CE  Vol.3 No.7 B , November 2012
Assessing the Role of Individual Variables in Determining the Research and Development Engineers’ Creativity - A Study in Electrical and Electronics Industry
Abstract: This study examined the direct effect of individual variables (self-esteem, creative self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) on the Research and Development (R&D) engineers’ creativity. The data were analysed based on questionnaires returned by 130 R&D engineers attached to fifteen Electrical and Electronic (E&E) firms with R&D department in Penang, Malaysia. The convenience sampling method was employed in getting the samples. The results posited that all individual variables were positively related to R&D engineers’ creativity. The results also reported that there is no significant difference in R&D engineers’ creativity between contract employment type and permanent employment type. The theoretical and practical implications of the study as well as suggestion for future studies were also discussed.
Cite this paper: Tan, C. and Hong, Y. (2012) Assessing the Role of Individual Variables in Determining the Research and Development Engineers’ Creativity - A Study in Electrical and Electronics Industry. Creative Education, 3, 9-13. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.37B002.

[1]   A. Abbey and J. Dickson, “R&D work climate and innovation in semiconductors,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 26, 1983, pp. 362-368.

[2]   A. Bandura, “Self efficacy: The exercise of control,” New York: Freeman, 1994.

[3]   A. L. Zeldin and F. Parajes, “Against the odds: Self efficacy believe of women in mathematical, scientific and technological careers,” American Educational Research Journal, vol. 37, 2000, pp. 215-246.

[4]   A. H. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1962.

[5]   A. M. Isen, “Positive affect”, In T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.), The handbook of cognition and emotion. Wiley, 1999, pp. 521-539.

[6]   B. Holmstrom and P. Milgrom, “The firm as an incentive system,” The American Economic Review, vol. 84, 1994, pp. 972-991.

[7]   B. A. Hennessey and T. M. Amabile, “Reward, intrinsic motivation, and creativity,” American Psychologist, vol. 53, 1998, pp. 674-675.

[8]   C. J. Axtell, D. J. Holman, K. L. Unsworth, T. D. Wall, and P. E. Waterson, "Shopfloor innovation: Facilitating the suggestion and implementation of ideas,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 73, 2000, pp. 265-285.

[9]   C. M. Ford, “A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains,” The Academy of Management Review, vol. 21, 1996, pp. 1112-1142.

[10]   C. O. Walker, B. A. Greene, and R. A. Mansell “Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self efficacy as predictors and cognitive engagement,” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 16, 2006, pp. 1-12.

[11]   D. M. Rosseau, “New hire perceptions of their own and their employer’s obligations: A study of psychological contracts,” Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 11, 1990, pp. 389-400.

[12]   D. S. Wakefield, J. P. Curry, C. W. Mueller, and J. L. Price, “Differences in importance of work outcomes between full time and part time hospital employees,” Journal of Occupational Behavior, vol. 8, 1987, pp. 25-35.

[13]   E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, “Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior,” New York: Plenum, 1985.

[14]   E. S. Gottfredson, “Occupational aptitude patterns map: Development and implications for a theory of job aptitude requirements,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 29, 1986, pp. 254-291.

[15]   F. Barron and D. Harrington, “Creativity, intelligence and personality,” In M. Rosenzweig and L. Porter (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, pp. 439-476.

[16]   G. Oldham and A. Cummings, “Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 39, 1996, pp. 607-655.

[17]   H. Cheng and A. Furnham, “Perceived parental rearing style self-esteem, and self-criticism as predictors of of happiness,” Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 5, 2004, pp. 1-21.

[18]   I. Maltzman, “On the training of originality,” Psychological Review, vol. 67, 1960, pp. 229-242.

[19]   J. E. Hunter, F. L., Schmidt, and M. K. Judiesch, “Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 75, 1990, pp. 28-42.

[20]   K. R. Conner and C. K. Prahald, “A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus oppoutunism,” Organization Science, vol. 7, 1996, pp. 477-501.

[21]   M. E. Gist, “The influence of training method on self-efficacy and idea generation among managers,” Personnel Psychology, vol. 42, 1989, pp. 787-805.

[22]   M. Ohana, and M. Meyer, “Should I stay or should I go now? Investigating the intention to quit of the permanent staff in social enterprises,” European Management Journal, 2010, vol. 28, pp. 441-454.

[23]   M. J. Kirton, “A theory of cognitive style,” In M. J. Kirton (Eds). Adaptors and innovvators: Styles of creativity and problem solving. New York: Routledge, 1989, pp. 1-36.

[24]   O. R. Lightsey, M. Burke, A. Ervin, D. Henderson, and C. Yee, “Generalized self-efficacy, self-esteem and negative affect,” Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, vol. 38, 2006, pp. 72-80.

[25]   Performance Management and Delivery Unit (PEMANDU), Economic Transformational Programme Annual Report 2011. Putra Jaya, Malaysia: Prime Minister Department, 2012.

[26]   R. K. Sawyer, “Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation,” Oxford\New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

[27]   R. W. Woodman, J. E. Sawyer, and R. W. Griffin, “Toward theory of organizational creativity,” The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 18, 1993, pp. 293-321.

[28]   T. M. Amabile, “A model of creavitiy and innovation in organizations,” in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (Eds). Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 10, 1988, pp. 123-167.

[29]   T. M. Amabile, B. A. Hennessey and B. S. Grossman, “Social influences on creativity: The effects of contracted-for reward,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 50, 1986, pp. 14-23.

[30]   T. M. Amabile, “Motivating creativity in organizations: on doing what you love and loving what you do,” California Management Review, vol. 41, 1997, pp. 39-58.

[31]   T. M. Amabile, “The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 45, 1983, pp. 357-376.