1980) Mental disorders in primary health care: A study of their frequency and diagnosis in four developing countries. Psychological Medicine, 10, 231-241. doi:10.1017/S0033291700043993

[8]   Climent, C.E. and De Arango, M.V. (1983) Manual de Psiquiatria para trabajadores de atencion primaria [Psychiatry Manual to primary care workers]. Organización Panamericana de la Salud [Pan American Health Organization], Washington DC.

[9]   Goncalves, D.M., Stein, A.T. and Kapczinski, F. (2008) Avaliacao de desempenho do self-report questionnaire como instrumento de rastreamento psiquiátrico: Um estudo comparativo com o structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR [performance of the self-reporting questionnaire as a psychiatric screening questionnaire: A comparative study with structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR]. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 24, 380-390. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2008000200017

[10]   Costa, A.G. and Ludermir, A.B. (2005) Transtornos mentais comuns e apoio social: Estudo em comunidade rural da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil [Common mental disorders and social support in a rural community in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State, Brazil]. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 21, 73-79. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000100009

[11]   Ludermir, A.B. and Melo Filho, D.A. (2002) Condicoes de vida e estrutura ocupacional associadas a transtornos mentais comuns [Living conditions and occupational organization associated with common mental disorders]. Revista de Saúde Pública, 36, 213-221. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102002000200014

[12]   Costa, J.S.D., Menezes, A.M.B., Olinto, M.T.A., Gigante, D.P., Macedo, S. and Britto, M.A.P. (2002) Prevalência de distúrbios psiquiátricos menores na cidade de Pelotas, RS [Prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders in Peltas, RS]. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 5, 164-173. doi:10.1590/S1415-790X2002000200004

[13]   Maragno, L., Goldbaum, M., Gianini, R.J., Novaes, H.M.D. and César, C.L.G. (2006) Prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns em populacoes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família (QUALIS) no Município de Sao Paulo, Brasil [Prevalence of common mental disorders in a population covered by the Family Health Program (QUALIS) in Sao Paulo, Brazil]. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22, 1639-1648. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2006000800012

[14]   Almeida-Filho, N., Mari, J.J., Coutinho, E., Franca, J.F., Fernandes, J., Andreoli, S.B. and Busnello, E.D. (1997) Brazilian multicentric study of psychiatric morbidity. Methodological features and prevalence estimates. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 171, 525-529.

[15]   Goodman, A.B., Siegel, C., Craig, T.J. and Lin, S.P. (1983) The relationship between socioeconomic class and prevalence of schizophrenia, alcoholism, and affective disorders treated by inpatient care in a suburban area. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 166-170.

[16]   Williams, D. R., Herman, A., Stein, D. J., Heeringa, S. G., Jackson, P. B., Moomal, H. and Kessler, R. C. (2008) Twelve-month mental disorders in South Africa: Prevalence, service use and demographic correlates in the population-based South African Stress and Health Study. Psychological Medicine, 38, 211-220. doi:10.1017/S0033291707001420

[17]   Chong, S.A., Abdin, E., Vaingankar, J.A., Heng, D., Sherbourne, C., Yap, M., Lim, Y.W., Wong, H.B., Ghosh-Dastidar, B., Kwok, K.W. and Subramaniam, M. (2012) A population-based survey of mental disorders in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, 41, 49-66.

[18]   Grant, B.F., Goldstein, R.B., Chou, S.P., Huang, B., Stinson, F.S., Dawson, D.A., Saha, T.D., Smith, S.M., Pulay, A.J., Pickering, R.P., Ruan, W.J. and Compton, W.M. (2009) Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders: Results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 1051-1066. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.41

[19]   Rodríguez, E., Frongillo, E.A., Chandra, P. (2001) Do social programmes contribute to mental well-being? The long-term impact of unemployment on depression in the United States. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 163-170. doi:10.1093/ije/30.1.163

[20]   Murphy, J.M., Olivier, D.C., Monson, R.R., Sobol, A.M., Federman, E.B. and Leighton, A.H. (1991) Depression and anxiety in relation to social status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 223-229. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810270035004

[21]   Reilly-Harrington, N.A., Alloy, L.B., Fresco, D.M. and Whitehouse, W.G. (1999) Cognitive styles and life events interact to predict bipolar and unipolar symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 567-578. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.108.4.567

[22]   Kessler, R.C., Chiu, W.T., Demler, O. and Walters, E.E. (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617-627. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617

[23]   Galduroz, J.C., Noto, A.R., Nappo, S.A. and Carlini, E.L. (2003) First household survey on drug abuse in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1999: Principal findings. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 121, 231-237. doi:10.1590/S1516-31802003000600003

[24]   Mendoza-Sassi, R.A. and Beria, J.U. (2003) Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors: A population-based study using AUDIT in Southern Brazil. Addiction, 98, 799-804. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00411.x

[25]   Almeida-Filho, N., Lessa, I., Magalhaes, L., Araújo, J.M., Aquino, E., James, S.A. and Kawachi, I. (2005) Social inequality and alcohol consumption-abuse in Bahia, Brazil. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 214-222. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0883-4

[26]   Cassell, J. (1974) Psychosocial processes and stress: Theoretical formulation. International Journal of Health Services, 4, 471-482. doi:10.2190/WF7X-Y1L0-BFKH-9QU2

[27]   MacKinnon, D.P., Krull, J.L. and Lockwood, C.M. (2000) Equivalence of the Mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1, 173-181. doi:10.1023/A:1026595011371

[28]   Cloninger, C.R. (2004) Feeling good. The Science of Well-Being, Oxford University Press, New York.