JEP  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2013
Chemical and Geological Control on Surface Water within the Shade River Watershed in Southeastern Ohio
ABSTRACT

The under-sampled middle and western branches of Shade River Watershed (SRW) in SE Ohio were investigated as part of the Ohio University—U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STAR grant. This project was for monitoring the quality of watersheds in Ohio and classifying them according to their physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Water samples, as well as field parameters, were taken at twenty-two sites for chemical analyses. The ions analyzed included Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Al, NO3, SO4, HCO3, and total PO4, while the field parameters measured included pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and alkalinity. To assess the water quality within the SRW, the analyzed ions and field parameters were compared to the USEPA criteria for the survival of aquatic life. Analytical results showed that the watershed is dominated by Ca-HCO3waters with DO, Fe, Mn, and PO4being the main causes of impairment within the streams. The relatively elevated concentrations of manganese and less extent iron may be associated with the local geology and the acidic nature of the soils. The high alkalinity and calcium concentrations are due to the limestone geology. The elevated phosphate concentration may be due to anthropogenic sources, fertilizers, or contributions from phosphorus-rich bedrock that differs geochemically from other areas.


Cite this paper
P. Gbolo and D. López, "Chemical and Geological Control on Surface Water within the Shade River Watershed in Southeastern Ohio," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.41001.
References
[1]   L. M. Debrewer, G. L. Rowe, D. C. Reutter, R. C. Moore, J. A. Hambrook and N. T. Baker, “Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana,” National Water Quality Assessment Program, Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4201, 2000.

[2]   P. Gbolo, “Chemical and Geological Controls on the Com position of Waters and Sediments in Streams Located within the Western Allegheny Plateau: The Shade River Watershed,” M.S Thesis, Ohio University, Athens, 2008, p. 22.

[3]   J. Hoorman, T. Hone, T. Sudman, T. Dirksen, J. Iles and K. R. Islam, “Agricultural Impacts on Lake and Stream Water Quality in Grand Lake St. Marys, Western Ohio,” Water Air Soil Pollution, Vol. 193, No. 1-4, 2008, pp. 309 322. doi:10.1007/s11270-008-9692-1

[4]   E. D. Ongley, “Control of Water Pollution from Agriculture,” FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Vol. 55, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1996.

[5]   C. S. Hopkinson, “A Comparison of Ecosystem Dynamics in Freshwater Wetlands,” Estuaries, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1992, pp. 549-562. doi:10.2307/1352397

[6]   C. B. Craft, S. W. Broome and E. D. Seneca, “Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organic Carbon Pools in Natural and Transplanted Marsh Soils,” Estuaries, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1988, pp. 272-280. doi:10.2307/1352014

[7]   C. Craft, “Freshwater Input Structures Soil Properties, Vertical Accretion, and Nutrient Accumulation of Georgia and US Tidal Marshes,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1220-1230. doi:10.4319/lo.2007.52.3.1220

[8]   C. B. Craft and W. P. Casey, “Sediment and Nutrient Accumulation in Floodplain and Depressional Freshwater Wetlands of Georgia, USA,” Wetlands, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2000, pp. 323-332. doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2000)020[0323:SANAIF]2.0.CO;2

[9]   H. T. Stewart, P. Hopmans, D. W. Flinn and T. J. Hillman, “Nutrient Accumulation in Tress and Soil Following Irrigation with Municipal Effluent in Australia,” Environ. Pollut., Vol. 63, No. 2, 1990, pp. 155-77. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(90)90065-K

[10]   J. E. Cloern, “Our Evolving Conceptual Model of the Coastal Eutrophication Problem,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 210, 2001, pp. 223-253. doi:10.3354/meps210223

[11]   S. W. Nixon, “Coastal Marine Eutrophication: A Definition, Social Causes, and Future Concerns,” Ophelia, Vol. 41, 1995, pp. 199-219.

[12]   C. A. Scott, M. F. Walter, E. S. Brooks, J. Boll, M. B. Hes and M. D. Merrill, “Impacts of Historical Changes in Land Use and Dairy Herds on Water Quality in the Catskills Mountains,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1998, pp. 1410-1417. doi:10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700060018x

[13]   A. N. Sharpley, T. Daniel, T. Sims, J. Lemunyon, R. Stevens and R. Parry, “Agricultural Phosphorus and Eutrophication,” 2nd Edition, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service , 2003, p. 44.

[14]   N. Wyngaard, L. Picone, C. Videla, E. Zamuner and N. Maceira, “Impact of Feedlot on Soil Phosphorus Concentration,” Jounal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 280-286. doi:10.4236/jep.2011.23031

[15]   D. Huggins and J. Anderson, “Dissolved Oxygen Fluctuation Regimes in Streams of the Western Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion,” Kansas Biological Survey, 2005, p. 4.

[16]   D. J. A. Brown and K. Sadler, “Fish Survival in Acid Waters. In: Acid toxicity and aquatic animals. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series: 34, (Morris, R. et al., eds.),” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 31-44. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511983344.004

[17]   M. J. Paul and J. L. Meyer, “Streams in the Urban Landscape,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 32, 2001, pp. 333-365. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.32.081501.114040

[18]   C. A. Burton, L. R. Brown and K. Belitz, “Assessing Water Source and Channel Type as Factors Affecting Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Periphyton Assemblages in the Highly Urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California,” American Fisheries Society Symposium, Vol. 47, 2005, pp. 239-262.

[19]   M. O’Driscoll, S. Clinton, A. Jefferson, A. Manda and S. McMillan, “Urbanization Effects on Watershed Hydrology and In-Stream Processes in the Southern United States,” Water, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010, pp. 605-648. doi:10.3390/w2030605

[20]   J. Cortet, A. G. Vauflery, N. Poinsot-Balaguer, L. Gomot, C. Texier and D. Cluzeau, “The Use of Invertebrate Soil Fauna in Monitoring Pollution Effects,” European Journal of Soil Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1999, pp. 115-134. doi:10.1016/S1164-5563(00)00116-3

[21]   A. R. Gaufin, and C. M. Tarzwell, “Aquatic Invertebrates as Indicators of Stream Pollution,” Public Health Report, Vol. 67, No. 1, 1952, pp. 57-64. doi:10.2307/4587981

[22]   C. J. Goodnight, “The Use of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream Pollution,” Transactions of the Ameri can Microscopical Society, Vol. 92, No. 1, 1973, pp. 1-13. doi:10.2307/3225166

[23]   R. W. Larimore, “Stream Drift as an Indication of Water Quality,” Transitions of the American Fisheries Society, No. 110, 1974, pp. 627-637.

[24]   R. D. Hill and E. R. Bates, “Acid Mine Drainage and Subsidence: Effects of Increased Coal Utilization,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 33, 1979, pp. 177-190. doi:10.1289/ehp.7933177

[25]   D. L. López and M. W. Stoertz, “Chemical and Physical Controls on Waters Discharged from Abandoned Underground Coal Mines,” Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Vol. 1, 2001, pp. 51-60. doi:10.1144/geochem.1.1.51

[26]   E. Pigati and D. L. López, “Effect of Subsidence on Recharge at Abandoned Coal Mines Generating Acidic Discharge: The Majestic Mine, Athens County, Ohio,” Mine Waters and the Environment, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1999, pp. 45-66. doi:10.1007/BF02687249

[27]   J. I. Sams and K. M. Beer, “Effects of Coal-Mine Drainage on Stream Water Quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins: Sulfate Transport and Trends,” US Department of the Interior Water-Resources Investigations, Report 99-4208, 2000.

[28]   D. W. Schindler, “Effects of Acid Rain on Freshwater Ecosystems,” Science, Vol. 239, No. 4836, 1988, pp. 149 157. doi:10.1126/science.239.4836.149

[29]   J. G. Skousen and P. F. Ziemkiewicz, “Acid Mine Drainage Control and Treatment,” 2nd Edition, West Virginia University and the National Mine Land Reclamation Center, Morgantown, 1996, p. 362.

[30]   G. L. Lacroix, “Fish Community Structure in Relation to Acidity in Three Nova Scotia Rivers,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 65, No. 12, 1987, pp. 2908-2915. doi:10.1139/z87-441

[31]   M. W. Stoertz, H. Bourne, C. Knotts and M. W. White, “The Effects of Isolation and Acid Mine Drainage on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Communities of Monday Creek, Ohio,” Mine Water and the Environment, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2002, pp. 60-72. doi:10.1007/s102300200021

[32]   C. J. O. Childress and R. L. Jones, “Sedimentation and Water Quality in the West Branch Shade River Basin, Ohio 1983 Water Year,” US Geological Survey Open File Report 85-187, 1985.

[33]   C. J. O. Childress and R. L. Jones, “Sedimentation and Water Quality Data for the West Branch and East Branch Shade River Basin, Ohio 1984 Water Year,” US Geolo gical Survey Open-File Report 85-552, 1985.

[34]   R. A. Brant, “Geological Description and Effects of Strip Mining on Coal Overburden Material,” The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1964, pp. 68-69.

[35]   G. Gilmore and G. D. Bottrell, “Soil Survey of Meigs County, Ohio,” United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000.

[36]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Handbook for Sampling and Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater,” Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, 1982.

[37]   HACH, “Water Analysis Handbook,” 4th Edition, 2005, pp. 31-200.

[38]   A. R. H. Swan and M. Sandilands, “Introduction to Geological Data Analysis,” Blackwell Science, New York, 1995, p. 446.

[39]   D. M. DeNicola and M. G. Stapleton, “Impact of Acid Mine Drainage on Benthic Communities in Streams: The Relative Roles of Substratum vs Aqueous Effects,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 119, No. 3, 2002, pp. 303-315. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00106-9

[40]   A. W. Rose, B. Means and P. J. Shah, “Methods for Passive Removal of Manganese from Acid Mine Drainage,” In: Proceedings of West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force Symposium, Morgantown, April 2003, p. 73.

[41]   R. J. Gibbs, “Mechanisms Controlling World Water Che mistry,” Science, Vol. 170, No. 3692, 1970, pp. 1088-1090. doi:10.1126/science.170.3962.1088

[42]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Quality Criteria for Water (Gold Book),” Regulations and Standard, Office of Water, Washington DC, 1986.

 
 
Top