JBiSE  Vol.5 No.12 A , December 2012
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis and follow-up of brain tumors
Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is nowadays considered as a main MRI investigation modality in the clinical routine jointly with conventional anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imag- ing for studying brain tumours. MRS provides complementary information about cellular metabolism. This allows differentiating the brain tumours from abscess, the diagnosis of the tumour type, characterization of brain tumours, as well as local study of the morphological abnormalities observed in conventional MRI. The MRS could be used in the therapeutic follow-up for evaluating the pathological active area of brain, and allows optimizing the guided biopsy as well as to differentiating recurrent tumour from a necrosis.
Cite this paper: Housni, A. and Boujraf, S. (2012) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis and follow-up of brain tumors. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 5, 853-861. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A108.

[1]   Grand, S., Passaro, G., Ziegler, A. et al. (1999) Necrotic tumor versus brain abscess: Importance of amino acids detected at 1H MR spectroscopy initial results. Radiology, 213, 785-793.

[2]   Lai, P.H., Ho, J.T., Chen, W.L. et al. (2002) Brain abscess and necrotic brain tumor: Discrimination with proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23, 1369-1377.

[3]   Poptani, H., Gupta, R.K., Roy, R., Pandey, R., Jain, V.K. and Chhabra, D.K. (1995) Characterization of intracranial mass lesions with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 16, 1593-1603.

[4]   Lai, P.-H., Hsu, S.-S., Ding, S.-W., Ko, C.-W. Fu, J.-H. Weng, M.-J., Yeh, L.-R., Wu, M.-T., Liang, H.-L., Chen, C.-K. and Pan, H.-B. (2007) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging in intracranial cystic mass lesions. Surgical Neurology, 68, S25- S36.

[5]   De Edelenyi, F.S., Rubin, C., Esteve, F., et al. (2000) A new approach for analyzing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic images of brain tumors: Nosologic images. Nature Medicine, 6, 1287-1289. doi:10.1038/81401

[6]   Galanaud, D., Chinot, O., Metellus, P. and Cozzone, P. (2005) Apports de la spectroscopie par résonance mag- nétique dans l’exploration des gliomes. Bulletion of Can- cer, 92, 327-331.

[7]   Vion-Dury, J., Salvan, A.-M. and Cozzone, P.J. (1999) La spectrométrie de résonance magnétique du proton dans l’exploration non invasive du métabolisme cérébral humain: Applications cliniques actuelles et futures. Re- vista de Neurología, 155, 903-926.

[8]   Galanaud, D., Nicoli, F., Figarella-Branger, D., Roche, P., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Fur, Y. and Cozzone, P.J. (2006) Spectroscopie par résonance magnétique des tumeurs cérébrales. Journal de Radiologie, 87, 822-832. doi:10.1016/S0221-0363(06)74090-2

[9]   Galanaud, D., Chinot, O., Nicoli, F., et al. (2003) Use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to differentiate gliomatosis cerebri from low-grade glioma. Journal of Neurosurgery, 98, 269-276. doi:10.3171/jns.2003.98.2.0269

[10]   Herminghaus, S., Dierks, T., Pilatus, U., et al. (2003) Determination of histopathological tumor grade in neuro- epithelial brain tumors by using spectral pattern analysis of in vivo spectroscopic data. Journal of Neurosurgery, 98, 74-81. doi:10.3171/jns.2003.98.1.0074

[11]   Moller-Hartmann, W., Herminghaus, S., Krings, T., et al. (2002) Clinical application of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions. Neuroradiology, 44, 371-381. doi:10.1007/s00234-001-0760-0

[12]   Galanaud, D., Nicoli, F., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Fur, Y., Ranjeva, J.P., Viola, A., Girard, N. and Cozzone, P.J. (2007) Spectroscopie par résonance magnétique du pro- ton. Quelles indications neurologiques en 2007? Revue Neurologique, 163, 287-303. doi:10.1016/S0035-3787(07)90402-6

[13]   Kimura, T., Sako, K., Gotoh, T., Tanaka, K. and Tanaka, T. (2001) In vivo single voxel proton MR spectroscopy in brain lesions with ring-like enhancement. NMR in Biomedicine, 14, 339-349. doi:10.1002/nbm.711

[14]   Kimura, T., Sako, K., Tanaka, K., et al. (2004) Evaluation of the response of metastatic brain tumors to stereotactic radiosurgery by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 201 TlCl single-photon emission computerized tomography, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neurosurgery, 100, 835-841. doi:10.3171/jns.2004.100.5.0835

[15]   Yoshino, E., Ohmori, Y., Imahori, Y., et al. (1996) Irradiation effects on the metabolism of metastatic brain tumors: Analysis by positron emission tomography and 1H- magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Stereotactic and Fun- ctional Neurosurgery, 66, 240-259. doi:10.1159/000099816

[16]   Galanaud, D., Nicoli, F., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Fur, Y., Dormont, D., Girard, N., Ranjeva, J.P. and Cozzone, P.J. (2007) Spectroscopie par résonance magnétique cérébrale Journal de Radiologie, 88, 483-496. doi:10.1016/S0221-0363(07)89848-9

[17]   Pirzkall, A. (2004) MR-Spectroscopy: Potential for brain tumor diagnosis and guiding therapy. In: Black, P. and Loeffler, J.S., Eds., Cancer of the Nervous System, Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, Philadelphia.

[18]   Pirzkall, A., Li, X., Oh, J., Chang, S., Berger, M.S., Larson, D.A., et al. (2004) 3D MRSI for resected highgrade gliomas before RT: Tumor extent according to metabolic activity in relation to MRI. International Journal of Radiation Oncology & Biology &* Physics, 59, 126- 137. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.08.023

[19]   Graves, E.E., Nelson, S.J., Vigneron, D.B., Chin, C., Verhey, L., McDermott, M., et al. (2000)A preliminary study of the prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in gammaknife radiosurgery of recurrent malignant gliomas. Neurosurgery, 46, 319- 326. doi:10.1097/00006123-200002000-00011

[20]   Ross, B. and Bluml, S. (2001) Magnetic resonance speccopy of the human brain. The Anatomical Record, 265, 54-84. doi:10.1002/ar.1058

[21]   De Bazelaire, C. and Lewin, M. (2005) Points forts en oncologie au RSNA 2004. Journal de Radiologie, 86, 74- 84. doi:10.1016/S0221-0363(05)81462-3

[22]   Castilo, M., Kwock, L. and Mukherji, S.K. (1996) Clinical applications of proton MR spectroscopy. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 17, 1-15.

[23]   Soaresa, D.P. and Law, M. (2009) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain: Review of metabolites and cli- nical applications. Clinical Radiology, 64, 12-21. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2008.07.002

[24]   Grand, S., Ternier, J., Rousseau, N., Ashraf, A., Tropres, I., Remy, C. and Le Bas, J.F. (2004) Abcès cérébral: Aspects caraterisatiques en imagerie morphologique et fonctionnelle. Journal of Neuroradiology, 31, 145-147. doi:10.1016/S0150-9861(04)96982-9

[25]   Leuthardt, E.C., Wippold, F.J., Oswood, M.C., Rich, K.M. (2002) Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the pre-opera- tive assessment of brain abscesses. Surgical Neurology, 58, 395-402. doi:10.1016/S0090-3019(02)00929-1

[26]   Lai, P.H., Ho, J.T., Chen, W.L., Hsu, S.S., Wang, J.S., Pan, H.B., et al. (2002) Brain abscess and necrotic brain tumor: Discrimination with proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23, 1369-1377.

[27]   Ebisu, T., Tanaka, C., Umeda, M., Kitamura, M., Naruse, S., Higuchi, T., et al. (1996) Discrimination of brain abscess from necrotic of cystic tumor by diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 14, 1113-1116. doi:10.1016/S0730-725X(96)00237-8

[28]   Schimitzu, H., Kumabe, T., Shirane, R. and, Yoshimoto, T. (2000) Correlation between choline level measured by proton MR spectroscopy and Ki-67 labeling index in gliomas. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21, 659- 665.

[29]   Castillo, M., Smith, J.K. and Kwock, L. (2000) Correlation of myo-inositol levels and grading of cerebral astrocytomes. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 2, 1645-1649.

[30]   Saraf-Lavi, E., Bowen, B.C., Pattany, P.M., et al. (2003) Proton MR Spectroscopy of gliomatosis cerebri: Case re- port of elevated myoinositol with normal choline levels. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 24, 946-951.

[31]   Guillevin, R., Menuel, C., Duffau, H., et al. (2008) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy predicts proliferative activity in diffuse low-grade gliomas. Journal of Neuro- Oncology, 87, 181-187. doi:10.1007/s11060-007-9508-y

[32]   Grand, S., Tropres, I., Hoffmann, D., Ziegler, A. and Le Bas, J.F. (2005) Apport de la spectroscopie 1H au diag- nostic des processus tumoraux intra-parenchymateux cé- rébraux et leur suivi thérapeutique. Neurochirurgie, 51, 299-308. doi:10.1016/S0028-3770(05)83491-5

[33]   Martin-Duverneuil, N., Guillevin, R. and Chiras, J. (2008) Imaging of gliomas. Cancer/Radiothérapie, 12, 669-675. doi:10.1016/j.canrad.2008.07.017

[34]   Taillibert, S., Guillevin, R., Menuel, C., Sanson, M., Hoang-Xuan, K., Chiras, J. and Duffau, H. (2008) Brain lymphoma: Usefulness of the magnetic resonance spec- troscopy. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 86, 225-229. doi:10.1007/s11060-007-9468-2

[35]   Law, M., Cha, S., Knopp, E.A., Johnson, G., Arnett, J. and Litt, A.W. (2002) High-grade gliomas and solitary metastases: Differentiation by using perfusion and proton spectroscopic MR imaging. Radiology, 222, 715-721. doi:10.1148/radiol.2223010558

[36]   Pierot, L. (2005) RSNA 2004: Neuroradiologie. Journal de Radiologie, 86, 868-873. doi:10.1016/S0221-0363(05)81461-1

[37]   Nelson, S.J., Graves, E., Pirzkall, A. et al. (2002) In vivo molecular imaging for planning radiation therapy of glio-mas: An application of 1H MRSI. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 16, 464-476. doi:10.1002/jmri.10183

[38]   Laprie, A. (2009) Apport de l’imagerie de spectroscopie de résonance magnétique du proton et des autres imageries métaboliques à la définition des volumes cibles de radiothérapie des tumeurs gliales de l’adulte et de l’enfant. Cancer/Radiothérapie, 13, 556-561. doi:10.1016/j.canrad.2009.07.003

[39]   Kimura, T., Sako, K., Gotoh, T., et al. (2001) In vivo single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy in brain lesions with ring-like enhancement. NMR in Biomedicine, 14, 339-349. doi:10.1002/nbm.711

[40]   Park, I., Tamai, G., Lee, M.C., Chuang, C.F., Chang, S.M., Berger, M.S., et al. (2007) Patterns of recurrence analysis in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with respect to pre-radiation therapymagnetic resonance spectroscopic findings. International Journal of Radiation Oncology&Biology&Physics, 69, 381-389. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.019