JEP  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2013
Indoor Air Quality in Central Appalachia Homes Impacted by Wood and Coal Use
Abstract: Though the high prevalence of biomass fuel use in the developing world is widely known, the use of burning biomass for cooking and heating in the developed world is under-recognized. Combustion materials including coal and wood are also used for heating in some areas of the United States. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting indoor environmental monitoring in rural Appalachia. We sought to explore the type of biomass being used for home heating and its impact upon indoor air quality in non-heating and heating seasons. Residential indoor air monitoring for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was conducted in Lee County, Virginia. Homes had evidence of poor indoor air quality with high concentrations of indoor PM and a large burden of cigarette smoking. Further characterization of indoor combustion material use in this region to determine the health impacts associated with such exposures is warranted.
Cite this paper: L. Paulin, D. Williams, C. Oberweiser, G. Diette, P. Breysse, M. McCormack, E. Matsui, R. Peng, T. Metts and N. Hansel, "Indoor Air Quality in Central Appalachia Homes Impacted by Wood and Coal Use," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 67-71. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.41007.

[1]   World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme and World Bank, “1998-1999 World Resources: A Guide to the Global Environment,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.

[2]   N. Bruce, R. Rogelio Perez-Padilla and R. Albalak, “Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health Challenge,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1078-1092.

[3]   J. E. Houck, P. E. Tiegs, R. C. McCrillis, C. Keithley and J. Crouch, “Air Emissions from Residential Heating: The Wood Heating Option Put into Environmental Perspective,” The Proceedings of a US EPA and Air Waste Management Association Conference: Emission Inventory: Living in a Global Environment, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 373 384.

[4]   H. D. Hosgood, P. Boffetta, et al., “In-Home Coal and Wood Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium,” Environmen tal Health Perspectives, Vol. 118, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1743 1747. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002217

[5]   A. V. Ramanakumar, M. E. Parent and J. Siemiatycki, “Risk of Lung Cancer from Residential Heating and Cook ing Fuels in Montreal, Canada,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 165, No. 6, 2007, pp. 634-642. doi:10.1093/aje/kwk117

[6]   S. S. Salvi and P. J. Barnes, “Chronic Obstructive Pulmo nary Disease in Non-Smokers,” Lancet, Vol. 374, No. 9691, 2009, pp. 733-743. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61303-9

[7]   A. C. Barry, D. M. Mannino, C. Hopenhayn and H. Bush, “Exposure to Indoor Biomass Fuel Pollutants and Asthma Prevalence in Southeastern Kentucky: Results from the Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) Study,” Journal of Asthma, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2010, pp. 735-741. doi:10.3109/02770903.2010.485661

[8]   M. L. Clark, S. J. Reynolds, J. B. Burch, S. Conway, A. M. Bachand and J. L. Peel, “Indoor Air Pollution, Cookstove Quality, and Housing Characteristics in Two Honduran Communities,” Environmental Research, Vol. 110, No. 1, 2010, pp. 12-18. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.10.008

[9]   M. Ezzati, H. Saleh and D. M. Kammen, “The Contributions of Emissions and Spatial Microenvironments to Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Combustion in Kenya,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, No. 9, 2000, pp. 833-839. doi:10.1289/ehp.00108833

[10]   M. Zuk, L. Rojas, S. Blanco, et al., “The Impact of Improved Wood-Burning Stoves on Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Rural Mexican Homes,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2007. pp. 224-232. doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500499

[11]   S. K. Hammond and B. P. Leaderer, “A Diffusion Monitor to Measure Exposure to Passive Smoking,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 21, No. 5, 1987, pp. 494-497. doi:10.1021/es00159a012

[12]   G. B. Diette, N. N. Hansel, T. J. Buckley, et al., “Home Indoor Pollutant Exposures among Inner-City Children with and without Asthma,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, No. 11, 2007, pp. 1665-1669. doi:10.1289/ehp.10088

[13]   D. Brugge, J. Vallarino, L. Ascolillo, et al., “Comparison of Multiple Environmental Factors for Asthmatic Children in Public Housing,” Indoor Air, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2003, pp. 18-27. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0668.2003.01130.x

[14]   M. C. McCormack, P. N. Breysse, N. N. Hansel, et al., “Common Household Activities are Associated with Elevated Particulate Matter Concentrations in Bedrooms of Inner-City Baltimore Pre-School Children,” Environmental Research, Vol. 106, No. 2, 2008, pp. 148-155. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2007.08.012

[15]   A. A. Cynthia, R. D. Edwards, M. Johnson, et al., “Reduction in Personal Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide as a Result of the Installation of a Patsari Improved Cook Stove in Michoacan Mexico,” Indoor Air, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2008, pp. 93-105. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2007.00509.x

[16]   O. P. Kurmi, G. S. Devereux, W. C. Smith, et al., “Reduced Lung Function Due to Biomass Smoke Exposure in Young Adults in Rural Nepal,” European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2012, pp. 25-30. doi:10.1183/09031936.00220511

[17]   J. Regalado, R. Pérez-Padilla, R. Sansores, et al., “The Effect of Biomass Burning on Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Rural Mexican Women,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 174, No. 8, 2006, pp. 901-905. doi:10.1164/rccm.200503-479OC

[18]   T. J. Ward, C. Palmer, M. Bergauff, et al., “Results of a Residential Indoor PM2.5 Sampling Program Before and after a Woodstove Changeout,” Indoor Air, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2008, pp. 408-415. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00541.x

[19]   A. R. Hawthorne, R. B. Gammage and C. S. Dudney, “An Indoor Air Quality Study of 40 East Tennessee Homes,” Environment International, Vol. 12, No. 1-4, 1986, pp. 221-239. doi:10.1016/0160-4120(86)90034-6

[20]   R. W. Allen, C. Carlsten, B. Karlen, et al., “An Air Filter Intervention Study of Endothelial Function among Heal thy Adults in a Woodsmoke-Impacted Community,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 183, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1222-1230. doi:10.1164/rccm.201010-1572OC

[21]   N. N. Hansel, P. N. Breysse, M. C. McCormack, et al., “A Longitudinal Study of Indoor Nitrogen Dioxide Levels and Respiratory Symptoms in Inner-City Children with Asthma,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 116, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1428-1432. doi:10.1289/ehp.11349

[22]   K. Belanger, J. F. Gent, E. W. Triche, et al., “Association of Indoor Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure with Respiratory Symptoms in Children with Asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 173, No. 3, 2006, pp. 297-303. doi:10.1164/rccm.200408-1123OC