AJAC  Vol.3 No.12 A , December 2012
Treatment of Materials Contaminated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs): Comparison of Traditional Method and Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop an experimental methodology for the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil and wood material using the Soxhlet extraction method and supercritical fluid technology. The sample PCB contents were quantified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Conventional extractions of PCBs from soil samples showed higher extraction yields for samples with the highest initial PCB levels and longest extraction times. Specific PCBs yielded 74.0% - 78.3% removal using ethanol as the solvent. 91.0% - 94.3% removal of the total PCB content was achieved using hexane as the solvent. Supercritical fluid extraction of soil samples resulted in 50.0% - 70.5% removal for specific PCBs and 57.3% removal of the total PCB content. For wood, the use of Soxhlet extraction resulted in 87.0% - 94.0% removal for specific PCBs and 95.0% - 96.3% removal of the total PCB content. Supercritical fluid extraction of wood samples resulted in 91.1% - 95.0% removal of specific PCBs and 95.1 % of the total PCB content.
Cite this paper: D. Silva, F. Pietri, J. Moraes, R. Bazito and C. Pereira, "Treatment of Materials Contaminated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs): Comparison of Traditional Method and Supercritical Fluid Extraction," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 12, 2012, pp. 891-898. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2012.312A118.

[1]   Greenpeace, Brasil, “Poluentes Organicos Persistentes: Polui??o Invisível e Global,” 2011.

[2]   G. T. Yogui, M. C. O. Santos and R. C. Montore, “Chlorinated Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Marine Tucuxi Dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis) from the Cananéia Estuary, Southeastern Brazil,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 312, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 67-78. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00198-0

[3]   World Health Organization (WHO), “Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs),” 2011.

[4]   J. C. P. Penteado and J. M. O. Vaz, “O Legado das Bifenilas Policloradas (PCBs),” Quimica Nova, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2001, pp. 390-398. doi:10.1590/S0100-40422001000300016

[5]   Agency for Toxic Substancesand DiseaseRegistry (ATS DR), “Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs),” 2000.

[6]   N. Matsuura, T. Uchyama, H. Tada, Y. Nakamura, N. Kondo, M. Morita and M. Fukushi, “Effects of Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Thyroid Function in Infants born in Japan—The Second Report from Research on Environmental Health,” Chemosphere, Vol. 45, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1167-1171. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00050-9

[7]   J. Borja, D. M. Taleon, J. Auresenia and S. Gallardo, “Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Biodegradation,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2005, pp. 1999-2013. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.08.006

[8]   G. Ross, “The Public Health Implications of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Environment,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2004, pp. 75-291. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.06.003


[10]   J. P. Stow, “Chemical Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils Using Fenton’s reagent,” Ms Thesis, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontário, 1997.

[11]   C. A. B. Tooge, “Uso do Reagente de Fenton Como Oxidante Secundário em Sistemas de Destruicao de Resíduos Através de Oxidacao téRmica,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 2004.

[12]   F. Kastánek and P. Kastánek, “Combined Decontamination Processes for Wastes Containing PCBs,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 117, No. 2-3, 2005, pp. 185-205. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.09.026

[13]   D. L. Timberlake and J. R. Garbaciak, “Bench-Scale Testing of Selected Remediation Alternatives for Contaminated Sediments,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1995, pp. 52-56. doi:10.1080/10473289.1995.10467341

[14]   F. W. Chuang, R. A. Larson and M. S. Wessan, “Zero-Valent iron Promoted Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1995, pp. 2460-2463. doi:10.1021/es00009a044

[15]   M. D. Luque de Castro and L. E. García-Ayuso, “Soxhlet Extraction of Solid Materials: An Outdated Technique with a Promising Innovative Future,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 369, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 1-10. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00233-5

[16]   J. R. Bowyer and J. D. Pleil, “Comparison of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction of Organic Compounds from Carpet Samples,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 787, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 171-179. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00624-9

[17]   M. O. Pun?n-Crespo and M. A. Lage-Yusty, “Routine Analysis of Hydrocarbons, PCB and PAH in Marine Sediments Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction,” Chemosphere, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1999, pp. 587-599. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00213-6

[18]   M. O. Pun?n Crespo and M. A. Lage Yusty, “Comparison of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction for the Determination of PCBs in Seaweed Samples,” Chemosphere, Vol. 59, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1407-1413. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.025

[19]   T. Nilsson, S. Bowadt and E. BjCorklund, “Development of a Simple Selective SFE Method for the Determination of Desorption Behaviour of PCBs in Two Swedish Sediments,” Chemosphere, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2002, pp. 469-476. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00119-9

[20]   N. A. Policarpo. “Tratamento de Solos Contaminados Com Bifenilas Policloradas (PCBs),” Ms Thesis, Universidade de S?o Paulo, S?o Paulo, 2008.

[21]   D. J. Silva “Tratamento de Materiais Contaminados Com Bifenilas Policloradas (PCBs) via Extracao Convencional e Fluído Supercrítico,” Ms Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2008.

[22]   G. Anitescu and L. L. Tavlarides, “Solubility of Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners in Supercritical Fluids: CO2, CO2/MeOH and CO2/n-C4H10,” The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1999, pp. 197-211. doi:10.1016/S0896-8446(98)00109-0

[23]   A. C. O. Chagas-Spinelli, “Biorremediacao de Solo Argiloso Contaminado por Hidrocarboneto Poliaromáticos Proveniente do Derrame de óleo Diesel,” Ms Thesis, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, 2007.

[24]   A. Kawashima, T. Miyawaki and K. Honda, “Influence of the Characteristics of Soil and fly ash on the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Dioxins,” Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 22, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1393-1397. doi:10.2116/analsci.22.1393

[25]   H. Choi and S. R. Al Abed, “PCB Congener Sorption to Carbonaceous Sediment Components: Macroscopic Comparison, Characterization of Sorption Kinetics and Mechanism,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 165, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 860-866. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.100

[26]   E. Bjorklund, S. Bowadt, L. Mathiasson and S. B. Hawthorne, “Determining PCB Sorption/ Desorption Behavior on Sediments Using Selective Supercritical Fluid Extraction. 1. Desorption from Historically Contaminated Samples,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 33, No. 13, 1999, pp. 2193-2203. doi:10.1021/es981071p