JEP  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2013
Periphyton Biomass Response to Phosphorus Additions in an Aquatic Ecosystem Dominated by Submersed Plants

An experiment was conducted to investigate the response of periphyton biomass to addition of phosphorus (P) in an aquatic ecosystem dominated by submersed plants. Aquatic ecosystems dominated by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara were constructed in mesocosm aquaria. Mesocosms were dosed weekly with different P loads (0 μg/L/Week and 100 μg/L/Week) for 17 weeks. Total P (TP), total soluble P (TSP), and soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations in the waters of mesocosms added with P were significantly higher as opposed to the unenriched control mesocosms. The biomass of the attached periphyton and the cover of floating periphyton remained abundant in P-unenriched control mesocosms throughout the test period with a TP, TSP, and SRP concentration ranging of 0.021 - 0.049 mg/L, 0.004 - 0.024 mg/L, and 0.003 - 0.018 mg/L, respectively. P addition caused the decline of attached periphyton biomass to a low level and loss of floating periphyton. Results indicate that P enrichment in an aquatic ecosystem dominated by submersed plants could reduce attached periphyton biomass and eliminate floating periphyton. The research would be useful to maintain periphyton by reducing excessive P in aquatic ecosystem dominated by submersed plants.

Cite this paper: X. Mei and X. Zhang, "Periphyton Biomass Response to Phosphorus Additions in an Aquatic Ecosystem Dominated by Submersed Plants," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 83-90. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.41009.

[1]   P. V. McCormick, R. B. E. Shuford III, J. G. Backus and W. C. Kennedy, “Spatial and Seasonal Patterns of Periphyton Biomass and Productivity in the Northern Everglades, Florida, USA,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 362, No. 1-3, 1998, pp. 185-208. doi:10.1023/A:1003146920533

[2]   G. L. Phillips, D. Eminson and B. Moss, “A Mechanism to Account for Macrophyte Decline in Progressively Eutrophicated Freshwaters,” Aquatic Botany, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1978, pp. 103-126.

[3]   J. I. Jones, J. O. Young, J. W. Eaton and B. Moss, “The Influence of Nutrient Loading, Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, and Higher Trophic Levels on the Interaction between Submerged Plants and Periphyton,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2002, pp. 12-24. doi:10.1046/j.0022-0477.2001.00620.x

[4]   W. K. Dodds, “The Role of Periphyton in Phosphorus Retention in Shallow Freshwater Aquatic Systems,” Journal of Phycology, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2003, pp. 840-849. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.02081.x

[5]   S. T. Larned, “A Prospectus for Periphyton: Recent and Future Ecological Research,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2010, pp. 182 206.

[6]   E. E. Gaiser, “Periphyton as an Indicator of Restoration in the Florida Everglades,” Ecological Indicators, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2009, pp. 37-45. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.08.004

[7]   P. M. Bolas and J. W. G. Lund, “Some Factors Affecting the Growth of Cladophora glomerata in the Kentish Stour,” Proceedings of the Society for Water Treatment and Examination, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1974, pp. 25-51.

[8]   A. Cattaneo, “Periphyton in Lakes of Different Trophy,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1987, pp. 296-303. doi:10.1139/f87-038

[9]   Y. Vadeboncoeur and A. D. Lodge, “Periphyton Production on Wood and Sediment: Substratum-Specific Response to Laboratory and Whole-Lake Nutrient Manipulations,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2000, pp. 68-81. doi:10.2307/1468282

[10]   P. J. Mulholland and A. D. Rosemond, “Periphyton Response to Longitudinal Nutrient Depletion in a Woodland Stream: Evidence of Upstream-Downstream Linkage,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1992, pp. 405-419. doi:10.2307/1467561

[11]   J. L. Greenwood and A. D. Rosemond, “Periphyton Response to Long-Term Nutrient Enrichment in a Shaded Headwater Stream,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 62, No. 9, 2005, pp. 2033-2045. doi:10.1139/f05-117

[12]   M. J. Bowes, J. T. Smith, J. Hilton, M. M. Sturt and P. D. Armitage, “Periphyton Biomass Response to Changing Phosphorus Concentrations in a Nutrient Impacted River: A New Methodology for Phosphorus Target Setting,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2007, pp. 227-238. doi:10.1139/f06-180

[13]   A. N. D. Giorgi, “Response of Periphyton Biomass to High Phosphorus Concentrations in Laboratory Experiments,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 55, No. 6, 1995, pp. 825-832. doi:10.1007/BF00209460

[14]   P. V. McCormick, M. B. O’Dell, R. B. E Shuford III, J. G. Backus and W. C. Kennedy, “Periphyton Responses to Experimental Phosphorus Enrichment in a Subtropical Wetland,” Aquatic Botany, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2001, pp. 119 139. doi:10.1016/S0304-3770(01)00175-9

[15]   E. E. Gaiser, D. L. Childers, R. D. Jones, J. F. Richards, L. J. Scinto and J. C. Trexler, “Periphyton Responses to Eutrophication in the Florida Everglades: Cross-System Patterns of Structural and Compositional Change,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2006, pp. 617 630. doi:10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0617

[16]   L. G. Goldsborough and G. G. C. Robinson, “Pattern in wetlands,” In: R. J. Stevenson, M. L. Bothwell and R. L. Lowe, Eds., Algal Ecology: Freshwater Benthic Ecosystems, Academic Press, New York, 1996, pp. 77-117.

[17]   P. V. McCormick, R. S. Rawlick, K. Lurding, E. P. Smith and F. H. Sklar, “Periphyton-Water Quality Relationships along a Nutrient Gradient in the Northern Florida Ever glades,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1996, pp. 433-439. doi:10.2307/1467797

[18]   P. V. McCormick and M. B. O’Dell, “Quantifying Peri phyton Responses to Phosphorus in the Florida Evergla des: A Synoptic-Experimental Approach,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1996, pp. 450-468. doi:10.2307/1467798

[19]   G. S. Wheeler and T. D. Center, “The Influence of Hydrilla Leaf Quality on Larval Growth and Development of the Biological Control Agent Hydrellia pakistanae (Diptera: Ephydridae),” Biological Control, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1996, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1006/bcon.1996.0056

[20]   D. R. Qiu, Z. B. Wu, B. Y. Liu, J. Q. Deng, G. P. Fu and F. He, “The Restoration of Aquatic Macrophytes for Improving Water Quality in a Hypertrophic Shallow Lake in Hubei Province, China,” Ecological Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2001, pp. 147-156. doi:10.1016/S0925-8574(01)00074-X

[21]   Y. H. Xie, S. Q. An, X. Yao, K. Y. Xiao and C. Zhang, “Short-Time Response in Root Morphology of Vallisneria natans to Sediment Type and Water-Column Nutrient,” Aquatic Botany, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2005, pp. 85-96. doi:10.1016/j.aquabot.2004.12.001

[22]   J. F. Shearer, J. G. Michael and G. M. Dwilette, “Nutritional Quality of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Its Effects on a Fungal Pathogen Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski,” Biological Control, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2007, pp. 175-183. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.02.003

[23]   X. F. Zhang, “Effects of Competitive Interactions of Different Life Forms Submersed Plants on Biomass Allocation in Shallow Lake,” Ecological Economy, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010, pp. 295-299.

[24]   American Public Health Association, “Standard Methods: For Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, 1992.

[25]   A. M. Jespersen and K. Christoffersen, “Measurements of Chlorophyll a from Phytoplankton Using Ethanol as Extraction Solvent,” Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Vol. 109, No. 3, 1987, pp. 445-454.

[26]   E. Roberts, J. Kroker, S. Korner and A. Nicklisch, “The Role of Periphyton during the Recolonization of a Shallow Lake with Submerged Macrophytes,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 506, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 525-530.

[27]   A. Poulí?ková, P. Hal?er, M. Lysáková and B. Spears, “The Ecology of Freshwater Epipelic Algae: An Update,” Phycologia, Vol. 47, No. 5, 2008, pp. 437-450. doi:10.2216/07-59.1

[28]   J. A. Browder, P. J. Gleason and D. R. Swift, “Periphyton in the Everglades: Spatial Variation, Environmental Correlates, and Ecological Implications,” In: S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden, Eds., Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration, St. Lucie Press, Florida, 1994, pp. 379-384.

[29]   K. Sand-Jensen and J. Borum, “Interactions among Phy toplankton, Periphyton, and Macrophytes in Temperate Freshwaters and Estuaries,” Aquatic Botany, Vol. 41, No. 1-3, 1991, pp. 137-175. doi:10.1016/0304-3770(91)90042-4

[30]   K. K. Steward and W. H. Ornes, “Assessing a Marsh Environment for Waste Water Renovation,” Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 47, No. 7, 1975, pp. 1880-1891.

[31]   H. J. Grimshaw, R. G. Wetzel, M. Brandenburg, M. Se gerblom, L. J. Wenkert, G. A. Marsh, W. Charnetzky, J. E. Haky and C. Carraher, “Shading of Periphyton Communities by Wetland Emergent Macrophytes: Decoupling of Algal Photosynthesis from Microbial Nutrient Retention,” Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Vol. 139, No. 1, 1997, pp. 17-21.

[32]   S. Lalonde and J. A. Downing, “Epiphyton Biomassis Related to Lake Trophic Status, Depth, and Macrophyte Architecture,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aqua tic Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 11, 1991, pp. 2285-2291. doi:10.1139/f91-268

[33]   L. A. Hansson, “Factors Regulating Periphytic Algal Bio mass,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1992, pp. 322-328. doi:10.4319/lo.1992.37.2.0322

[34]   L. Liboriussen and E. Jeppesen, “Structure, Biomass, Production and Depth Distribution of Periphyton on Artificial Substratum in Shallow Lakes with Contrasting Nutrient Concentrations,” Freshwater Biology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2006, pp. 95-109. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2005.01481.x

[35]   K. E. Havens, T. L. East, A. J. Rodusky and B. Sharfstein, “Littoral Periphyton Responses to Nitrogen and Phosphorus: An Experimental Study in a Subtropical Lake,” Aquatic Botany, Vol. 63, No. 3-4, 1999, pp. 267-290. doi:10.1016/S0304-3770(98)00121-1

[36]   C. Chiang, C. B. Craft, D. W. Rogers and C. J. Richardson, “Effects of Four Years of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition on Everglades Plant Communities,” Aquatic Botany, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2000, pp. 61-78. doi:10.1016/S0304-3770(00)00098-X