SM  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2013
Reconciling Safety and Fairness in Global Agri-Food Standardization
Author(s) Yuichiro Amekawa*
ABSTRACT

Private food safety standards have recently emerged as a dynamic power in the global value chan. Good agricultural practices (GAP) is one such standard currently gaining popularity as a prominent field-level food quality assurance system. Achieving private GAP certification, most notably of GlobalGAP, is a dif ficult option for low income producers in the Global South due to the high costs required for necessary investments and certification. This paper critically analyzes the ethical implications of private food safety standards in light of three theoretical perspectives from environmental sociology: ecological moderniza tion, risk society, and eco-socialism. It then examines the potential of public GAP schemes currently emerging in the Global South for reconciling safety and fairness in global agri-food standardization. It is suggested that the expansion of producer participation in public GAP program be regulated by gradual improvements in the state capacity of resource mobilization for auditing and extension institutions.


Cite this paper
Amekawa, Y. (2013). Reconciling Safety and Fairness in Global Agri-Food Standardization. Sociology Mind, 3, 32-38. doi: 10.4236/sm.2013.31006.
References
[1]   Amekawa, Y. (In Press). Can public GAP approach ensure safety and fairness? A comparative study of Q-GAP in Thailand. Journal of Peasant Studies, In Press.

[2]   Altieri, M. A., & Nicholls, C. I. (2005). Agroecology and the search for a truly sustainable agriculture. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.

[3]   Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) (2006). Proceeding of the capacity building seminar on good agricultural practices for APEC developing economies. URL (last checked October 2010). http://publications.apec.org/publication-detail.php?pub_id=281

[4]   Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

[5]   Barham, E. (2002). Towards a theory of values-based labeling. Agriculture and Human Values, 19, 349-360. doi:10.1023/A:1021152403919

[6]   Blowers, A. (1997). Environmental policy: Ecological modernisation or the risk society? Urban Studies, 34, 845-871.
doi:10.1080/0042098975853

[7]   Burkett, P. (2002). Nature and value: A discussion. Science & Society, 67, 452-462. doi:10.1521/siso.67.4.452.25333

[8]   Buttel, F. H. (2000). Ecological modernization as social theory. Geoforum, 31, 57-65. doi:10.1016/S0016-7185(99)00044-5

[9]   Busch, L., & Bain, C. (2004). New! Improved? The transformation of the global agrifood system, Rural Sociology, 69, 321-346. doi:10.1526/0036011041730527

[10]   Codron, J.-M., Giraud-Héraud, E., & Soler, L.-G. (2005). Minimum quality standards, premium private labels, and European meat and fresh produce retailing. Food Policy, 30, 270-283. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2005.05.004

[11]   Cohen, M. J., (1997). Risk society and ecological modernisation: Alternative visions for post-industrial nations, Futures, 29, 105-119. doi:10.1016/S0016-3287(96)00071-7

[12]   Fisher, D., & Freudenburg, W. (2001). Ecological modernization and its critics: Assessing the past and looking toward the future. Society and Natural Resources, 14, 701-709. doi:10.1080/08941920152524891

[13]   Foster, J. B. (2000). Marx’s ecology: Materialism and nature. New York: Monthly Review Press.

[14]   GlobalGAP (2007). Control points and control criteria: Integrated farm assurance—English versions v.3-2. URL (last checked October 2009). http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/compliance/ane/workshops/Jordan2007/day2/K/
AllFarmBase.pdf


[15]   GlobalGAP (2010). GlobalGAP. Annual report 2010. URL (last checked September 2011). http://issuu.com/globalgap/docs/globalg.a.p_annual_report_2010/1

[16]   Graffham, A., Karehu, E., & MacGregor, J. (2007). Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Kenya. URL (last checked October 2009). http://www.agrifoodstandards.net/en/filemanager/active?fid=83

[17]   Graffham, A., & MacGregor, J. (2007). Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Zambia. URL (last checked October 2009). http://www.agrifoodstandards.net/resources/

[18]   Hatanaka, M., Bain, C., & Busch, L. (2005). Third-party certification in the global agrifood system. Food Policy, 30, 354-369. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2005.05.006

[19]   Henson, S. J., & Reardon, T. (2005). Private agri-food standards: Implications for food policy and the agri-food system. Food Policy, 30, 241-253. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2005.05.002

[20]   Kleih, U., Ssango, F., Kyazze, F., Graffham, A., & MacGregor, J. (2007). Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale fruit and vegetable growers in Uganda. URL (last checked March 2009). http://www.agrifoodstandards.net/resources/global/
fresh_insights_10_impact_of_euregap_on_small_scale_vegetable_growers_in_uganda


[21]   Langhelle, O. (2000). Why ecological modernization and sustainable development should not be conflated. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 2, 303-322.

[22]   L?wy, M. (2002). From Marx to Ecosocialism. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 13, 121-133. doi:10.1080/104557502101245413

[23]   Mol, A. P. J., & Sonnenfeld, D. A. (2000). Ecological modernization around the world: An introduction. Environmental Politics, 9, 3-16.

[24]   Murray, D. L., & Raynolds, L. (2000). Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy. Agriculture and Human Values, 17, 65-74. doi:10.1023/A:1007628709393

[25]   O’Connor, J. (1998). Natural causes. New York: Guilford.

[26]   Okello, J. J., & Swinton, S. M. (2007). Compliance with international food safety standards in Kenya’s green bean industry: comparison of a small- and a large-scale farm producing for export. Review of Agricultural Economics, 29, 269-285. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9353.2006.00342.x

[27]   Rosset, P. M., & Altieri, M. A. (1997). Agroecology versus input substitution: A fundamental contradiction of sustainable agriculture. Society & Natural Resources, 10, 283-295. doi:10.1080/08941929709381027

[28]   Schreinemachers, P., Schad, I., Tipraqsa, P., Williams, P. M., Neef, A., Riwthong, S., Sangchan, W., & Grovermann, C. (2012). Can public GAP standards reduce agricultural pesticide use? The case of fruit and vegetable farming in northern Thailand. Agriculture & Human Values, 29, 519-529.

[29]   Temu, A. E., & Marwa, N. W. (2007). Changes in the governance of global value chains of fresh fruits and vegetables: Opportunities and challenges for producers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva: South Centre.

[30]   Wallis, V. (2001). Toward ecological socialism. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 1, 127-145.

[31]   Way, M. J., & van Emden, H. F. (2000). Integrated pest management in practice: Pathways towards successful application. Crop Protection, 19, 81-103.

 
 
Top