JEP  Vol.1 No.3 , September 2010
Evaluation of Treated Municipal Wastewater Quality for Irrigation
ABSTRACT
Wastewater reuse is a useful tool in minimizing the amount of wastewater in the environment. Therefore, evaluation of the suitability of Al-Rustamiyah WWTP municipal treated wastewater for irrigation was made according to its compo-sition and the international irrigation water quality standards. In addition, to classify water quality and to evaluate its suitability for irrigation purposes, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) were calculated following standard equations and found experimentally as (2.11), (35.67) and (–12.75) respectively. Plotting the values of conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) on the US salinity diagram illustrated that most of the samples fall in the field of C3-S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water which can be used for irrigation on almost all types of soil without danger of exchangeable sodium. Furthermore, the data indicate slight to moderate degree of restriction on the use of this treated wastewater in irrigation due to chloride hazard. RSC value is negative at all sampling sites, indicating that there is no complete precipitation of calcium and magnesium. Overall, the treated wastewater can be classified with few exceptions as suitable for irrigation use.

Cite this paper
nullA. Alobaidy, M. Al-Sameraiy, A. Kadhem and A. Majeed, "Evaluation of Treated Municipal Wastewater Quality for Irrigation," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2010, pp. 216-225. doi: 10.4236/jep.2010.13026.
References
[1]   G. Zulu, M. Toyota and S. Misawa, “Characteristics of Water Reuse and its Effects on Paddy Irrigation System Water Balance and the Riceland Ecosystem,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 31, No. 3, October 1996, pp. 269-283.

[2]   J. D. Oster, “Irrigation with Poor Quality Water,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 25, No. 3, July 1994, pp. 271-297.

[3]   WHO, “A Regional Overview of Wastewater Management and Reuse in the Eastern Mediterranean Region,” World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional, California Environmental Health Association, 2005.

[4]   C. A. Scott, N. I. Faruqui and L. Raschid-Sally, “Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities,” CABI Publishing, Wallingford, 2004.

[5]   M. Qadir, D. Wichelns, L. Raschid-Sally, P. S. Minhas, P. Drechsel, A. Bahri and P. McKornick, “Agricultural Use of Marginal Quality Water—Opportunities and Challenges,” In: D. Molden, Ed., Water for Food, Water and life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, Earthscan, London, 2007.

[6]   B. Jimenez and T. Asano, “International Survey on Water Reuse,” International Water Association Publishing, London, 2008.

[7]   S. S. Al-Salem, “Environmental Considerations for Waste- Water Reuse in Agriculture,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 10-11, 1996, pp. 345-353.

[8]   M. J. Mohammad and N. Mazahreh, “Changes in Soil Fertility Parameters in Response to Irrigation of Forage Crops with Secondary Treated Wastewater,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 34, No. 9- 10, May 2003, pp. 1281-1294.

[9]   L. S. McNeill, M. N. Almasri and N. Mizyed, “A Sustainable Approach for Reusing Treated Wastewater in Agricultural Irrigation in the West Bank–Palestine,” Desalination, Vol. 248, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 315-321.

[10]   H. Al-Hamaiedeh and M. Bino, “Effect of Treated Grey Water Reuse in Irrigation on Soil and Plants,” Desalination, Vol. 256, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 115-119.

[11]   I. Papadopoulos, “Wastewater Management for Agriculture Protection in the Near East Region,” Technical Bulletin, FAO, Regional Office for the Near East, Cairo, Egypt, 1995.

[12]   EPA, “Guidelines for Water Reuse,” EPA625-R-04/018, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, 2004.

[13]   WHO, “Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture,” Report of a WHO Scientific Group, Geneva, 2006.

[14]   W. K. Al-Zubari, “Towards the Establishment of a Total Water Cycle Management and Re-Use Program in the GCC Countries,” Desalination, Vol. 120, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 3-14.

[15]   R. K. Yadav, B. Goyal, R. K. Sharma, S. K. Dubey and P. S. Minhas, “Post-Irrigation Impact of Domestic Sewage Effluent on Composition of Soil, Crop and Ground Water—A Case Study,” Environmental International, Vol. 28, No. 6, December 2002, pp. 481-486.

[16]   M. Qadir, D. Wichelns, I. Raschid-Sally, P. G. McCornik, P. Drechsel, A. Bahri and P. S. Minhas, “The Challenges of Wastewater Irrigation in Developing Countries,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2009, pp. 561-568.

[17]   G. Hussain and A. J. A1-Saati, “Wastewater Quality and its Reuse in Agriculture in Saudi Arabia,” Desalination, Vol. 123, No. 2-3, October 1999, pp. 241-251.

[18]   Y. Chen, C. X. Wang and Z. J. Wang, “Assessment of the Contamination and Genotoxicity of Irrigated with Wastewater,” Journal of Plant and Soil, Vol. 261, No. 1-2, April 2004, pp. 189-196.

[19]   T. Rutkowski, L. Raschid-Sally and S. Buechler, “Waste- water Irrigation in the Developing World—Two Case Studies from the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 88, No. 1-3, March 2007, pp. 83-91.

[20]   J. F. Wang, G. X. Wang and H. Wanyan, “Treated Wastewater Irrigation Effect on Soil, Crop and Environment: Wastewater Recycling in the Loess Area of China,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1093-1099.

[21]   R. I. Esteban and E. O. de Miguel, “Present and Future of Wastewater Reuse in Spain,” Desalination, Vol. 218, No. 1-3, January 2008, pp. 105-119.

[22]   F. Morari and L. Giardini, “Municipal Wastewater Treatment with Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland for Irrigation Reuse,” Ecological Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 5, May 2009, pp. 643-653.

[23]   M. Al-Shammiri, A. Al-Saffar, S. Bohamad and M. Ahmed, “Waste Water Quality and Reuse in Irrigation in Kuwait Using Microfiltration Technology in Treatment,” Desalination, Vol. 185, No. 1-3, November 2005, pp. 213-225.

[24]   S. B. Al-Shammiri and A. M. Shahalam, “Effluent from and Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant—An Alternate Source of Non-Potable Water for Kuwait,” Desalination, Vol. 196, No. 1-3, September 2006, pp. 215-220.

[25]   M. S. Mohsen and J. O. Jaber, “Potential of Industrial Wastewater Reuse,” Desalination, Vol. 152, No. 1-3, February 2002, pp. 281-289.

[26]   B. Y. Ammary, “Wastewater Reuse in Jordan: Present Status and Future Plans,” Desalination, Vol. 211, No. 1-3, June 2007, pp. 164-176.

[27]   A. S. Al-Adili, “Geotechnical Evaluation of Baghdad Soil Subsidence and their Treatments,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Baghdad, Iraq, 1998.

[28]   APHA, WWA & WEF, “Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 2005.

[29]   F. M. Eaton, “Significance of Carbonates in Irrigated Waters,” Soil Science, Vol. 69, No. 2, February 1950, pp. 127-128.

[30]   US Salinity Laboratory, “Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils,” Department of Agriculture, Handbook No. 60, 1954, p. 160.

[31]   L. V. Wilcox, “The Quality of Water for Irrigation Use,” US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 962, Washington, D.C., 1948, p. 40.

[32]   R. S. Ayers and D. W. Westcot, “Water Quality for Agriculture,” Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29, FAO, Rome, 1985.

[33]   M. B. Pescod, “Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture,” FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 47, FAO, Rome, 1985.

[34]   R. K. Tatawat and C. P. Singh Chandel, “A Hydrochemical Profile for Assessing the Groundwater Quality of Jaipur City,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 143, No. 1-3, August 2008, pp. 337-343.

[35]   W. P. Kelley, “Alkali Soils: Their Formation Properties and Reclamations,” Reinhold, New York, 1951.

[36]   S. Begum and M. G. Rasul, “Reuse of Stormwater for Watering Gardens and Plants Using Green Gully: A New Stormwater Quality Improvement Device (SQID),” Water Air Soil Pollution: Focus, Vol. 9, No. 5-6, December 2009, pp. 371-380.

[37]   B. Abdul-Moneim, “Protected Irrigation,” Kuwait University, 1985.

[38]   D. K. Todd, “Groundwater Hydrology,” Wiley International Edition, John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York, 1980.

[39]   T. N. Tiwari and A. Manzoor, “Pollution of Subarnarekha River near Jamshedpur and the Suitability of its Water for Irrigation,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 8, 1988, pp. 494-497.

[40]   C. A. Bower and M. Maasland, “Sodium Hazards of Punjab Groundwater,” West Pakistan Engineering Congress Proceeding, Vol. 50, 1963, pp. 49-61.

[41]   R. S. Ayers and D. W. Westcot, “Water Quality for Agriculture,” Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29, FAO, Rome, 1976.

[42]   D. L. Suarez, “Relation between pHc and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and An Alternative Method of Estimating SAR of Soil or Drainage Waters,” Soil Science Society of American Journal, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1981, pp. 469-475.

[43]   N. S. Rao, “Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in a part of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 49, No. 3, January 2006, pp. 413-429.

[44]   K. R. Karanth, “Hydrogeology,” McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1989.

[45]   G. Fipps, “Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management,” The Texas A & M University System, 1998. http://www.extension.org/mediawiki/files/1/1e/Sali- nity document.pdf

[46]   D. J. Halliwell, K. M. Barlow and D. M. Nash, “A Review of the Effects of Wastewater Sodium on Soil Physical Properties and their Implications for Irrigation Systems,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1259-1267.

[47]   R. W. Tillman and A. Surapaneni, “Some Soil-Related Issues in the Disposal of Effluent on Land,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2002, pp. 225-235.

[48]   J. E. Ayers and K. K. Tanji, “Effect of Drainage on Water Quality in Arid and Semiarid Lands,” In: R. W. Skaggs and J. van Schilfgaarde, Eds., Agricultural Drainage, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, 1999, pp. 831-867.

[49]   J. W. van Hoorn and J. G. van Alpen, “Salinity Control, Salt Balance and Leaching Requirement of Irrigated Soil- 9,” International Course of Land Drainage, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 1990.

[50]   L. Khodapanah, W. N. A. Sulaiman and D. N. Khodapanah, “Groundwater Quality Assessment for Different Purposes in Eshtehard District, Tehran, Iran,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2009, pp. 543-553.

[51]   I. Szabolcs and C. Darab, “The Influence of Irrigation Water of High Sodium Carbonate Content of Soils,” Proceedings of 8th International Congress of Isss, Vol. 2, 1964, pp. 803-812.

 
 
Top