This study examined the direct effect of individual variables (self-esteem, creative self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) on the Research and Development (R&D) engineers’ creativity. The data were analysed based on questionnaires returned by 130 R&D engineers attached to fifteen Electrical and Electronic (E&E) firms with R&D department in Penang, Malaysia. The convenience sampling method was employed in getting the samples. The results posited that all individual variables were positively related to R&D engineers’ creativity. The results also reported that there is no significant difference in R&D engineers’ creativity between contract employment type and permanent employment type. The theoretical and practical implications of the study as well as suggestion for future studies were also discussed.
Cite this paper
Tan, C. and Hong, Y. (2012) Assessing the Role of Individual Variables in Determining the Research and Development Engineers’ Creativity - A Study in Electrical and Electronics Industry. Creative Education, 3, 9-13. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.37B002.
 A. Abbey and J. Dickson, “R&D work climate and innovation in semiconductors,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 26, 1983, pp. 362-368.
 A. Bandura, “Self efficacy: The exercise of control,” New York: Freeman, 1994.
 A. L. Zeldin and F. Parajes, “Against the odds: Self efficacy believe of women in mathematical, scientific and technological careers,” American Educational Research Journal, vol. 37, 2000, pp. 215-246.
 A. H. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1962.
 A. M. Isen, “Positive affect”, In T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.), The handbook of cognition and emotion. Wiley, 1999, pp. 521-539.
 B. Holmstrom and P. Milgrom, “The firm as an incentive system,” The American Economic Review, vol. 84, 1994, pp. 972-991.
 B. A. Hennessey and T. M. Amabile, “Reward, intrinsic motivation, and creativity,” American Psychologist, vol. 53, 1998, pp. 674-675.
 C. J. Axtell, D. J. Holman, K. L. Unsworth, T. D. Wall, and P. E. Waterson, "Shopfloor innovation: Facilitating the suggestion and implementation of ideas,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 73, 2000, pp. 265-285.
 C. M. Ford, “A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains,” The Academy of Management Review, vol. 21, 1996, pp. 1112-1142.
 C. O. Walker, B. A. Greene, and R. A. Mansell “Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self efficacy as predictors and cognitive engagement,” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 16, 2006, pp. 1-12.
 D. M. Rosseau, “New hire perceptions of their own and their employer’s obligations: A study of psychological contracts,” Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 11, 1990, pp. 389-400.
 D. S. Wakefield, J. P. Curry, C. W. Mueller, and J. L. Price, “Differences in importance of work outcomes between full time and part time hospital employees,” Journal of Occupational Behavior, vol. 8, 1987, pp. 25-35.
 E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, “Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior,” New York: Plenum, 1985.
 E. S. Gottfredson, “Occupational aptitude patterns map: Development and implications for a theory of job aptitude requirements,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 29, 1986, pp. 254-291.
 F. Barron and D. Harrington, “Creativity, intelligence and personality,” In M. Rosenzweig and L. Porter (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, pp. 439-476.
 G. Oldham and A. Cummings, “Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 39, 1996, pp. 607-655.
 H. Cheng and A. Furnham, “Perceived parental rearing style self-esteem, and self-criticism as predictors of of happiness,” Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 5, 2004, pp. 1-21.
 I. Maltzman, “On the training of originality,” Psychological Review, vol. 67, 1960, pp. 229-242.
 J. E. Hunter, F. L., Schmidt, and M. K. Judiesch, “Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 75, 1990, pp. 28-42.
 K. R. Conner and C. K. Prahald, “A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus oppoutunism,” Organization Science, vol. 7, 1996, pp. 477-501.
 M. E. Gist, “The influence of training method on self-efficacy and idea generation among managers,” Personnel Psychology, vol. 42, 1989, pp. 787-805.
 M. Ohana, and M. Meyer, “Should I stay or should I go now? Investigating the intention to quit of the permanent staff in social enterprises,” European Management Journal, 2010, vol. 28, pp. 441-454.
 M. J. Kirton, “A theory of cognitive style,” In M. J. Kirton (Eds). Adaptors and innovvators: Styles of creativity and problem solving. New York: Routledge, 1989, pp. 1-36.
 O. R. Lightsey, M. Burke, A. Ervin, D. Henderson, and C. Yee, “Generalized self-efficacy, self-esteem and negative affect,” Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, vol. 38, 2006, pp. 72-80.
 Performance Management and Delivery Unit (PEMANDU), Economic Transformational Programme Annual Report 2011. Putra Jaya, Malaysia: Prime Minister Department, 2012.
 R. K. Sawyer, “Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation,” Oxford\New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
 R. W. Woodman, J. E. Sawyer, and R. W. Griffin, “Toward theory of organizational creativity,” The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 18, 1993, pp. 293-321.
 T. M. Amabile, “A model of creavitiy and innovation in organizations,” in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (Eds). Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 10, 1988, pp. 123-167.
 T. M. Amabile, B. A. Hennessey and B. S. Grossman, “Social influences on creativity: The effects of contracted-for reward,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 50, 1986, pp. 14-23.
 T. M. Amabile, “Motivating creativity in organizations: on doing what you love and loving what you do,” California Management Review, vol. 41, 1997, pp. 39-58.
 T. M. Amabile, “The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 45, 1983, pp. 357-376.