Soil samples were collected from three
land use types within Baghdad
urban areas. The samples analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn indicated
higher concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the industrial area,
while higher concentration of Mn was observed in the residential areas.
However, the concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb was higher than the calculated
worldwide mean of unpolluted soil. For both roadside and open areas soils,
industrial area exhibited high values of Cd, Ni and Pb. The highest Single
Element Pollution Index (SEPI) for Cd, Ni and Pb in the industrial soils seems
therefore to be that this type of soil is the most polluted in the city of Baghdad. The calculated
Combined Pollution Index (CPI) for Cd, Ni and Pb ranged from 0.98 to 2.15 with
a mean of 1.28 for the entire urban soil samples, with the highest values in
the industrial area which suggest multi-element contamination and in some cases
are recommended for treatment. Furthermore, significant to extremely high
values of enrichment factors were recorded confirming an important role of
Cite this paper
A. Al Obaidy and A. Al Mashhadi, "Heavy Metal Contaminations in Urban Soil within Baghdad City, Iraq," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 72-82. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.41008.
 R. M. Harrison, D. P. H. Laxen and S. J. Wilson, “Chemical Associations of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Street Dust and Roadside Soil,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1981, pp. 1378-1383.
 M. G. Gibson and J. G. Farmer, “Multi-Step Sequential Chemical Extraction of Heavy Metals from Urban Soils,” Environmental Pollution, Series B Chemical and Physical, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1986, pp. 117-135.
 I. Thornton “Metal Contamination of Soils in Urban Areas,” In: P. Bullock and P. J. Gregory, Eds., Soils in the Urban Environment, Blackwell Publishing, 1991.
 M. Biasioli, R. Barberis and F. Ajmone-Marsan, “The Influence of a Large City on Some Soil Properties and Metals Content,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 356, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 154-164.
 X. Li and C. Huang, “Environment Impact of Heavy Metals on Urban Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Area of Baoji City P.R. China,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1631-1637.
 E. Paterson, M. Sanka and L. Clark, “Urban Soils as Pollutant Sinks: A Case Study from Aberdeen, Scotland,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 129 131. doi:10.1016/0883-2927(95)00081-X
 M. Birke and U. Rauch, “Urban Geochemistry: Investigations in the Berlin Metropolitan Area,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2000, pp. 233 248. doi:10.1023/A:1026554308673
 C. S. C. Wong, X. Liand and I. Thornton “Urban Environ mental Geochemistry of Trace Metals,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 142, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-16.
 A. Christoforidis and N. Stamatis, “Heavy Metal Contamination in Street Dust and Roadside Soil along the Major National Road in Kavala’s Region, Greece,” Geoder ma, Vol. 151, No. 3-4, 2009. pp. 257-263.
 I. van Kamp, K. Leidelmeijer, G. Marsmana and A. de Hollander, “Urban Environmental Quality and Human Well-Being: Towards a Conceptual Framework and Demarcation of Concepts; a Literature Study,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 65, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 5-18.
 A. D. K. Banerjee, “Heavy Metal Levels and Solid Phase Speciation in Street Dusts of Delhi, India,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 123, No. 1, 2003, pp. 95-105.
 T. B. Chen, Y .M. Zheng, M. Lei, Z. C. Huang, H. T. Wu, H. Chen, K. K. Fan, K. Yu, X. Wu and Q. Z. Tian, “Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soils of Urban Parks in Beijing, China,” Chemosphere, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2005, pp. 542-551.
 J. Kelly, I. Thornton and P. R. Simpson, “Urban Geochemistry: A Study of the Influence of Anthropogenic Activity on the Heavy Metal Content of Soils in Traditionally Industrial and Non-Industrial Areas of Britain,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 363 370. doi:10.1016/0883-2927(95)00084-4
 T. B. Chen, J. W. C. Wong, H. Y. Zhou and M. H. Wong, “Assessment of Trace Metal Distribution and Contamination in Surface Soils of Hong Kong,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 96, No. 1, 1997, pp. 61-68.
 W. Wilcke, S. Müller, N. Kanchanakool and W. Zech, “Urban Soil Contamination in Bangkok: Heavy Metal and Aluminum Partitioning in Topsoils,” Geoderma, Vol. 86, No. 3-4, 1998, pp. 211-228.
 X. Li, C. S. Poon and P. S. Liu, “Heavy Metal Conta mination of Urban Soils and Street Dusts in Hong Kong,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 11-12, 2001, pp. 1361 1368. doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(01)00045-2
 L. Madrid, E. D?az-Barrientos and F. Madrid, “Distribution of Heavy Metal Contents of Urban Soils in Parks of Seville,” Chemosphere, Vol. 49, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1301 1308. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00530-1
 Y. Lu, Z. Gong, G. Zhang and W. Burghardt, “Concentration and Chemical Speciations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr of Urban Soils in Nanjing, China,” Geoderma, Vol. 115, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 101-111.
 M. Linde, “Trace Metals in Urban Soils-Stockholm as a Case Study,” Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, 2005.
 A. S. Al-Adili, “Geotechnical Evaluation of Baghdad Soil Subsidence and their Treatments,” Thesis, University of Baghdad, 1998.
 J. R. Okalebo, W. Gathua and P. L. Woomer, “Laboratory Methods of Soil and Plant Analysis: A Working Manual,” TSBF Programme, UNESCO-ROSTA, 1993.
 A. L. Page, R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney, “Methods of Soil Analysis,” Part 2, 2nd Edition, Agron. Monogr, ASA and SSSA, Madison, 1982.
 S. Naim, H. K. Ozcan, G. Demir, S. Nemlioglu and C. Bayat, “Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Street Dusts in Istanbul E-5 Highway,” Environmental International, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2004, pp. 979-985.
 Y. Ge, P. Murray and W.H. Hendershot, “Trace Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Urban Soils,” Environ mental Pollution, Vol. 107, No. 1, 2000, pp. 137-144.
 S. G. Lu and S. Q. Bai, “Contamination and Potential Mobility Assessment of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of Hangzhou, China: Relationship with Different Land Uses,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 60, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1481-1490. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0283-2
 C. Y. Jim, “Urban Soil Characteristics and Limitations for Landscape Planting in Hong Kong,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1998, pp. 235-249.
 D. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. S. Chae and S. H. Cha, “Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants in Forest Ecosystems and Changes in Seoul Chemical Properties,” Journal of Korean Frosty Society, Vol. 85, No. 1, 1996, pp. 84-95.
 D. S. Manta, M. Angelone, A. Bellanca, R. Neri and M. Sprovieri, “Heavy Metals in Urban Soils: A Case Study from the City of Palermo (Sicily), Italy,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 300, No. 1-3, 2002, pp. 229 243. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00273-5
 Y. Lu, F. Zhu, J. Chen, H. Gan and Y. Guo, “Chemical Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of Guang zhou, China, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 134, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 429-439.
 B. ?krbi? and N. Miljevi?, “An Evaluation of Residues at an Oil Refinery Site Following Fires,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2002, 1029 1039.
 M. L. Bloemen, B. Markert and H. Lieth, “The Distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb And Zn in Topsoils of Osnabrück in Relation to Land Use,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 166, No. 1-3, 1995, pp.137-148.
 A. Kabata-Pendias and H. Pendias, “Trace Element in Soils and Plants,” CRC Press, London, 2001.
 M. B. McBride, “Environmental Chemistry of Soils,” Ox ford University Press, 1994.
 D. C. Adriano, “Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability and Risks of Metals,” Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001.
 B. J. Alloway, “Heavy Metals in Soils,” Blackie Acade mic and Professional, London, 1995.
 B. Volensky, “Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metals by Biosorption,” In: Biosorption of Heavy Metals, CEC Press, Boston, 1990.
 G. C. Kisku, S. C. Barman and S. K. Bhrgava, “Conta mination of Soils and Plants with Potentially Toxic Ele ments Irrigated with Mixed Industrial Effluent and Its Impact on the Environment,” Water, Air & Soil Pollution, Vol. 120, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 121-137.
 L. Poggio, B. Vr??aj, R. Schulin, E. Hepperle and F. Aj mone-Marsan, “Metals Pollution and Human Bioacces sibility of Topsoils in Grugliasco (Italy),” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 157, No. 2, 2009, pp. 680-689.
 A. Chatterjee and R. N. Banerjee, “Determination of Lead and Other Metals in a Residential Area of Greater Calcutta,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 227, No. 2-3, 1999, pp. 175-185.
 M. Imperato, P. Adamo, D. Naimo, M. Arienzo, D. Stanzione and P. Violante, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of Naples City (Italy),” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 124, No. 2, 2003, pp. 247-256.
 A. S. Al-Chalabi. and D. Hawker, “Distribution of Vehi cler Lead in Roadside Soils of Major Roads of Brisbane, Australia,” Water, Air & Soil Pollution, Vol. 118, No. 3-4, 2000, pp. 299-310. doi:10.1023/A:1005107808235
 A. M?ller, H. W. Muller, A. Abdullah, G. Abdelgawad and J. Utermann, “Urban Soil Pollution in Damascus, Syria: Concentrations and Patterns of Heavy Metals in the Soils of the Damascus Ghouta. Geoderma,” Vol. 124, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 63-71. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.04.003
 A. W. Rose, H. E. Hawkes and J. S. Webb, “Geochemis try in Mineral Exploration,” Academic Press, London, 1979.
 M. Romic and D. Romic, “Heavy Metals Distribution in Agricultural Topsoils in Urban Area,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2003, pp. 795-805.
 A. Jiries, H. Hussein and Z. Halaseh, “The Quality of Water and Sediments of Street Runoff in Amman, Jordan,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2001, pp. 815-824. doi:10.1002/hyp.186
 N. I. Ward, “Multielement Contamination of British Mo torway Environments,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 93, No. 1, 1990, pp. 393-401.
 A. C. Martin, V. C. Rivero and M. T. L. Marin, “Contamination by Heavy Metals in Soils in the Neighbour hood of a Scrapyard of Discarded Vehicles,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 212, No. 2-3, 1998, pp. 145-152. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00007-2
 S. Davydova, “Heavy Metals as Toxicants in Big Cities,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 79, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 133 136. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2004.06.010
 N. Guven?, O. Alagha and G. Tuncel, “Investigation of Soil Multi-Element Composition in Antalya, Turkey,” Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2003, pp. 631 640. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00046-1
 L. Tijhuis, B. Brattli and O. M. Saether, “A Geochemical Survey of Topsoil in the City of Oslo, Norway,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2002, pp. 67-94. doi:10.1023/A:1013979700212
 M. Linde, H. Bengtsson and I. ?born, “Concentrations and Pools of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils in Stockholm, Sweden,” Water, Air & Soil Pollution, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, 2001, pp. 83-101.
 X. Xia, X. Chen, R. Liu and H. Liu, “Heavy Metals in Urban Soils with Various Types of Land Use in Beijing, China,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 186, No. 2-3, 2011, pp. 2043-2050.
 X. Chen, X. Xia, Y. Zhao and P. Zhang, “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Roadside Soils and Correlation with Urban Traffic in Beijing, China,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 181, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 640-646.
 A. Kloke, “Content of Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Fluorite, Lead, Mercury and Nickel in Plants Grown on Contaminated Soil. Paper Presented at United Nations ECE Sump, on Effects of Airborne Pollution on Vegetation, Warsaw, 1979.
 M. C. Jung, “Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Waters in and Around the Imcheon Au-Ag Mine, Korea,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1369 1375. doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(01)00040-3
 C. H. Lee, “Assessment of Contamination Load on Water, Soil and Sediment Affected by the Kongjujeil Mine Drainage, Republic of Korea,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 44. No. 5, 2003, pp. 501-515.
 V. K. Tippie, “An Environmental Characterization of Chesapeake Bay and a Frame Work for Action,” In: V. Kennedy, Ed., The Estuary as a Filter, Academic Press, New York, 1984.
 J. P. Riley and R. Chester, “Introduction to Marine Chemistry,” Academic Press, London, 1971.
 J. M. Deely and J. E. Fergusson, “Heavy Metal and Organic Matter Concentration and Distributions in Dated Sediments of a Small Estuary Adjacent to a Small Urban Area,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 153, No. 1-2, 1994, pp. 97-111.
 W. H. Zoller, E. S. Gladney and R. A. Duce, “Atmospheric Concentrations and Sources of Trace Metals at the South Pole,” Science, Vol. 183, No. 4121, 1974, pp. 198 200. doi:10.1126/science.183.4121.198
 R. A. Sutherland, “Bed Sediment-Associated Trace Met als in an Urban Stream, Oahu, Hawaii,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2000, pp. 611-627.