PSYCH  Vol.3 No.12 A , December 2012
Protective Factors for Violence Risk: The Value for Clinical Practice
ABSTRACT

Violence risk assessment tools in forensic psychiatry have traditionally solely been focused on risk factors. Recently, positive psychology inspired a more strengths-based approach to treatment and sparked an innovation in the assessment of violence risk: the introduction of protective factors. The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk (SAPROF) was developed to complement violence risk assessment with an assessment of protective factors. In this article, clinical experiences with the use of protective factors in forensic practice are described and empirical findings on incorporating protective factors in the risk assessment procedure are discussed. The results of this study underline the value of protective factors for a balanced and more accurate violence risk assessment and exemplify their potential in guiding treatment planning, evaluating treatment progress and improving positive risk management strategies.


Cite this paper
Robbé, M. , de Vogel, V. & Stam, J. (2012). Protective Factors for Violence Risk: The Value for Clinical Practice. Psychology, 3, 1259-1263. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A187.
References
[1]   Boer, D. P., Hart, S. D., Kropp, P. R., & Webster, C. D. (1997). Manual for the Sexual Violence Risk-20. Professional guidelines for assessing risk of sexual violence. Vancouver: Institute against Family Violence.

[2]   Borum, R., Bartel, P., & Forth, A. (2006). Manual for the Structured Assessment for Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

[3]   Braithwaite, E., Charrette, Y., Crocker, A., & Reyes, A. (2010). The predictive validity of clinical ratings of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START). International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 271-281. doi:10.1080/14999013.2010.534378

[4]   De Ruiter, C., & Nicholls, T. L. (2011). Protective factors in forensic mental health: A new frontier. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 160-170. doi:10.1080/14999013.2011.600602

[5]   De Vogel, V., de Ruiter, C., Bouman, Y., & de Vries Robbé, M. (2007). SAPROF manual. Structured assessment of protective factors for violence risk. Version 1. Utrecht: Forum Educatief.

[6]   De Vogel, V., de Ruiter, C., Bouman, Y., & de Vries Robbé, M. (2009). SAPROF. Guidelines for the assessment of protective factors for violence risk. English version. Utrecht: Forum Educatief.

[7]   De Vogel, V., de Ruiter, C., Bouman, Y., & de Vries Robbé, M. (2012). SAPROF. Guidelines for the assessment of protective factors for violence risk (2nd ed.). Utrecht: De Forensische Zorgspecialisten.

[8]   De Vogel, V., de Vries Robbé, M., de Ruiter, C., & Bouman, Y. H. A. (2011). Assessing protective factors in forensic psychiatric practice. Introducing the SAPROF. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 171-177. doi:10.1080/14999013.2011.600230

[9]   De Vries Robbé, M., & de Vogel, V. (2012). SAPROF 2nd edition manual updated Research chapter. Utrecht: Van der Hoeven Kliniek.

[10]   De Vries Robbé, M., de Vogel, V., & de Spa, E. (2011). Protective factors for violence risk in forensic psychiatric patients. A retrospect tive validation study of the SAPROF. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 178-186. doi:10.1080/14999013.2011.600232

[11]   De Vries Robbé, M., de Vogel, V., Koster, K., & Bogaerts, S. (submitted for publication). Protective factors for sexually violent offenders: A retrospective validation study of the SAPROF.

[12]   De Vries Robbé, M., de Vogel, V., Wever, E. C., Douglas, K. S., & Nijman, H. L. I. (submitted for publication). Risk and protective factors in clinical practice: Measuring change in high-risk offenders.

[13]   DeMatteo, D., Heilbrun, K., & Marczyk, G. (2005). Psychopathy, risk of violence, and protective factors in a noninstitutionalized and noncriminal sample. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 4, 147-157. doi:10.1080/14999013.2005.10471220

[14]   Douglas, K. S. (2009). Expert opinion. Assessing risk for violence using structured professional judgment. American Psychology-Law Society News, 29, 12-15.

[15]   Douglas, K. S., Hart, S. D., Webster, C. D., Belfrage, H., & Eaves, D. (in preparation). HCR:V3 historical, clinical, risk management (Ver sion 3): Assessing risk for violence. Vancouver: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

[16]   Douglas, K. S., & Skeem, J. L. (2005). Violence risk assessment: Get ting specific about being dynamic. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 347-383. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.11.3.347

[17]   Finn, S. E. (2007). In our clients’ shoes: Theory and techniques of Therapeutic Assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

[18]   Fougere, A., & Daffern, M. (2011). Resilience in youth offenders. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 244-253. doi:10.1080/14999013.2011.598602

[19]   Gagliardi, G. J., Lovell, D., Peterson, P. D., & Jemelka, R. (2004). Forecasting recidivism in mentally ill offenders released from prison. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 133-155. doi:10.1023/B:LAHU.0000022319.03637.45

[20]   Hagg?rd-Grann, U. (2005). Violence among mentally disordered offenders: Risk and protective factors. Stockholm: Edita Norstedts Tryckeri.

[21]   Lodewijks, H. P. B., de Ruiter, C., & Doreleijers, Th. A. H. (2010). The impact of protective factors in desistance from violent reoffending: A study in three samples of adolescent offenders. Journal of Interper sonal Violence, 25, 568-587. doi:10.1177/0886260509334403

[22]   L?sel, F., & Farrington, D. P. (2012). Direct protective and buffering protective factors in the development of youth violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43, 8-23. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.04.029

[23]   Miller, H. A. (2006). A dynamic assessment of offender risk, needs, and strengths in a sample of general offenders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24, 767-782. doi:10.1002/bsl.728

[24]   Nonstad, K., Nesset, M. B., Kroppan, E., Pedersen, T. W., N?ttestad, J. A., Almvik, R., & Palmstierna, T. (2010). Predictive validity and other psychometric properties of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) in a Norwegian high secure hospital. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 294-299. doi:10.1080/14999013.2010.534958

[25]   Rennie, C. E., & Dolan, M. C. (2010). The significance of protective factors in the assessment of risk. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 20, 8-22. doi:10.1002/cbm.750

[26]   Rogers, R. (2000). The uncritical acceptance of risk assessment in forensic practice. Law and Human Behavior, 24, 595-605. doi:10.1023/A:1005575113507

[27]   Salekin, R. T., & Lochman, J. E. (2008). Child and adolescent psy chopathy. The search for protective factors. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35, 159-172. doi:10.1177/0093854807311330

[28]   Ullrich, S., & Coid, J, (2011). Protective factors for violence among released prisoners—Effects over time and interactions with static risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 381-390. doi:10.1037/a0023613

[29]   van den Broek, E., & de Vries Robbé, M. (2008). The supplemental value of the SAPROF from a treatment perspective: A counterbalance to risk? 8th Conference of the International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services, Vienna, 14-16 July 2008.

[30]   Viljoen, S., Nicholls, T., Greaves, C., de Ruiter, C., & Brink, J. (2011). Resilience and successful community reintegration among female forensic psychiatric patients: A preliminary investigation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 29, 752-770. doi:10.1002/bsl.1001

[31]   Ward, T., & Brown, M. (2004). The good lives model and conceptual issues in offender rehabilitation. Psychology, Crime & Law, 10, 243 257. doi:10.1080/10683160410001662744

[32]   Webster, C. D., Douglas, K. S., Eaves, D., & Hart, S. D. (1997). HCR-20. Assessing the risk of violence. Version 2. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University and Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission of British Columbia.

[33]   Webster, C. D., Martin, M., Brink, J., Nicholls, T. L., & Desmarais, S. L. (2009). Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START). Clinical guide for evaluation risk and recovery. Version 1.1. Ontario: St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton.

[34]   Wilson, C., Desmarais, S. L., Nicholls, T. L., & Brink, J. (2010). The role of client strengths in assessments of violence risk using the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START). Inter national Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 282-293. doi:10.1080/14999013.2010.534694

 
 
Top