Back
 CM  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2012
Holistic Psychopharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)
Abstract: Fumaria indica is a medicinal plant of the fumitory family wildly growing throughout India. Classical texts of Ayurveda, i.e. the oldest traditionally known health care and medical system originating in Indian subcontinent, mentions diverse medicinal uses of the plant. During more recent decades broad spectrums of therapeutically interesting pharmacological properties of its extracts and secondary metabolites have also been reported. Recent observations made during efforts to define its pharmacological activity profile according to the Ayurvedic concepts of mind body medicine have revealed exceptionally broad spectrums of psychopharmacological activity profiles of diverse types of hydro alcoholic extracts of the plant. These effects of the extracts become apparent after their repeated daily doses only. Taken together with prior preclinical knowledge on the plant, these observations strongly suggest that Fumaria indica could be an easily available source for discovering and developing phyto-pharmaceuticals or drugs potentially useful for treatments of mental health problems commonly associated with numerous physical disorders and chronic diseases. Since several psychoactive and other phytochemical of Fumaria indica are also encountered in other plants commonly used in Chinese and other traditionally known medical systems, observations made and the holistic strategy used for defining its psychopharmacological activity profile could be of interest of others involved in efforts necessary for proper understanding of therapeutic potentials of many plants containing Fumaria alkaloids and other bioactive phytochemicals present in Fumaria indica.
Cite this paper: A. Shakya, S. Chatterjee and V. Kumar, "Holistic Psychopharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)," Chinese Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 182-199. doi: 10.4236/cm.2012.34028.
References

[1]   B. Patwardhan, D. Warude, P. Pushpagandan and N. Bhatt, “Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005, pp. 465-473. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh140

[2]   W. C. McClatchey, G. B. Mahady, B. C. Bennett, L. Shiels and V. Savo, “Ethnobotany as a Pharmacological Eesearch Tool and Recent Developments in CNS-Active Natural Products from Ethnobotanical Sources,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 123, No. 2, 2009, pp. 239-254.

[3]   S. S. Chatterjee and V. Kumar, “Holistic Psychopharmacology and Promiscuous Plants and Principles of Ayurveda,” American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 7, 2012, pp. 1015-1021. doi:10.4236/ajps.2012.327120

[4]   P. V. Sharma, “Charak Samhita,” Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 1983.

[5]   P. V. Sharma and G. P. Sharma, “Dhanvantari Nighantu,” Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2008.

[6]   B. Mishra and R. Vaishya, “Bhava Prakasha,” Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi, 2003.

[7]   S. R. Baquar, “Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan,” Printas, Karachi, 1989.

[8]   U. Mandal, D. K. Nandi, K. Chatterjee, K. M. Ali, A. Biswas and D. Ghosh, “Effect of Different Solvent Extracts of Fumaria vaillantii L. on Experimental Hypochlorhydria in Rat,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2011, pp. 136-141.

[9]   R. Suau, B. Cabezudo, R. Rico, F. Najera and J. M. Loppez-Romero, “Direct Determination of Alkaloid Contents in Fumaria Species by GC-MS,” Phytochemical Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2011, pp. 363-367.

[10]   W. Murad, A. Ahmad, S. A. Gilani and M. A. Khan, “Indigenous Knowledge and Folk Use of Medicinal Plants by the Tribal Communities of Hazar Nao Forest, Malakand District, North Pakistan,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 5, No. 7, 2011, pp. 1072-1086.

[11]   C. V. Rao, A. R. Verma, P. K. Gupta and M. V. Kumar, “Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Fumaria indica Whole Plant Extract in Experimental Animals,” Acta Pharmaceutica, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2007, pp. 491-498.

[12]   F. E. Araii, M. Keshavarzi, M. Sheidaii and P. Ghadam, “Fruit and Seed Morphology of the Fumaria L. Species (Papaveraceae) of Iran,” Turkish Journal of Botany, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2011, pp. 167-173.

[13]   P. C. Gupta, N. Sharma and C. V. Rao, “A Review on Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory),” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2012, pp. 665-669.

[14]   Anonymous, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India,” Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of Ayush, Controller of Publications, New Delhi, 1999.

[15]   A. A. Rajopadhya and A. S. Upadhye, “Botanical and Phytochemical Standardization of Fumaria vaillantii,” Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 369-374.

[16]   R. N. Chopra, S. L. Nayar and S. N. Chopra, “Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants,” National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (CSIR), New Delhi 1985.

[17]   K. R. Kirtikar and B. D. Basu, “Indian Medicinal Plants,” Lait Mohan Basu Publishers, Allahabad, 1985.

[18]   K. M. Nadkarni, “Indina Materica Medica,” Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976.

[19]   V. B. Pandey, B. Dasgupta, S. K. Bhattacharya, R. Lal and P. K. Das, “Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Major Alkaloid of Fumaria indica,” Current Science, Vol. 40, No. 17, 1971, pp. 455-457.

[20]   N. U. Rehman, M. H. Mehmood, A. J. A. Rehaily, R. A. A. Mothana and A. H. Gilani, “Species and Tissue-Specificity of Prokinetic, Laxative and Spasmodic Effects of Fumaria parviflora,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 12, Article No. 16, 2012. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-16

[21]   M. B. Pandey, A. K. Singh and U. P. Singh, “Inhibitive Effect of Fuyuziphine Isolated from Plant (Pittapapra) (Fumaria indica) on Spore Germination of Some Fungi,” Mycobiology, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2007, pp. 157-158. doi:10.4489/MYCO.2007.35.3.157

[22]   M. B. Pandey, A. K. Singh, J. P. Singh, V. P. Singh and V. B. Pandey, “Fuyuziphine, a New Alkaloid from Fumaria indica,” Natural Product Research, Vol. 22, No. 6, 2008, pp. 533-536. doi:10.1080/14786410701592596

[23]   V. K. Tripathi and V. B. Pandey, “Stem Alkaloids of Fumaria indica,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1992, pp. 2188-2189. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(92)80401-Y

[24]   V. B. Pandey, A. B. Ray and B. Dasgupta, “Minor Alkaloids of Fumaria indica Seeds,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1979, pp. 695-696. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84306-X

[25]   V. B. Pandey, A. B. Ray and B. Dasgupta, “Quaternary Alkaloids of Fumaria indica,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1976, pp. 545-546. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88969-4

[26]   Y. C. Tripathi, V. B. Pandey, N. K. R. Pathak and M. Biswas, “A Seco-Pthalideisoquinoline Alkaloid from Fumaria indica Seeds,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1988, pp. 1918-1919. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)80485-0

[27]   B. Dasgupta, K. K. Seth, V. B. Pandey and A. B. Ray, “Alkaloids of Fumaria indica: Further Studies on Narceimine and Narlumidine,” Planta Medica, Vol. 50, No. 6, 1984, pp. 481-485. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969778

[28]   A. U. Rahman, M. K. Bhatti and M. I. Choudhary, “Chemical Constituent of Fumaria indica,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 63, No. 2, 1992, pp. 129-135.

[29]   A. U. Rahman, M. K. Bhatti, H. Ahmed, H. U. Rehman and D. S. Rycroft, “A New Isoquinoline Alkaloid Papraine from Fumaria indica,” Heterocycles, Vol. 29, No. 6, 1989, pp. 1091-1095. doi:10.3987/COM-89-4856

[30]   A. U. Rahman, S. S. Ali, M. M. Qureshi, S. Hasan and M. K. Bhatti, “Fumarizine—A New Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid from Fumaria indica,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 60, No. 6, 1989, pp. 552-553.

[31]   A. U. Rahman, M. K. Bhatti, M. I. Choudhary and S. K. Ahmad, “Alkaloidal Constituent of Fumaria indica,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1995, pp. 593-596. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00038-9

[32]   B. K. Sarma, V. B. Pandey, G. D. Mishra and U. P. Singh, “Antifungal Activity of Berberine Iodide, a Constituent of Fumaria indica,” Folia Microbiologica, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1999, pp. 164-166. doi:10.1007/BF02816235

[33]   K. S. Rao and S. H. Mishra, “Antihepatotoxic Activity of Monomethyl Fumarate Isolated from Fumaria indica,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1998, pp. 207-213. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00149-9

[34]   J. Dostal, “Two Faces of Alkaloids,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 77, No. 8, 2000, pp. 993-998. doi:10.1021/ed077p993

[35]   Y. C. Tripathi, M. Rathore and H. Kumar, “On the Variation of Alkaloidal Contents of Fumaria indica at Different Stages of Life Span,” Ancient Science of Life, Vol. 13, No. 3-4, 1993, pp. 271-273.

[36]   L. D. Kapoor, “Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1990.

[37]   K. Usmanghani, A. Saeed and M. T. Alam, “Indusyunic Medicine,” University of Karachi Press, Karachi, 1997.

[38]   J. A. Duke, M. J. Bogenschutz-Godwin, J. Ducelliar and P. K. Duke, “Handbook of Medicinal Herbs,” 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002. doi:10.1201/9781420040463

[39]   I. U. Haq and M. Hussain, “Medicinal Plants of Mansehra,” Hamdard Medicus, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1993, pp. 78-79.

[40]   P. K. Singh, V. Kumar, R. K. Tiwari, A. Sharma, C. V. Rao and R. H. Singh, “Medico-Ethnobotany of ‘Chatara’ Block of District Sonebhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India,” Advances in Biological Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2010, pp. 65-80.

[41]   B. Uniyal and V. Shiva, “Traditional Knowledge on Medicinal Plants among Rural Women of the Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal,” Indian Journal of Taridtional Knowledge, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2005, pp. 259-266. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969166

[42]   S. Z. Husain, R. N. Malik, M. Javaid and S. Bibi, “Ethonobotanical Properties and Uses of Medicinal Plants of Morgah Biodiversity Park, Rawalpindi,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1897-1911.

[43]   R. Qureshi, A. Waheed, M. Arshad and T. Umbreen, “Medico-Ethnobotanical Inventory of Tehsil Chakwal, Pakistan,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2009, pp. 529-538.

[44]   M. Ahmad, R. Qureshi, M. Arshad, M. A. Khan and M. Zafar, “Traditional Herbal Remedies Used for the Treatment of Diabetes from District Attock (Pakistan),” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2009, pp. 2777-2782.

[45]   G. K. Singh and V. Kumar, “Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Extract of Fumaria indica in Rodents,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 134, No. 3, 2011, pp. 992-995.

[46]   A. Jamal, A. Siddiqi and S. M. Ali, “Home Remedies for Skin Care in Unani System of Medicine,” Natural Product Radiance, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2005, pp. 339-340.

[47]   A. Kumar, V. B. Pandey, K. K. Seth, B. Dasgupta and S. K. Bhattacharya, “Pharmacological Actions of Fumariline Isolated from Fumaria indica Seeds,” Planta Medica, Vol. 52, No. 4, 1986, pp. 324-325.

[48]   R. A. Singh, U. P. Singh, V. K. Tripathi, R. Roy and V. B. Pandey, “Effect of Fumaria indica Alkaloids on Conidial Germination of Some Fungi,” Oriental Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1997, pp. 177-180.

[49]   Y. C. Tripathi and R. K. Dwivedi, “Central Nervous System and Anti-infammatory Activities of Alkaloid of Fumaria indica,” Natural Academy Science Letters, Vol. 13, No. 6, 1990, pp. 231-233.

[50]   L. F. Xu, W. J. Chu, X. Y. Qing, S. Li, X. S. Wang, G. W. Qing, J. Fei and L. H. Guo, “Protopine Inhibits Serotonin Transporter and Noradrenaline Transporter and Has the Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mice Models,” Neuropharmacology, Vol. 50, No. 8, 2006, pp. 934-940.

[51]   A. Rathi, A. K. Srivastava, A. Shirwaikar, A. K. S. Rawat and S. Mehrotra, “Hepatoprotective Potential of Fumaria indica Pugsley Whole Plant Extracts, Fractions and an Isolated Alkaloid Protopine,” Phytomedicine, Vol. 15, No. 6-7, 2008, pp. 470-477.

[52]   Y. H. Huang, Z. Z. Zhang and J. X. Jiang, “Relaxant Effects of Protopine on Smooth Muscles,” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1991, pp. 16-19.

[53]   S. A. Saeed, A. H. Gilani, R. U. Majoo and B. H. Shah, “Anti-Thrombotic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Protopine,” Pharmacological Research, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1997, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1006/phrs.1997.0195

[54]   Q. Xu, R. L. Jin and Y. Y. Wu, “Opioid, Calcium, and Adrenergic Receptor Involvement in Protopine Analgesia,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, Vol. 14, No. 6, 1993, pp. 495-500.

[55]   B. Sener and I. Orphan, “Molecular Diversity in the Bioactive Compounds from Turkish Plants—Evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Fumaria Species,” Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2004, pp. 313-315.

[56]   I. Orhan, B. Oz?elik, T. Karaoglu and B. Sener, “Antiviral and Antimicrobial Profiles of Selected Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Fumaria and Corydalis Species,” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, Vol. 62, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 19-26.

[57]   V. K. Tripathi and V. B. Pandey, “Stem Alkaloids of Fumaria indica and Their Biological Activity,” Planta Medica, Vol. 58, No. S7, 1992, pp. 651-652.

[58]   R. De Jong, A. C. Bezemer, T. P. Zomerdijk, P. K. T. Vande, T. H. Ottenhoff and P. H. Nibbering, “Selective Stimulation of T Helper 2 Cytokine Responses by the Anti-Psoriasis Agent Monomethyl Fumarate,” European Journal of Immunology, Vol. 26, No. 9, 1996, pp. 2067-2074.

[59]   D. H. Lee, R. A. Linker, M. Stangel and R. Gold, “Fumarate for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Potential Mechanism of Action and Clinical Studies,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1683-1690. doi:10.1586/14737175.8.11.1683

[60]   M. Lukashev, W. Zeng, S. Goelz, R. Linker and R. Gold, “Activation of Nrf2 and Modulation of Disease Progression in EAE Models by BG00012 (Dimethyl fumarate) Suggests a Novel Mechanism of Action Combining Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective M. S. Modalities,” Multiple Sclerosis, Vol. 13, No. S2, 2007, p. S149.

[61]   U. Mrowietz and K. Asadullah, “Dimethyl fumarate for Psoriasis: More than a Dietary Curiosity,” Trends in Molecular Biology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007, pp. 43-48.

[62]   S. Schilling, S. Goelz, R. Linker, F. Luehder and R. Gold, “Fumaric Acid Esters Are Effective in Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Suppress Macrophage Infiltration,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol. 145, No. 1, 2006, pp. 101-107.

[63]   I. E. Orhan, B. Sener and S. G. Musharraf, “Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity Appraisal of Four Selected Fumaria Species and Their Total Phenol and Flavonoids Quantities,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2012, pp. 205-209. doi:10.1016/j.etp.2010.08.007

[64]   F. H. Tirtash, M. Keshavarzi and F. Fazeli, “Antioxidant Components of Fumaria Species (Papaveraceae),” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2011, pp. 233-236.

[65]   P. Hordegen, H. Hertzberg, J. Heilmann, W. Langhans and V. Maurer, “The Anthelmintic Efficacy of Five Plant Products against Gastrointestinaltrichostrongylids in Artificially Infected Lambs,” Veterin Parasitology, Vol. 117, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 51-60.

[66]   I. R. M. Al-Shaibani, M. S. Phulan and M. Shiekh, “Anthelmintic Activity of Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae) against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2009, pp. 431-436.

[67]   A. H. Gilani, S. Bashir, K. H. Janbaz and A. Khan, “Pharmacological Basis for the Use of Fumaria indica in Constipation and Diarrhoea,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2005, pp. 585-589. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.010

[68]   S. R. Kurma and S. H. Mishra, “Hepatoprotective Activity of the Whole Plant of Fumaria indica,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1997, pp. 165-170.

[69]   A. H. Gilani, K. H. Janbaz and M. S. Akhtar, “Selective Protective Effect of an Extract from Fumaria parviflora on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity,” General Pharmacology, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1996, pp. 979-983. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02140-X

[70]   J. Parekh and S. Chanda, “In Vitro Screening of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Various Indian Plant Species against Selected Pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 1, No. 6, 2007, pp. 92-99.

[71]   I. Orhan, B. Sener, M. I. Choudhary and A. Khalid, “Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2004, pp. 57-60. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.11.016

[72]   S. G. Khattak, S. N. Gilani and M. Ikram, “Antipyretic Studies on Some Indigenous Pakistani Medicinal Plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1985, pp. 45-51. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(85)90027-3

[73]   M. Tripathi, B. K. Singh, S. Raisuddin and P. Kakkar, “Abrogation of Nimesulide Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis by Fumaria parviflora Lam Extract,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 136, No. 1, 2011, pp. 94-102. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.014

[74]   G. K. Singh and V. Kumar, “Neuropharmacological Screening and Lack of Antidepressant Activity of Standardized Extract of Fumaria indica: A Preclinical Study,” Electronic Journal of Pharmacology and Therapy, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2010, pp. 19-28.

[75]   G. K. Singh, S. K. Chauhan, G. Rai and V. Kumar, “Fumaria indica Is Safe during Chronic Toxicity and Cytotoxicity: A Preclinical Study,” Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 191-192. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.83287

[76]   G. K. Singh, G. Rai, S. S. Chatterjee and V. Kumar, “Beneficial Effects of Fumaria indica on Chronic Stress-Induced Neurobehavioral and Biochemical Perturbations in Rats,” Chinese Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 49-60.

[77]   G. K. Singh, G. Rai, S. S. Chatterjee and V. Kumar, “Anti-Aggressive, Brain Neurotransmitters and Receptor Binding Study of Fumaria indica in Rodents,” Current Psychopharmacology, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2012, pp. 195-202. doi:10.2174/2211556011201030195

[78]   G. K. Singh, G. Rai, S. S. Chatterjee and V. Kumar, “Potential Antianxiety Activity of Fumaria indica: A Preclinical Study,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2012, in Press.

[79]   Rifat-uz-Zaman and Attiq-ur-Rehman, “Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Protective Effects of Aqueous Fumaria vaillantii L. Extract in Pylorus-Ligated, Indomethacin and Toxic-Induced Ulcers in Rats,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2010, pp. 256-262.

[80]   S. Mitra and S. K. Mukherjee, “Ethnomedicinal Usages of Some Wild Plants of North Bengal Plain for Gastro-Intestinal Problems,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2010, pp. 705-712.

[81]   M. H. Nasrabadi, H. Aboutalebi and M. Naseri, “Effect of Fumaria parviflora Alcoholic Extract on Male Rat’s Reproductive-System,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 6, No. 10, 2012, pp. 2004-2010.

[82]   F. R. Stermitz and V. P. Muralidharan, “Alkaloids of the Papaveraceae. VI. Protopine and Allocryptopine from Arctomecon alifornica,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 56, No. 6, 1967, p. 762. doi:10.1002/jps.2600560625

[83]   A. Capasso, S. Piacente, C. Pizza, N. De Tommasi, C. Jativa and L. Sorrentino, “Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Argemone mexicana Reduce Morphine Withdrawal in Guinea Pig Isolated Ileum,” Planta Medica, Vol. 63, No. 4, 1997, pp. 326-328. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957693

[84]   O. Munoz, P. Christen, S. Cretton, N. Backhouse, V. Torres, O. Correa, E. Costa, H. Miranda and C. Delporte, “Chemical Study and Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaves of Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 63, No. 6, 2011, pp. 849-859. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01280.x

[85]   L. Rastrelli, A. Capasso, C. Pizza, N. De Tommasi and L. Sorrentino, “New Protopine and Benzyltetrahydroprotoberberine Alkaloids from Aristolochia constricta and their Activity on Isolated Guinea-Pig Ileum,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 60, No. 11, 1997, pp. 1065-1069. doi:10.1021/np960710b

[86]   J. E. Park, T. D. Cuong, T. M. Hung, I. Lee, M. Na, J. C. Kim, S. Ryoo, J. H. Lee, J. S. Choi, M. H. Woo and B. S. Min, “Alkaloids from Chelidonium majus and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Induced NO Production in RAW264.7 Cells,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol. 21, No. 23, 2011, pp. 6960-6963. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.09.128

[87]   M. Gilca, L. Gaman, E. Panait, I. Stoian and V. Atanasiu, “Chelidonium majus—An Integrative Review: Traditional Knowledge versus Modern Findings,” Forsch Complemented, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2010, pp. 241-248. doi:10.1159/000321397

[88]   Y. L. Tang, A. M. Yang, Y. S. Zhang and H. Q. Wang, “Studies on the Alkaloids from the Herb of Corydalis adunca,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2005, pp. 195-197.

[89]   L. Y. He and Y. B. Zhang, “TLC Separation and Densitometric Determination of Six Isoquinoline Alkaloids in Corydalis bungeana,” Yao Xue Xue Bao, Vol. 20, No. 5, 1985, pp. 377-382.

[90]   P. Wangchuk, J. B. Bremner, S. R. Rattanajak and S. Kamchonwongpaisan, “Antiplasmodial Agents from the Bhutanese Medicinal Plant Corydalis calliantha,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010, pp. 481-485. doi:10.1002/ptr.2893

[91]   V. Preininger, R. S. Thakur and F. Santavy, “Isolation and Chemistry of Alkaloids from Plants of the Family Papaveraceae LXVII: Corydalis cava (L.) Sch. et K. (C. tuberosa DC),” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 65, No. 2, 1976, pp. 294-296. doi:10.1002/jps.2600650230

[92]   P. Wangchuk, P. A. Keller, S. G. Pyne, T. Sastraruji, M. Taweechotipatr, R. Rattanajak, A. Tonsomboon and S. Kamchonwongpaisan, “Phytochemical and Biological Activity Studies of the Bhutanese Medicinal Plant Corydalis crispa,” Natural Product Communication, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2012, pp. 575-580.

[93]   Y. Shen, C. Han, B. Xia, Y. Zhou, C. Liu and A. Liu, “Determination of Four Alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens by HPLC,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, Vol. 36, No. 15, 2011, pp. 2110-2112.

[94]   S. Sturm, C. Seger, M. Godejohann, M. Spraul and H. Stuppner, “Conventional Sample Enrichment Strategies Combined with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Solid Phase Extraction-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis Allows Analyte Identification from a Single Minuscule Corydalis solida Plant Tuber,” Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 1163, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 138-144. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.06.029

[95]   H. G. Kiryakov, E. Iskrenova, B. Kuzmanov and L. Evstatieva, “Alkaloids from Corydalis marschalliana,” Planta Medica, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1981, pp. 298-302. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971718

[96]   D. S. Bhakuni and R. Chaturvedi, “The Alkaloids of Corydalis meifolia,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1983, pp. 320-324. doi:10.1021/np50027a004

[97]   X. Jiang, J. Ye, J. Zeng, X. Zou and J. Wu, “Determination of Protopine in Corydalis racemose by HPLC,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, Vol. 35, No. 17, 2010, pp. 2315-2317.

[98]   D. K. Kim, K. T. Lee, N. I. Baek, S. H. Kim, H. W. Park, J. P. Lim, T. Y. Shin, D. O. Eom, J. H. Yang and J. S. Eun, “Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from the Aerial Parts of Corydalis speciosa,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, Vol. 27, No. 11, 2004, pp. 1127-1131. doi:10.1007/BF02975117

[99]   J. J. Chen, Y. L. Chang, C. M. Teng, W. Y. Lin, Y. C. Chen and I. S. Chen, “A New Tetrahydroprotoberberine N-Oxide Alkaloid and Anti-Platelet Aggregation Constituents of Corydalis tashiroi,” Planta Medica, Vol. 67, No. 5, 2001, pp. 423-427. doi:10.1055/s-2001-15820

[100]   S. R. Kim, S. Y. Hwang, Y. P. Jang, M. J. Park, G. J. Markelonis, T. H. Oh and Y. C. Kim, “Protopine from Corydalis ternata Has Anticholinesterase and Antiamnesic Activities,” Planta Medica, Vol. 65, No. 3, 1999, pp. 218-221. doi:10.1055/s-1999-13983

[101]   Y. W. Li and Q. C. Fang, “Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Corydalis thyrsiflora Prain,” Yao Xue Xue Bao, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1991, pp. 303-306.

[102]   Z. Lu, W. Sun, X. Duan, Z. Yang, Y. Liu and P. Tu, “Chemical Constituents from Corydalis yanhusuo,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2012, pp. 235-237.

[103]   X. Wang, H. Dong, B. Yang, D. Liu, W. Duan and L. Huang, “Preparative Isolation of Alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens Using pH-Zone-Refining Counter-Current Chromatography by Changing the Length of the Separation Column,” Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, Vol. 879, No. 31, 2011, pp. 3767-3770. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.10.013

[104]   F. Du, S. Wang and Z. Xie, “Concentration of Four Alkaloids in the Aerial Parts of Eomecon chionantha from Different Month in Year,” Zhong Yao Cai, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2000, pp. 189-190.

[105]   T. Tanahashi and M. H. Zenk, “New Hydroxylated Benzo[c]Phenanthridine Alkaloids from Eschscholtzia californica Cell Suspension Cultures,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1990, pp. 579-586. doi:10.1021/np50069a007

[106]   J. Vrba, E. Vrublova, M. Modriansky and J. Ulrichova, “Protopine and Allocryptopine Increase mRNA Levels of Cytochromes P450 1A in Human Hepatocytes and HepG2 Cells Independently of AhR,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 203, No. 2, 2011, pp. 135-141. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.03.015

[107]   I. Valka, D. Walterova, M. E. Popova, V. Preininger and V. Simanek, “Separation and Quantification of Some Alkaloids from Fumaria parviflora by Capillary Isotachophoresis1,” Planta Medica, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1985, pp. 319-322. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969501

[108]   A. Shafiee, I. Lalezari, S. Lajevardi and F. Khalafi, “Alkaloids of Glaucium flavum Grantz, Populations Isfahan and Kazerun,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 66, No. 6, 1977, pp. 873-874. doi:10.1002/jps.2600660636

[109]   T. Gozler, “Alkaloids of Turkish Glaucium Species,” Planta Medica, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1982, pp. 179-180. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971209

[110]   A. Shafiee, I. Lalezari and M. Mahjour, “Alkaloids of Glaucium oxylobum Boiss and Buhse, Population Ab-Ali,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 66, No. 4, 1977, pp. 593-594. doi:10.1002/jps.2600660437

[111]   A. Shafiee, I. Lalezari and O. Rahimi, “Alkaloids of Papaver Genus IX. Alkaloids of Glaucium vitellinum Boiss and Buhse, Population Seerjan and Glaucium pulchrum Stapf, Population Elika,” Lloydia, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1977, pp. 352-355.

[112]   D. S. Bae, Y. H. Kim, C. H. Pan, C. W. Nho, J. Samdan, J. Yansan and J. K. Lee, “Protopine Reduces the Inflammatory Activity of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Murine Macrophages,” Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2012, pp. 108-113.

[113]   S. Philipov, R. Istatkova, P. Denkova, S. Dangaa, J. Samdan, M. Krosnova and C. Munkh-Amgalan, “Alkaloids from Mongolian Species Hypecoum lactiflorum Kar. et Kir. Pazij,” Natural Product Research, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2009, pp. 982-987. doi:10.1080/14786410802133878

[114]   B. Z. Chen and Q. C. Fang, “Chemical Study on A Traditional Tibetan Drug Hypecoum leptocarpum,” Yao Xue Xue Bao, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1985, pp. 658-661.

[115]   P. Kosina, J. Gregorova, J. Gruz, J. Vacek, M. Kolar, M. Vogel, W. Roos, K. Naumann, V. Simanek and J. Ulrichova, “Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization of Macleaya cordata Herb,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 81, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1006-1012. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.06.020

[116]   K. Pencikova, J. Urbanova, P. Musil, E. Taborska and J. Gregorova, “Seasonal Variation of Bioactive Alkaloid Contents in Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim.) Fedde,” Molecules, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2011, pp. 3391-3401. doi:10.3390/molecules16043391

[117]   P. G. Vincent and B. F. Engelke, “High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Determination of the Five Major Alkaloids in Papaver somniferum L. and Thebaine in Papaver bracteatum Lindl. Capsular Tissue,” Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Vol. 62, No. 2, 1979, pp. 310-314.

[118]   D. U. Lee, J. H. Park, L. Wessjohann and J. Schmidt, “Alkaloids from Papaver coreanum,” Natural Product Com- munication, Vol. 6, No. 11, 2011, pp. 1593-1594.

[119]   M. Bambagiotti-Alberti, S. Pinzauti, G. Moneti, P. Gratteri, S. A. Coran and F. F. Vincieri, “Characterization of Sanguinaria canadensis L. Fluid Extract by FAB Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 9, No. 10-12, 1991, pp. 1083-1087. doi:10.1016/0731-7085(91)80048-E

[120]   W. N. Wu, J. L. Beal, G. W. Clark and L. A. Mitscher, “Antimicrobial Agents from Higher Plants. Additional Alkaloids and Antimicrobial Agents from Thalictrum rugosum,” Lloydia, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1976, pp. 65-75.

 
 
Top