Background: Pregnancy is an opportunity to adopt favorable health behaviors. We studied whether intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) promotes favorable health behavior in later life. Design: A prospective controlled cohort study. The method was a questionnaire survey in 2010 among 575 women with ICP and 1374 controls, all having delivered between the years 1969 and 1988 in Tampere University Hospital in Finland. Questionnaires were sent to 544 ICP patients and 1235 controls. Responses were received from 1178 (response rate 66.2%). The main outcome measures concerning recent or current health behavior were smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and special diet. Results: Current smoking was less common in the ICP group than among controls (10.5% vs 15.7%, p = 0.017). Assessed by smoking pack years there was a similar difference: in the ICP group 11.7% of women had at least 10 smoking pack years compared to 18.0% of the controls (p = 0.006). Recent alcohol consumption did not separate the two groups. The groups did not differ as to reported physical activity assessed in MET units. Fewer ICP women had had BMIs of 30 or more during pregnancy compared with controls (18.8% vs 25.1%, p = 0.023). In other points of life the BMI differences were not statistically significant. Weight-loss diet and gallbladder diet were more common in the ICP group (6.3% vs 3.6%, p = 0.044, and 3.0% vs 1.3%, p = 0.038). Conclusions: Having developed ICP two to four decades earlier seemed to constitute an effective intervention for smoking habits but not for other aspects of health behavior.
Cite this paper
Turunen, K. , Helander, K. , Mattila, K. and Sumanen, M. (2013) Health behavior after intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Health
, 96-101. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.51013
 National Institute for Health and Welfare (2012) Finland.
 Reyes H. (1997) Review: Intrahepatic cholestasis. A puzzling disorder of pregnancy. Journal of Gas-troenterology and Hepatology, 12, 211-216.
 Lammert, F., Marschall, H.U., Glantz, A. and Matern, S. (2000) Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Journal of Hepatology, 33, 1012-1021.
 Laatikainen, T. and Tulenheimo, A. (1984) Maternal serum bile acid levels and fetal distress in cholestasis of pregnancy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 22, 91-94. doi:10.1016/0020-7292(84)90019-5
 Berg, B., Helm, G., Petersohn, L. and Tryding, N. (1986) Cholestasis of pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory studies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 65, 107-113. doi:10.3109/00016348609158363
 Heinonen, S. and Kirkinen, P. (1999) Pregnancy outcome with intrahepatic cholestasis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 94, 189-193.doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(99)00254-9
 Germain, A.M., Carvajal, J.A., Glasinovic, J.C., Kato, C.S. and William-son, C. (2002) Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: An intri-guing pregnancy-specific disorder. Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, 9, 10-14. http://rsx.sagepub.com/content/9/1/10.full.pdf
 Savander, M., Ropponen, A., Avela, K., Weerasekera, N., Cormand, B., Hirvioja, M.L., et al. (2003) Genetic evidence of heterogeneity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Gut, 52, 1025-1029. doi:10.1136/gut.52.7.1025
 Davidson, K.M. (1998) Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Seminars in Perinatology, 22, 104-111.
 Glantz, A., Marschall, H.U. and Mattsson, L.A. (2004) Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Relationships between bile acid levels and fetal complication rates. Hepatology, 40, 467-474. doi:10.1002/hep.20336
 Fisk, N.M. and Storey, G.N. (1988) Fetal outcome in obstetric cholestasis. British Journal of Ob-stetrics and Gy- naecology, 95, 1137-1143.
 Rioseco, A.J., Ivankovic, M.B., Manzur, A., Hamed, F., Kato, S.R., Parer, J.T., et al. (1994) Intrahepatic cholesta- sis of pregnancy: A retros-pective case-control study of perinatal outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 170, 890-895.
 Al-sulyman, O.M., Ouzounian, J.G., AmesCastro, M. and Good-win, T.M. (1996) Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Perinatal outcome associated with expectant management. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 175, 957-960. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(96)80031-7
 Turunen, K., Su-manen, M., Haukilahti, R.L., Kirkinen, P. and Mattila, K. (2010) Good pregnancy outcome despite intrahepatic cholestasis. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 28, 102-107.
 Ropponen, A., Sund, R., Riikonen, S., Ylikorkala, O. and Aittomaki, K. (2006) Intrahe-patic cholestasis of pregnancy as an indicator of liver and biliary diseases: A population-based study. Hepatology, 43, 723-728.
 Turunen, K., M?ls?, A., Helander, K., Sumanen, M. and Mattila, K.J. (2012) Health history after intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gy-necologica Scandinavica, 9, 679-685.
 Wilson, W.F., Paffenbarger, R.S., Morris, J.N. and Havlik, R.J. (1986) Assessment methods for physical activity and physical fitness in population studies: Report of NHLBI workshop. American Heart Journal, 111, 1177-1192.
 Rasinper?, H. (2006) Adult-type hypolactasia: Genotype- phenotype correlation. Thesis, University of Helsinki.