The Hydrochemical study was carried out in Dwarakeswar watershed area, Bankura and Purulia districts, West Bengal, India, with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. Groundwater samples have been collected from different villages within Dwarakeswar watershed area. The samples have been analysed to determine physical parameters like pH, EC, TDS and Hardness, the chemical parameters like Na, K, Ca, Fe, HCO3, SO4 and Cl. From the analysed data, some parameters like Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Total Hardness (TH), Magnesium Absorption Ration (MAR) and Kelly’s Ratio (KR) have also been determined.The distribution pattern of TDS and chlorides, which are the general indicators of groundwater quality reveals that on an average the ground water is fresh and potable except the ground water in and around Teghari, Gara and Satyatan Primary school where the groundwater is not potable and may affect the health of local population because concentration of TDS exceeds the desirable limits of 500 mg/L. The aerial distribution of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) reveals that highest concentration is recorded at Gara and Teghri and the lowest concentrations is noted in Suburdih and Kalabani. SAR values were ranged between 0.09-0.54 meq/L in pre monsoon and 0.01-0.24meq/L in post-monsoon. It is evident from the whole sample set that the SAR value is excellent in all the samples. Hence, our findings strongly suggest that all the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation. Results of analyses for physical and chemical parameters of groundwater in this area was found to be within the desirable Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organisation limits for drinking water.
Cite this paper
S. Nag and A. Lahiri, "Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Dwarakeswar Watershed Area, India," American Journal of Climate Change, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2012, pp. 217-230. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.14019.
 R. H. Ganesh and Y. S. Kale, “Quality of Lentic Waters of Dharwad District in North Karnataka,” Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 37 No. 1, 1995, pp. 52-56.
 H. Bouwer, “Integrated Water Management: Emerging Issues and Challenges, Agricultural Water Management,” Vol. 45, No. 3, 2000, pp. 217-228.
 D. K. Todd, “Groundwater Development in an Arid Environment,” Geoenvironment 2000 Conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 1995, pp. 1429-1449.
 I. Raj, “Issues and Objectives in Groundwater Quality Monitoring Programme under Hydrology Project,” Proceedings of National Symphony Groundwater Quality Monitoring, Bangalore, 2000, pp. 1-7.
 M. S. Olaniya and K. L. Saxena, “Groundwater Pollution by Open Refuse Dumps, Environmental Health, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1977, pp. 176-188.
 R. J. Gillison and C. R. Patmont, “Lake Phosphorus Loading from Septic Systems by Seasonally Perched Groundwater,” Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 55, No. 10, 1983, pp. 1297-1304.
 C. Eison and M. P. Anderson, “The Effects of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality,” In: R. E. Jackson, Ed., Aquifer Contamination and Protection, UNESCO Press, Paris, 1980, pp. 378-390.
 H. Sharma and B. K. Kaur, “Environmental Chemistry,” Goel Publishing House, Meerut, 1995
 C. Subba Rao and N. V. Subba Rao, “Groundwater Quality in a Residential Colony,” Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 37 No. 4, 1995, pp. 295-300.
 A. K. Banerji, “Importance of Evolving a Management Plan for Groundwater Development in the Calcutta Region of the Bengal Basin in Eastern India,” Proceedings of International Symposium Groundwater Resources and Planning, Koblent, 28 August-3 September 1983, pp. 4554.
 B. K. Handa, “Hydrochemical Zones of India,” Proceedings of Seminar on Groundwater Development, Roorkee, 1986, pp. 439-450.
 S. Ramachandra, A. Narayanan and N. V. Pundarikathan, “Nitrate and Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater of Cultivated Areas in North Madras,” Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1991. pp. 421-424.
 N. C. Datta and S. Sen Gupta, “Effect of Artificial Aeration on the Hydrographic Regime of Pesticide Treated Aquatic System,” Journal of Pollution Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1996, pp. 329-333.
 R. K. Somashekar, V. Rameshaiah and A. Chethana Suvarna, “Groundwater Chemistry of Channapatna Taluk (Bangalore Rural District)—Regression and Cluster Analysis,” Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2000, pp. 101109.
 S. Rengaraj, T. Elampooranan, L. Elango and V. Ramalingam, “Groundwater Quality in Suburban Regions of Madras City, India,” Journal of Pollution Research, Vol. 15 No. 4, 1996, pp. 325-328.
 K. P. Singh, “Environmental Effects of Industrialization of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Ludhaina Area, Punjab, India,” Proceedings of international Symphony on Soil, Geology and Landform-Impact of Land Uses in Developing Countries, Bangkok, 1982, pp. E6.1E6.7.
 M. Singh, S. Kaur and S. S. Sooch, “Groundwater Pollution—An Overview,” Journal of the Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 29-31.
 L. Elango and S Manickam, “Hydrogeochemistry of the Madras Aquifer, India—Spatial and Temporal Variation in Chemical Quality of Groundwater,” Geological Society of Hong Kong Bulletin, No. 3, 1987, pp. 525-534.
 R. Ramesh, “Groundwater Quality Management: Pollution Perspectives Impacts of Urban Growth on Surface Water and Groundwater Quality,” Proceedings of IUGG 99 Symposium HS5, Birmingham, July 1999, pp. 47-55.
 N. Rajmohan, L. Elango, S. Ramachandran and M. Natrajan, “Major Ion Correlation in Groundwater of Kancheepuram Region, South India,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2000, pp. 188-193.
 L. Elango, R. Kannan and M. Senthilkumar, “Major Ion Chemistry and Identification of Hydrogeochemical Processes of Groundwater in a Part of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India,” Environmental Geosciences, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1-10.
 L. Elango, S. S. Kumar and N. Rajmohan, “Hydrochemical Studies of Groundwater in Chengalpet Region,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2003, pp. 624-632.
 M. Kumaresan and P. Riyazuddin, “Major Ion Chemistry of Environmental Samples around Sub–Urban of Chennai City,” Current Science, Vol. 91, No. 12, 2006. pp. 16681677.
 APHA, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 20th Edition, APHA, San Francisco, 1998.
 M. Detay, P. Poyet, Y. Emsellem, A. Bernardi and G. Aubrac, “Development of the Saprolite Reservoir and Its State of Saturation: Influence on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Drillings in Crystalline Basement (in French),” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série II, Vol. 309, 1989, pp. 429-436.
 R. Taylor and K. Howard, “A Tectono–Geomorphic Model of the Hydrogeology of Deeply Weathered Crystalline Rock: Evidence from Uganda,” Hydrogeology, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2000, pp. 279-294.
 R. Wyns, J. M. Baltassat, P. Lachassagne, A. Legchenko, J. Vairon and F. Mathieu, “Application of SNMR Soundings for Groundwater Reserves Mapping in Weathered Basement Rocks (Brittany, France),” Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, Vol. 175, No. 1, 2004, pp. 21-34. doi:10.2113/175.1.21
 WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004.
 A. Garrels, “Survey of Low Temperature Water Mineral Relations in Interpretation of Environmental Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Data in Groundwater Hydrology,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1976.
 C. V. Moore, “Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease,” Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1973, p. 297.
 F. J. Dart, “The Hazard of Iron,” Water and Pollution Control, Ottawa, 1974.
 A. Navarro and M. E. Camonal, “Evaluation of Groundwater Contamination Beneath an Urban Environment: The Beso’s River Basin (Barcelona, Spain),” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2007, pp. 259-269. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.08.021
 I. Anithamary, “Hydrogeochemical and Environmental Geochemistry of Water in Kodiakarai Region—Coastal Zone of Tamilnadu,” M.Phil. Thesis, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 2008.
 L. A. Richards, “Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils,” United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1954.
 D. K. Todd, “Ground Water Hydrogeology,” John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 1980.
 L. V. Wilcox, “Salinity—A Hidden Danger,” Cotton Trade Journal of 26th International Yearbook, 1959, pp. 58-64.
 S. K. Gupta and I. C. Gupta, “Management of Saline Soils and Water,” Oxford and IBH Publication, Co., New Delhi, 1987.
 I. I. M. Raghunath, “Groundwater,” 2nd Edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, 1987, pp. 344-369.
 W. P. Kelly, “Use of Saline Irrigation Water,” Soil Science, Vol. 95, No. 4, 1963, pp. 355-391.
 L. D. Doneen, “Notes on Water Quality in Agriculture,” Water Science and Engineering Paper 4001, University of California, Davis, 1964.
 A. M. Piper, “A Graphical Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analysis,” Transactions—Amer- ican Geophysical Union, Vol. 25, 1944, pp. 914-928.
 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), “Drinking Water,” 1st Revision, Government of India, New Delhi, 1991.