ABSTRACT Ghrelin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in the stomach, has emerged recently as an important regulator of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems, the products of which play direct cytoprotective function in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. In this study, using gastric mucosal cells, we report on the role of ghrelin in countering the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on mucin synthesis. We show that the countering effect of ghrelin on mucin synthesis was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2 production, and characterized by a marked up-regulation in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity. The ghrelin-induced up-regulation in mucin synthesis, like that of cPLA2 activity, was subject to suppression by Src inhibitor, PP2 and ERK inhibitor, PD98059, as well as ascorbate. Moreover, the loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the ethanol cytotoxicity and mucin synthesis was attained with cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME as well as COX-1 inhibitor SC-560. The effect of L-NAME was reflected in the inhibition of ghrelin-induced mucosal cell capacity for NO production, cPLA2 S-nitrosylation and PGE2 generation, whereas COX-1 inhibitor caused only the inhibition in PGE2 generation. Our findings suggest that the activation of gastric mucosal cPLA2 through cNOS-induced S-nitrosylation plays an essential role in the countering effect of ghrelin on the disturbances in gastric mucin synthesis caused by ethanol cytotoxicity.
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nullSlomiany, B. and Slomiany, A. (2010) Cytosolic phospholipase A2 S-nitrosylation in ghrelin protection against detrimental effect of ethanol cytotoxicity on gastric mucin synthesis ——Ghrelin in gastric mucosal protection. Health, 2, 1033-1039. doi: 10.4236/health.2010.29152.
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