AiM  Vol.2 No.4 , December 2012
Antimicrobial Activities of Seed Extracts of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
ABSTRACT

Mangifera indica L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. It is found in the wild in tropical regions and cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. This present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of methanol and ethanol extracts of mango seed against 25 representatives gram positive, gram negative, acid fast bacteria and fungi. Mango fruit seed were extracted by Soxhlet using methanol and ethanol as solvents. The extracts were tested against the microorganisms using disc diffusion method at different concentrations: 5 mg/mL, 3.75 mg/mL, 3.125 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, 1.875 mg/mL and 1.25 mg/mL). In vitro antibacterial activities of methanol and ethanol extracts of mango bulb showed inhibitions to tested organisms with variable inhibition zones. Except one organism (Rhodococcus equi), no resistance among the tested strains was shown. The mean zone of inhibition produced ranged between 5 mmand18 mmwith18 mm/Mycobacterium smegmatis showed the highest zone of inhibition. In most test strains comparable zones of inhibitions were noted for both methanol and ethanol extract. Candida albicans and Aspergilllus niger were both inhibited by the extracts. The methanol and ethanol extracts of mango seed showed good inhibitory effects against almost all tested strains. The inhibition zones produced by mango extract were less than those produced by standard positive control drug. This could be due to low diffusion rate of mango extract in agarose medium, a thing needed to be further investigated. The products are potential new antimicrobial therapy in the ethnopharmacology domain.


Cite this paper
A. A. Awad El-Gied, M. R. P. Joseph, I. M. Mahmoud, A. M. Abdelkareem, A. M. Al Hakami and M. E. Hamid, "Antimicrobial Activities of Seed Extracts of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 571-576. doi: 10.4236/aim.2012.24074.
References
[1]   M. C. Marjorie, “Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents,” Clinical and Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 12, 1999, pp. 564-582.

[2]   G. Garrido, M. Blanco-Molina, R. Sancho, A. Macho, R. Delgado and E. Munoz, “An Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Mangifera indica (Vimang) Inhibits T Cell Proliferation and TNF-Induced Activation of Nuclear Transcription Factor NF-kappa B,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2005, pp. 211-215. doi:10.1002/ptr.1656

[3]   J. A. Ojewole, “Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Hypoglycemic Effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) Stem-Bark Aqueous Extract,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2005, pp. 547-554. doi:10.1358/mf.2005.27.8.928308

[4]   A. Vyas, K. Syeda, A. Ahmad, S. Padhye and F. H. Sarkar, “Perspectives on Medicinal Properties of Mangiferin,” Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2012, pp. 412-425. doi:10.2174/138955712800493870

[5]   N. Tsabang, P. V. Fokou, L. R. Tchokouaha, B. Noguem, I. Bakarnga-Via, M. S. Nguepi, B. A. Nkongmeneck and F. F. Boyom, “Ethnopharmacological Survey of Annonaceae Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria in Four Areas of Cameroon,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 139, No. 1, 2012, pp. 171-180. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.10.035

[6]   P. Rasoanaivo, D. Ramanitrahasimbola, H. Rafatro, D. Rakotondramanana, B. Robijaona, A. Rakotozafy, S. Ratsimamanga-Urverg, M. Laba?ed, P. Grellier, L. Allorge, L. Mambu and F. Frappier, “Screening Extracts of Madagascan Plants in Search of Antiplasmodial Compounds,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 18, No. 9, 2004, pp. 742-747. doi:10.1002/ptr.1533

[7]   Y. Vaghasiya, H. Patel and S. Chanda, “Antibacterial Activity of Mangifera indica L. Seeds against Some Human Pathogenic Bacterial Strains,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 15788-15794. doi:10.5897/AJB10.632

[8]   B. Neon, “Medicinal Plants in Nigeria, Private Edition,” Nigeria College of Arts, Science and Technology, Ibadan, 1984, pp. 1-84.

[9]   J. H. Doughari and S. Manzara, “In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Crude Leaf Extracts of Mangifera indica Linn,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 2, 2008, pp. 67-72.

[10]   M. Singh, S. Khatoon, S. Singh, V. Kumar, A. K. Rawat and S. Mehrotra, “Antimicrobial Screening of Ethnobotanically Important Stem Bark of Medicinal Plants,” Pharmacognosy Research, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 254-257. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.69127

[11]   S. C. Chhabra, F. C. Uiso and E. N. Mshiu, “Phytochemical Screening of Tanzanian Medicinal Plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 11, 1984, pp. 157-179.

[12]   A. Sofowora, “Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines in Africa,” John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York, 1982.

[13]   Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), “Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests,” 21st Informational Supplement, CLSI Document M100-S21, Vol. 31, No. 1, Wayne, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2011.

[14]   M. M. Cowan, “Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents,” Clinical and Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 12, 1999, pp. 564-582.

[15]   P. S. Barie, “Multidrug-Resistant Organisms and Antibiotic Management,” Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2012, pp. 345-391. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2012.01.015

[16]   P. R. Byam, R. B. Pierre, C. D. Christie, W. A. Andiman and M. Pettigrew, “Kingston Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS (KPAIDS) Study Group, Antibiotic Resistance among Pathogens Causing Disease in Jamaican Children with HIV/AIDS,” West Indian Medical Journal, Vol. 59, 2010, pp. 386-392.

 
 
Top