Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of solid-organ and blood stem-cell transplants. It is caused by an uncontrolled expansion of B lymphocytes infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It responds poorly to therapy, including reduction of immunosuppression, interferon, antivirals or chemotherapy. Therefore the optimal strategy for management is currently focused on prevention. Some centers have already introduced chemoprophylaxis and/or preemptive strategies using EBV viral load as a surveillance. Some experimental studies suggest that mTOR inhibitors inhibits growth of human EBV-transformed B lymphocytes and vitamin D had an immune response to EBV. We report two cases of an increased of blood BKV viral load after renal transplantation that were successfully treated with everolimus in association with calcitriol. This report suggests that everolimus associated with calcitriol could be an effective and safe treatment for the prevention of PTLD in transplant recipients.
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