MSA  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2013
Mold Thermo-Mechanical Rigidity Criterion for Surface Quality of Continuous Casting of Steel
ABSTRACT

A theoretical investigation of heat flow, solidification and solid shell resistance “Ic” has been undertaken by using a mathematical model and previous plant trials. The ultimate purpose is to develop operating conditions and therefore to improve the surface quality for continuously cast steel slabs. A new simple criterion called mold thermomechanical rigidity “MTMR” has been proposed to evaluate and to improve these purposes. The parameters of MTMR and its non-dimensional number which use to control the surface defects are present in this investigation. Previous plant trails of slab surface defects formation have been investigated thermo-mechanically with this criterion. The predications show that this criterion is very sensitive of operating parameters and is a significant qualitative tool to evaluate the surface quality. From examination of the behavior of MTMR, the susceptibility and mechanism of surface defects formations with MTMR have been primarily discussed.


Cite this paper
M. El-Bealy, "Mold Thermo-Mechanical Rigidity Criterion for Surface Quality of Continuous Casting of Steel," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 39-51. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.41006.
References
[1]   Y. Meng and B. G. Thomas, “Heat Transfer and Solidification Model of Continuous Slab Casting: CON1D,” Materials Transactions B, Vol. 34B, No. 5, 2003, pp. 685 705.

[2]   F. M. Najjar, B. G. Thomas and D. E. Hershey, “Numerical Study of Steady Turbulent Flow through Bifurcated Nozzles in Continuous Casting,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1995, pp. 749 765. doi:10.1007/BF02651721

[3]   K. C. Mills, “A Review of ECSC Funded Research on Mould Flux,” Steel Technology International, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1994, pp. 161-166.

[4]   Y. Kashiwaya, C. E. Cicutti and A. W. Cramb, “An Investigation of the Crystallization of a Continuous Casting Mold Slag Using the Single Hot Thermocouple Technique,” The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan International, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1998, pp. 357-365. doi:10.2355/isijinternational.38.357

[5]   C. Li and B. G. Thomas, “Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Model of Shell Behavior in Continuous Casting of Steel,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 35, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1151-72.

[6]   X. Huang, B. G. Thomas and F. M. Najjar, “Modeling Superheat Removal during Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 23, 1992, pp. 339-356. doi:10.1007/BF02656290

[7]   D. R. Poirier, P. J. Nandapurkar and S. Ganesan, “The Energy and Solute Conservation Equations for Dendritic Solidification,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 22, 1991, pp. 889-900. doi:10.1007/BF02651165

[8]   B. Rogberg, “High Temperature Properties of Steels and their Influence on the Formation of Defects in Continuous Casting,” Ph.D. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1982.

[9]   H. Fredriksson and J. Stjerndahl, “Solidification of Iron Base Alloys,” Metal Science, Vol. 16, No. 12, 1982, pp. 575-580. doi:10.1179/030634582790427136

[10]   M. El-Bealy and B. G. Thomas, “Modeling of Solidification Behaviors and Interdendritic Strain for Low Alloy Steel Casting Processes,” Proceedings of 54th Electric Furnace Conference, Dallas, 9-12 December 1996, pp. 565-576.

[11]   K. Miyazawa and K. Schwerdtferger, “Computation of Bulging of Continuously Cast Slabs with Simple. Bending Theory,” Ironmaking & Steelmaking, Vol. 6, 1979, pp. 68-74.

[12]   M. El-Bealy, “Monotonic and Fluctuated Cooling Approaches in Secondary Cooling Zones during Continuous Casting,” Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1997, pp. 49-56. doi:10.1179/000844397795515706

[13]   M. El-Bealy, ‘Modeling of Phase Transformations and Solid Shell Resistance in Continuously Cast Steel Slabs,” Proceeding of 80th Steelmaking Conference of ISS Conference, Chicago, 1997.

[14]   M. O. El-Bealy, “On the Mechanism of Mold Thermo Mechanical Rigidity for Surface Quality of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs,” Journal of Egyptian Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 111, 2011, pp. 42-51.

[15]   M. O. El-Bealy, “Journal of Egyptian Society of Mechanical Engineers,” Steel Research International, Vol. 82, No. 10, 2011, pp. 1187-1206. doi:10.1002/srin.201000301

[16]   J. K. Brimacombe, F. Weinberg and E. B. Hawbolt, Metall, “Formation of Longitudinal, Midface Cracks in Continuously-Cast Slabs,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1979, pp. 279-292. doi:10.1007/BF02652472

[17]   G. L. Larson and T. E. Moss; “Mechanism of Air Gap Formation,” Open Hearth Proceed, Vol. 57, 1974, pp. 211-225.

[18]   W. R. Irving and A. Perkins, “Metals Society/IRSID Con ference on Continuous Casting,” Biarritz, 1976.

[19]   R. J Dippenaar, I. V. Samarasekera and J. K. Brimacombe, “Mould Taper in Continuous. Casting Billet Machines,” Trans-Lunar Space Tug and The International Space Station, Vol. 7, 1986, pp. 31-43.

[20]   S. Watanabe, K. Harada, N. Fujita, T. Tamura and K. Noro, “Solidification of Continuious Casting,” The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Vol. 5B, No. 11, 1972, pp. S393-S394.

[21]   S. Chandra, J. K. Brimacombe and I. V. Samarasekera, “Mould Heat Transfer and Continuously Cast Billet Quality with Mould Flux Lubricant: Part 2. Lubrication and Oscillation Mark Formation,” Ironmaking & Steelmaking, Vol. 20, 1993, pp. 104-112.

[22]   C. A. Muojekwu, V. Samarasekera and J. K. Brimacombe, “Heat Transfer and Microstructure during the Early Stages of Metal Solidification,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 26B, No. 2, 1995, pp. 361 382.

[23]   M. Wolf and W. Kurz, “The Effect of Carbon Content on Solidification of Steel in the Continuous Casting Mold,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 12B, 1981, pp. 85-93. doi:10.1007/BF02674761

[24]   Y. Ueshima, S. Mizoguchi, T. Matsumiya and H. Kajioka, “Analysis of Solute Distribution in Dendrites of Carbon Steel with δ/γ Transformation during Solidification,” Me tallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1986, pp. 845 859. doi:10.1007/BF02657148

[25]   C. A. M. Pinheiro, I. V. Samarasekera, J. K. Brimacombe and B. N. Walker, “Mould Heat Transfer and Continuously Cast Billet Quality with Mould Flux Lubrication Part 1 Mould Heat Transfer,” Ironmaking & Steelmaking, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2000, pp. 37-54. doi:10.1179/030192300677363

[26]   A. Grill, K. Sorimachi and K. Brimacombe, “Heat Flow, Gap Formation and Break-Outs in the Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 7B, No. 2, 1976, pp. 177-189.

[27]   M. El-Bealy and H. Fredriksson, “On the Formation of a Fluctuated Macrosegregation Phenomenon in Continuous Casting Processes,” Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy, Vol. 23, 1994, pp. 140-150.

[28]   M. O. El-Bealy and A. M. Hussein, “Cracking Breakouts Susceptibility Function ‘CBSF’ New Technique to Control the Productivity and Quality in Continuously Cast Steel Slabs,” Proceeding of AIST Annual Meeting, 2007, Indianapolis.

[29]   M. El-Bealy, “On the Mechanism of Halfway Cracks and Macrosegregation of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs,” Part I & II, Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy, Vol. 24, 1995, pp. 63-80, 106-120.

[30]   I. Jimbo and A. A. W. Cramb, “The Density of Liquid Iron-Carbon Alloys,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1993, pp. 5-10. doi:10.1007/BF02657866

[31]   Y. Meng and B. G. Thomas, “Modeling Transient Slag Layer Phenomena in the Shell/Mold Gap in Continuous Casting of Steel,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2003, pp. 685-605.

[32]   K. Harste, “Untersuchung zur Schrumpfung und zur Ent stehung von Bl?cke aus Fe-C-Legierungen,” Ph. D. The sis, Technical University of Clausthal, Germany, 1989.

[33]   J. Miettinen, “Calculation of Solidification-Related Ther mophysical Properties for Steels,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1997, pp. 281-297. doi:10.1007/s11663-997-0095-2

[34]   M. O. El-Bealy, “A Mathematical Model of Interdendritic Thermo-Metallurgical Strain for Dendrirtic Solidification Processes,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1280-1296.

[35]   G. A. Panaras, A. Theodorakakos and G. Bergeles, “Numerical Investigation of the Free Surface in a Continuous Steel Casting Mold Model,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 29, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1117 1126.

[36]   M. O. El-Bealy and R. M. Hammouda, “On the Mechanism of Natural Convection and Equiaxed Structure dur ing Dendritic Solidification Processes,” Steel Research International, Vol. 78, 2007, pp. 602-611.

[37]   M. O. El-Bealy, “Air-Water Mist Nozzle for Thermo Mechanical Rigidity of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs,” Proceeding of International Convention of Asia Scholars, Guilin City, 2010.

[38]   M. O. El-Bealy, “Thermo-Mechanical Rigidity of High Performance and Life Improvements for Caster Roll in Continuous Casting Machines,” 16th Design of Manufacturing and lifecycle Conference, ASME Conference, Washington DC, 28-31 August 2011.

[39]   J. E. Kelly, K. P. Michalek, T. G. O’OConnor, B. G. Thomas and J. A. Dantzig, “Initial Development of Thermal and Stress Fields in Continuously Cast Steel Billets,” Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 19, No. 10, 1988, pp. 2589-2602.

[40]   L. I. Morozenskii, O. A. Mitenev and V. K. Krutikov, Stal, “Method for Calculating Shrinkage Deformations and Creep of Claydite Concrete,” Stal Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1965, pp. 272 276.

[41]   Y. Matoba, K. Okamura, T. Murakami and K. Yamamoto, “Solid Mechanics and Material Engineering,” JSME International Journal Series A, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2005, pp. 163-170. doi:10.1299/jsmea.48.163

[42]   S. N. Singh and K. E. Blazek, “Heat Transfer and Skin Formation in a Continuous-Casting Mold as a Function of Steel Carbon Content,” Journal of Metals, Vol. 10, 1974, pp. 17-27.

[43]   I.V. Samarasekera, J. K. Brimacombe and R. Bommaraju, “Mould Behaviour and Solidification in the Continuous Casting of Steel Billets: Ii. Mould Heat Extraction, Mould-Shell Interaction and Oscillation-Mark Formation,” Trans-Lunar Space Tug and the International Space Station, Vol. 5, 1984, pp. 79-94.

[44]   M. O. El-Bealy, “Interdendritic Strain and Macro-segregation Coupled Phenomena for Interdendritic Crack Formation during Solidification in Direct Chill Cast Sheet Ingots,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2012, pp. 635-656.

 
 
Top