JEP  Vol.4 No.1 B , January 2013
Assessment of Dissolved Heavy Metal Pollution in Five Provinces of Zambia
ABSTRACT
Zambia’s economy is hinged on mining activities with Cu being the main metal. Zn and Pb were mined at one point in Kabwe town. There are also known deposits of Co and Mn. The study focused on comparing heavy metal pollution from different regions across Zambia with a view of determining the impact of the stage of social development and economic activities on the environment. The water analysed was obtained near dump sites,farmlands, pit latrines, water reservoirs or dams, major rivers and small streams that traverse Lusaka city and towns in the Copperbelt,and water from several public taps. Analysis revealed that Mn was the largest pollution factor study areas; groundwater both near illegal dumpsites and on-site sanitation facilities did not reveal any severe pollution problems beyond drinking water permissible values (PV). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation (r) found a strong correlation between Mn, and the two metals - Cu and Ni at r= 0.632 andr= 0.676 respectively. The other parameters (Cd, Cr, As, Zn & Pb) were not a significant factor in explaining the dissolved metal pollution in Zambia.

Cite this paper
K. NACHIYUNDE, H. IKEDA, T. OKUDA and W. NISHIJIMA, "Assessment of Dissolved Heavy Metal Pollution in Five Provinces of Zambia," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 80-85. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.41B015.
References
[1]   Ministry of Mines and Minerals Development, “Mining in Zambia,”n.d. http://www.zambiamining.co.zm/industrialminerals.htm

[2]   K. C. Choongo, M. S. Syakalima and M. Mwase, “Coefficient of Condition in Relation to Copper Levels in Muscle of Serranochromis Fish and Sediment from the Kafue River, Zambia,”Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol.75, No. 4, 2005, pp. 645–651.doi:10.1007/s00128-005-0801-1

[3]   J. Holden, “How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?”Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 12, 2010, EGU2010-15422. http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2010/EGU2010-15422.pdf

[4]   I. Sherameti andA.Varma, “Soil Heavy Metals,” Springer, 2009.

[5]   B. D. Tembo, K. Sichilongoand J. Cernak, “Distribution of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in soils around Kabwe town in Zambia,”Chemosphere, Vol. 63, No. 3,2006, pp. 497–501. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.002

[6]   WHO (2011). Global task force on cholera control. Cholera country profile: Zambia. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/cholera/countries/ZambiaCountryProfile2011.pdf

[7]   C. J. von der Heyden andM. G. New, Groundwater pollution on the Zambian Copperbelt: deciphering the source and the risk. Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 327, No.1–3, 2004, pp.17–30.doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.08.028

[8]   Central Statistical Office, “2010 census of Pollution and Housing - Republic of Zambia,” 2011. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_phc/Zambia/PreliminaryReport.pdf

[9]   ZARI, “Soil Fertility Research: Critical levels of Zinc in Intensive Agriculture,” n.d.. http:// www.zari.gov.zm/soil_fertility_research.ph

[10]   F. W. NtengweandK. K. Maseka, “The impact of effluents containing zinc and nickel metals on stream and river water bodies: The case of Chambishi and Mwambashi streams in Zambia,”Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Vol. 31 No.15–16, 2006, pp. 814–820.doi:10.1016/j.pce.2006.08.027

[11]   N. L. Nemerow, and H. Sumitomo, “Benefits of Water Quality Enhancement,” Report No 16110 DAJ, prepared for the US Protection Agency. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 1970.

[12]   C. BairdandM. Cann, “Environmental Chemistry,” 4th edition, W. H. Freeman, 2008.

[13]   S. Yadav, O. P. Shuklaand U.N. Rai, “Chromium pollution and bioremediation,”Environews Newsletter of ISEB India, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2005.

[14]   W. Mertz, “The essential trace elements,”Science, Vol. 213, No. 4514, 1981, pp. 1332–1338. doi:10.1126/science.7022654

[15]   A. Pechova andL. Pavlata, “Chromium as an essential nutrient: a review,”Veterinarni Medicina, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1–18.

[16]   M. Cieslak-Golonka, “Toxic and Mutagenic Effects of Chromium(VI). A Review,”Polyhedron, Vol. 15, No. 21, 1996, pp. 3667–3689.

[17]   A. Motluk, “Lead and Manganese Pollution may Lead to a Life of Crime,”LEAD Action News, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997.

[18]   SustainableBusiness.com News., “Manganese, Copper Pollution Linked to Parkinson's disease,” 2010. http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/21358

[19]   V. K. AhluwaliaandS. Malhotra, “Environmental Science,” Boca Raton: CRC, 2007.

[20]   British Geology Survey, “World Mineral Production, 2006-10,” Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey, 2012

 
 
Top