JGIS  Vol.4 No.6 , December 2012
Validation of CA-Markov for Simulation of Land Use and Cover Change in the Langat Basin, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
Validity of CA-Markov in land use and cover change simulation was investigated at the Langat Basin, Selangor, Malaysia. CA-Markov validation was performed using validation metrics, allocation disagreement, quantity disagreement, and figure of merit in a three-dimensional space. The figure of merit, quantity error, and allocation error for total landscape simulation using the 1990-1997 calibration data were 5.62%, 3.53%, and 6.13%, respectively. CA-Markov showed a poor performance for land use and cover change simulation due to uncertainties in the source data, the model, and future land use and cover change processes in the study area.



Cite this paper
H. Memarian, S. Kumar Balasundram, J. Bin Talib, C. Teh Boon Sung, A. Mohd Sood and K. Abbaspour, "Validation of CA-Markov for Simulation of Land Use and Cover Change in the Langat Basin, Malaysia," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2012, pp. 542-554. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2012.46059.
References
[1]   P. H. Verburg, W. Soepboer, A. Veldkamp, R. Limpiada, V. Espaldon and S. S. Mastura, “Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of Regional Land Use: The CLUE-S Model,” Environmental Management, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2002, pp. 391-405. doi:10.1007/s00267-002-2630-x

[2]   C. Kamusoko, M. Aniya, B. Adi and M. Manjoro, “Rural Sustainability under Threat in Zimbabwe—Simulation of Future Land Use/Cover Changes in the Bindura District Based on the Markov-Cellular Automata Model,” Applied Geography, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2009, pp. 435-447. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2008.10.002

[3]   P. H. Verburg, P. P. Schot, M. J. Dijst and A. Veldkamp, “Land Use Change Modelling: Current Practice and Research Priorities,” GeoJournal, Vol. 61, No. 4, 2004, pp. 309-324. doi:10.1007/s10708-004-4946-y

[4]   H. Chen and R. G. Pontius Jr., “GEOMOD Modeling,” Clark Lab, Clark University, Worcester, 2006.

[5]   G. Luo, C. Yin, X. Chen, W. Xu and L. Lu, “Combining System Dynamic Model and CLUE-S Model to Improve Land Use Scenario Analyses at Regional Scale: A Case Study of Sangong Watershed in Xinjiang, China,” Ecological Complexity, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2010, pp. 198-207. doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2010.02.001

[6]   J. R. Eastman, “IDRISI Kilimanjaro, Guide to GIS and Image Processing,” Clark Lab, Clark University, Worcester, 2003.

[7]   C. Agarwal, G. M. Green, J. M. Grove, T. P. Evans and C. M. Schweik, “A Review and Assessment of Land-Use Change Models: Dynamics of Space, Time, and Human Choice,” Northeastern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Delaware, 2002.

[8]   J. F. Mas, M. Paegelow, B. de Jong, O. Masera, G. Guerrero, M. Follador, et al., “Modelling Tropical Deforestation: A Comparison of Approaches, 2008. www.csr.ufmg.br/dinamica/publications

[9]   M. Paegelow and M. T. C. Olmedo, “Possibilities and Limits of Prospective GIS Land Cover Modelling—A Compared Case Study: Garrotxes (France) and Alta Alpujarra Granadina (Spain),” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2005, pp. 697-722. doi:10.1080/13658810500076443

[10]   S. Srinivasan, “Land Use Change as a Tool: A Framework to Link Transportation and the Environment in New Delhi, India,” The Workshop on Transportation, Land Use and the Environment, Pune, 3-4 December 2001. http://www.deas.harvard.edu/TransportAsia/workshop_papers/Srinivasan.pdf

[11]   R. G. Pontius Jr. and J. Malanson, “Comparison of the Structure and Accuracy of Two Land Change Models,” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2005, pp. 243-265. doi:10.1080/13658810410001713434

[12]   N. Samat, “Integrating GIS and CA-Markov Model in Evaluating Urban Spatial Growth,” Malaysian Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2009, pp. 83-99.

[13]   N. Samat, R. Hasni and Y. A. E. Elhadari, “Modelling Land Use Changes at the Peri-Urban Areas Using GEOGRAPHIC Information Systems and Cellular Automata Model,” Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2011, pp. 72-84. doi:10.5539/jsd.v4n6p72

[14]   J. J. Arsanjani, W. Kainz and M. Azadbakht, “Monitoring and Spatially Explicit Simulation of Land Use Dynamics: From Cellular Automata to Geosimulation—A Case Study of Tehran, Iran,” 2011 International Symposium on Image and Data Fusion (ISIDF), Tengchong, 9-11 August 2011, pp. 1-4. doi:10.1109/ISIDF.2011.6024203

[15]   Y. H. Araya and P. Cabral, “Analysis and Modeling of Urban Land Cover Change in Setúbal and Sesimbra, Portugal,” Remote Sensing, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2010, pp. 15491563. doi:10.3390/rs2061549

[16]   L. Wang, H. Hu, X. Zheng, J. Deng and G. Ning, “Study on LUCC Based on Vector Date Source Using the CAMarkov Model,” 2010. www.ieee.org

[17]   R. G. Pontius Jr. and M. Millones, “Death to Kappa: Birth of Quantity Disagreement and Allocation Disagreement for Accuracy Assessment,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, No. 15, 2011, pp. 4407-4429. doi:10.1080/01431161.2011.552923

[18]   R. G. Pontius Jr., S. Peethambaram and J. C. Castella, “Comparison of Three Maps at Multiple Resolutions: A Case Study of Land Change Simulation in Cho Don District, Vietnam,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2011, pp. 45-62. doi:10.1080/00045608.2010.517742

[19]   A. F. Mohamed, W. Z. Wan Yaacob, M. R. Taha and A. R. Samsudin, “Groundwater and Soil Vulnerability in the Langat Basin, Malaysia,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2009, pp. 628-635.

[20]   H. Memarian, S. K. Balasundram, J. Talib, C. B. Teh, A. M. Sood, K. C. Abbaspour and A. Haghizadeh, “Hydrologic Analysis of a Tropical Watershed Using KINEROS2,” Environment Asia, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012, pp. 84-93.

[21]   K. R. Ayub, L. S. Hin and H. Abd Aziz, “SWAT Application for Hydrologic and Water Quality Modeling for Suspended Sediments: A Case Study of Sungai Langat’s Catchment in Selangor,” International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR 2009), Langkawi, 26-27 May 2009. http://redac.eng.usm.my/html/publish/2009_09.pdf

[22]   H. Juahir, S. M. Zain, M. K. Yusoff, T. I. Hanidza, A. S. Armi, M. E. Toriman, et al. “Spatial Water Quality Assessment of Langat River Basin (Malaysia) Using Environmetric Techniques,” Environmental Monitoring Assessment, Vol. 173, No. 1-4, 2010, pp. 625-641. doi:10.1007/s10661-010-1411-x

[23]   H. Memarian, S. K. Balasundram, J. Talib, A. M. Sood and K. C. Abbaspour, “Trend Analysis of Water Discharge and Sediment Load during Past Three Decades of Development at the Langat Basin, Malaysia,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 57, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1-16. doi:10.1080/02626667.2012.695073

[24]   M. H. Noorazuan, et al. “GIS Application in Evaluating Land Use—Land Cover Change and Its Impact on Hydrological Regime in Langat River Basin, Malaysia,” Proceedings of the Conference Map Asia 2003, Kuala Lumpur, 2003. http://www.geospatialworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=15467

[25]   Z. Liu, D. Ostrenga, W. Teng and S. Kempler, “Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Data and Services for Research and Application,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, No. 9, 2012, pp. 1317-1325. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00152.1

[26]   T. Hengl, “Finding the Right Pixel Size,” Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 32, No. 9, 2006, pp. 1283-1298. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2005.11.008

[27]   A. A. Markov, “Extension of the Limit Theorems of Probability Theory to a Sum of Variables Connected in a Chain,” The Notes of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, VIII Series, Physio-Mathematical College XXII, 1907.

[28]   S. L. Miller and D. Childers, “Markov Processes,” In: Probability and Random Processes, Academic Press, Burlington, 2004, pp. 323-367.

[29]   T. L. Saaty, “The Analytic Hierarchy Process,” McGrawHill, New York, 1980.

[30]   T. L. Saaty, “Decision Making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process,” International Journal of Services Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008, pp. 83-98. doi:10.1504/IJSSCI.2008.017590

[31]   G. Coyle, “The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP),” 2004. www.booksites.net

[32]   R. T. Pack, D. G. Tarboton and C. N. Goodwin, “SINMAP, a Stability Index Approach to Terrain Stability Hazard Mapping,” UTAH State University, Logan, 2001.

[33]   R. G. Pontius Jr., W. Boersma, J. C. Castella, K. Clarke, T. de Nijs, C. Dietzel, et al., “Comparing the Input, Output, and Validation Maps for Several Models of Land Change,” The Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2008, pp. 11-37. doi:10.1007/s00168-007-0138-2

[34]   R. Leete, “Malaysia, Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, Successes and Challenges,” The United Nations Country Team, Kuala Lumpur, 2005.

[35]   I. Omar, “Rules Affecting the Land Development Process in Malaysia—A Review on Regulation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA),” 8th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Lincoln University, Christchurch, 2123 January 2002, pp. 1-21.

[36]   R. G. Pontius Jr. and N. Neeti, “Uncertainty in the Difference between Maps of Future Land Change Scenarios,” Sustainability Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010, pp. 39-50. doi:10.1007/s11625-009-0095-z

[37]   L. Poelmans and A. Van Rompaey, “Complexity and Performance of Urban Expansion Models,” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009, pp. 17-27. doi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2009.06.001

[38]   J. J. Arsanjani, M. Helbich, W. Kainz and A. D. Boloorani, “Integration of Logistic Regression, Markov Chain and Cellular Automata Models to Simulate Urban Expansion,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 24, 2012, pp. 265-275.doi:10.1016/j.jag.2011.12.014

 
 
Top