FNS  Vol.3 No.12 , December 2012
Wine Consumption in the Mediterranean Diet: Old Concepts in a New Sight
Abstract: The term “Mediterranean diet” is widely employed to indicate the typical diet of the Countries located on the Mediterranean sea coast. A growing body of scientific literature pointed out the healthy effects of this diet. In recent years we investigated about the protective effects of a regular and moderate wine consumption. As we know, alcoholic and non alcoholic wine constituents are responsible of different effects by means of molecular and cell mechanisms. Among the non alcoholic components, polyphenols (for example resveratrol and quercetin) were deeply investigated. The aim of this review is to underline the effects of a moderate and regular wine drinking in the context of the Mediterranean diet in light of the interactions between wine and important dietary factors such as olive oil, fruit and vegetables.
Cite this paper: C. Carollo and G. Caimi, "Wine Consumption in the Mediterranean Diet: Old Concepts in a New Sight," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 12, 2012, pp. 1726-1733. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.312226.

[1]   R. M. Ortega, “Importance of Functional Foods in the Mediterranean Diet,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 9, No. 8A, 2006, pp 1136-1140. doi:10.1017/S1368980007668530

[2]   A. Menotti, A. Alberti-Fidanza, F. Fidanza, M. Lanti and D. Fruttini, “Factor Analysis in the Identification of Dietary Patterns and Their Predictive Role in Morbid and Fatal Events,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 15, No. 7, 2012, pp. 1232-1239.

[3]   G. Caimi, C. Carollo and R. Lo Presti, “Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress and Wine,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, Vol. 19, No. 7, 2003, pp. 581-86. doi:10.1185/030079903125002324

[4]   G. Caimi, C. Carollo and R. Lo Presti, “Wine, Diet and Arterial Hypertension,” Angiology, Vol. 58 No. 1, 2007, pp. 92-96. doi:10.1177/0003319706295478

[5]   G. Caimi, C. Carollo and R. Lo Presti, “Chronic Renal Failure: Oxidative Stress, Endothelial Dysfunction and Wine,” Clinical Nephrology, Vol. 62, No. 5, 2004, pp. 331-335.

[6]   G. Caimi, C. Carollo and R. Lo Presti, “Wine Consumption and Renal Diseases: New Perspectives,” Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2007, pp. 598-602. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2007.04.012

[7]   A. L. Klatsky, G. D. Friedman, M. A. Armstrong and H. Kipp, “Wine, Liquor, Beer and Mortality,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 158, No. 6, 2003, pp. 585-595. doi:10.1093/aje/kwg184

[8]   A. L. Klatsky, G. D. Friedman and A. B. Siegelaub, “Alcohol Consumption before Myocardial Infarction. Results from the Kaiser-Permanente Epidemiologic Study of Myocardial Infarction,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 81, No. 3, 1974, pp. 294-301.

[9]   M. Gronbaek and T. I. Sorensen, “Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 313, No. 7053, 1996, pp. 365-366. doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7053.365

[10]   S. Renaud and M. De Lorgeril, “Wine, Alcohol, Platelets and the French Paradox for Coronary Artery Disease,” Lancet, Vol. 339, No. 8808, 1992, pp. 1523-1526. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(92)91277-F

[11]   R. Estruch and R. M. Lamuela-Raventòs, “Alcohol, Wine and Cardiovascular Disease, Two Sides of the Same Coin,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2010, pp. 277-279. doi:10.1007/s11739-010-0391-8

[12]   A. Di Castelnuovo, S. Costanzo, M. B. Donati, L. Iacoviello and G. De Gaetano, “Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk by Moderate Alcohol Consumption: Epidemiologic Evidence and Plausible Mechanisms,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2010, pp. 291-297. doi:10.1007/s11739-010-0346-0

[13]   J. Araya, R. Rodrigo, M. Orellana and G. Rivera, “Red Wine Raises Plasma HDL and Preserves Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Rat Kidneys and Erythrocytes,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 2, 2001, pp. 189-195. doi:10.1079/BJN2001369

[14]   C. Auger, B. Caporiccio, N. Landrault, P. L. Teissedre, C. Laurent and G. Cros, “Red Wine Phenolic Compounds Reduce Plasma Lipids and Apolipoprotein B and Prevent Early Aortic Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus),” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 132, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1207-1213.

[15]   H. Berrougui, G. Grenier, S. Loued, G. Drouin and A. Khalil, “A New Insight into Resveratrol as an Atheroprotective Compound: Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Enhancement of Cholesterol Efflux,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 207, No. 2, 2009, pp. 420-427. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.05.017

[16]   E. N. Frankel, J. Kanner, J. B. German, E. Parks and J. E. Kinsella, “Inhibition of Oxidation of Human Low-Density Lipoproteins by Phenolic Substances in Red Wine,” Lancet, Vol. 20, No. 341, 1993, pp. 454-457.

[17]   E. B. Rimm, P. Williams, K. Fosher, M. Criqui and M. J. Stampfer, “Moderate Alcohol Intake and Lower Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Meta-Analysis of Effects on Lipids and Haemostatic Factors,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7224, 1999, pp. 1523-1528. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7224.1523

[18]   G. Lippi, M. Franchini, E. J. Favaloro and G. Targher, “Moderate Red Wine Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Beyond the French Paradox,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2010, pp. 59-70. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1248725

[19]   K. Magyar, R. Halmosi, A. Palfi, G. Feher, L. Czopf and A. Fulop, “Cardioprotection by Resveratrol: A Human Clinical Trial in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease,” Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2012, pp. 179-187.

[20]   D. Mezzano, F. Leighton, C. Martínez, G. Marshall, A. Cuevas and O. Castillo, “Complementary Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Moderate Red Wine Intake on Haemostatic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 55, No. 6, 2001, pp. 444-451. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601202

[21]   D. M. Goldberg, V. Garovic-Kocic, E. P. Diamandis and C. R. Pace-Asciak, “Wine: Does the Colour Count?” Clinica Chimica Acta, Vol. 15, No. 246, 1996, pp. 183-193. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(96)06229-8

[22]   C. R. Pace-Asciak, O. Rounova, S. E. Hahn, E. P. Diamandis and D. M. Goldberg, “Wines and Grape Juices as Modulators of Platelet Aggregation in Healthy Human Subjects,” Clinica Chimica Acta, Vol. 246, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 163-182. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(96)06236-5

[23]   V. L. Serebruany and D. R. Lowry, “Take an Aspirin or Have a Drink: Antecedent Aspirin and Moderate Alcohol Consumption Similarly Affect Baseline Platelet Characteristics in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Vol. 84, No. 11, 2000, pp. 933-934.

[24]   M. G. Tozzi Ciancarelli, C. Di Massimo, D. De Amicis, I. Ciancarelli and A. Carolei, “Moderate Consumption of Red Wine and Human Platelet Responsiveness,” Thrombosis Research, Vol. 128, No. 124, 2011, pp. 124-129.

[25]   D. Taubert, R. Berkels, W. Klaus and R. Roesen, “Nitric Oxide Formation and Corresponding Relaxation of Porcine Coronary Arteries Induced by Plant Phenols: Essentials Structural Features,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Vol. 40, No. 701, 2002, pp. 701-713. doi:10.1097/00005344-200211000-00008

[26]   J. F. Leikert, T. R. Rathel, P. Wohlfart, V. Cheynier, A. M. Vollmar and V. M. Dirsch, “Red Wine Polyphenols Enhance Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Subsequent Nitric Oxide Release from Endothelial Cells,” Circulation, Vol. 106, No. 13, 2002, pp. 1614-1617. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000034445.31543.43

[27]   T. Wallerath, G. Deckert, T. Ternes, H Anderson, H. Li and K. Witte, “Resveratrol, a Polyphenolic Phytoalexin Present in Red Wine, Enhances Expression and Activity of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase,” Circulation, Vol. 106, No. 13, 2002, pp. 1652-1658. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000029925.18593.5C

[28]   S. Agewall, S. Wright, R. N. Doughty, G. A. Whalley, M. Duxbury and N. Sharpe, “Does a Glass of Red Wine Improve Endothelial Function?” European Heart Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2000, pp. 74-78. doi:10.1053/euhj.1999.1759

[29]   L. Djoussè, R. C. Ellison, C. E. McLennan, L. A. Cupples, I. Lipinska and G. H. Tofler, “Acute Effects of a High-Fat Meal with and without Red Wine on Endothelial Function in Healthy Subjects,” American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 84, No. 6, 1999, pp. 660-664. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(99)00412-9

[30]   T. O. Cheng, “Is Dealcoholized Red Wine the Final Solution? The Japanese Paradox,” American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 89, No. 9, 2002, p. 1150. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(02)02263-4

[31]   G. Paganga and C. A. Rice-Evans, “The Identification of Flavonoids as Glycosides in Human Plasma,” FEBS Letters, Vol. 401, No. 1, 1997, pp. 78-82. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01442-1

[32]   Y. Liu, H. Tanaka, S. Sasazuki, K. Yoshimasu, H. Kodama and M. Washio, “Alcohol Consumption and Severity of Angiographically Determined Coronary Artery Disease in Japanese Men and Women,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 156, No. 1, 2011, pp. 177-183. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(00)00627-4

[33]   H. Teragawa, Y. Fukuda, K. Matsuda, Y. Higashi, T. Yamagata and H. Matsuura, “Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Endothelial Function in Men with Coronary Artery Disease,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 165, 2002, pp. 145-152. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(02)00193-4

[34]   J. H. M. De Vries, P. C. H. Hollman, I. Van Amersfoort, M. R. Olthof and M. B. Katan, “Red Wine Is a Poor Source of Bioavailable Flavonols in Men,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, 2001, pp. 745-758.

[35]   C. Marin, R. Ramirez, J. Delgado-Lista, E. M. Yubero-Serrano, P. Perez-Martinez and J. Carracedo, “Mediterranean Diet Reduces Endothelial Damage and Improves the Regenerative Capacity of Endothelium,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2011, pp. 267-274. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.006866

[36]   G. Mancia, “Prevention and Treatment of Stroke in Patients with Hypertension,” Clinical Therapeutics, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2004, pp. 631-648. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(04)90065-3

[37]   G. Maschio, L. Oldrizzi, C. Marcantoni and C. Rugiu, “Hypertension and Progression of Renal Failure,” Journal of Nephrology, Vol. 13, 2000, pp. 225-227.

[38]   G. Corrao, V. Bagnardi, A. Zambon and C. La Vecchia, “A Meta-Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of 15 Diseases,” Preventive Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2004, pp. 613-619. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.11.027

[39]   D. B. Panagiotakos, C. H. Pitsavos, C. Chrysohoou, J. Skoumas, L. Papadimitriou and C. Stefanadis, “Status and Management of Hypertension in Greece: Role of Adoption of a Mediterranean Diet: The ATTICA Study,” Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1483-1489. doi:10.1097/00004872-200308000-00011

[40]   J. Duarte, R. Perez-Palencia, F. Vargas, M. A. Ocete, F. Perez-Vizcaino and A. Zarzuelo, “Antihypertensive Effects of the Flavonoid Quercetin in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 133, No. 1, 2001, pp. 117-124. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704064

[41]   M. Galisteo, M. F. Garcìa-Saura, R. Jimènez, I. C. Villar, A. Zarzuelo and F. Vargas, “Effects of Chronic Quercetin Treatment on Antioxidant Defence System and Oxidative Status of Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Hypertensive Rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Vol. 259, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 91-99. doi:10.1023/B:MCBI.0000021360.89867.64

[42]   A. Medina-Remón, R. Zamora-Ros, M. Rotchés-Ribalta, C. Andres-Lacueva, M. A. Martínez-González and M. I. Covas, “Total Polyphenol Excretion and Blood Pressure in Subjects at High Cardiovascular Risk,” Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2011, pp. 323-331. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.10.019

[43]   L. Actis-Goretta, J. I. Ottaviani and C. G. Fraga, “Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Activity by Flavanol-Rich Foods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2006, pp. 229-234. doi:10.1021/jf052263o

[44]   M. Annuk, M. Zilmer and B. Fellstrom, “Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation and Oxidative Stress in Chronic Renal Failure: Impact on Cardiovascular Disease,” Kidney International, Vol. 63, No. 84, 2003, pp. S50-S53. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.63.s84.2.x

[45]   R. Rodrigo and G. Rivera, “Renal Damage Mediated by Oxidative Stress. A Hypothesis of Protective Effects of Red Wine,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2002, pp. 409-422. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00908-5

[46]   M. Anjaneyulu and K. Chopra, “Quercetin, an Antioxidant Bioflavonoid, Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2004, pp. 244-248. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.03982.x

[47]   F. S. Facchini and K. L. A. Saylor, “Low-Iron Available, Polyphenol-Enriched, Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet to Slow Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy,” Diabetes, Vol. 52, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1204-1209. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.5.1204

[48]   T. Nihei, Y. Miura and K. Yagasaki, “Inhibitory Effect of Resveratrol on Proteinuria, Hypoalbuminemia and Hyperlipidemia in Nephritic Rats,” Life Sciences, Vol. 68, No. 25, 2001, pp. 2845-2852. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01061-X

[49]   C. Mannari, A. A. Bertelli, G. Stiaccini and L. Giovannini, “Wine, Sirtuins and Nephroprotection: Not Only Resveratrol,” Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 75, No. 6, 2010, pp. 636-638. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2010.08.004

[50]   V. Guarani and M. Potente, “SIRT1—A Metabolic Sensor that Controls Blood Vessel Growth,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010, pp. 139-145. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2010.01.001

[51]   K. M. Conigrave and E. B. Rimm, “Alcohol for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?” Treatments in Endocrinology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2003 pp. 145-152. doi:10.2165/00024677-200302030-00001

[52]   J. W. Beulens, Y. T. Van der Schouw, M. M. Bergmann, S. Rohrmann, M. B. Schulze and B. Bujisse, “Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in European Men and Women: Influence of Beverage Type and Body Size. The EPIC-Inter Act Study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol. 272, No. 4, 2012, pp. 358-370.

[53]   L. Rivera, R. Moròn, A. Zarzuelo and M. Galisteo, “Long-Term Resveratrol Administration Reduces Metabolic Disturbances and Lowers Blood Pressure in Obese Zucker Rats,” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 77, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1053-1063. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.11.027

[54]   A. Ceriello, N. Bortolotti, E. Motz, N. Lizzio, B. Catone and R Assaloni, “Red Wine Protects Diabetetics from Meal-Induced Oxidative Stress and Thrombosis Activation: A Pleasant Approach to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in Diabetes,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2001, pp. 322-328. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2362.2001.00818.x

[55]   V. R. Drel and N. Sybirna, “Protective Effects of Polyphenolics in Red Wine on Diabetes Associated Oxidative/ Nitrative stress in Streptozotocin-Diabetics Rats,” Cell Biology International, Vol. 34, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1147-1153. doi:10.1042/CBI20100201

[56]   F. Zhang, F. J. Liu and J. S. Shi, “Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Resveratrol in the Brain: Role of Resveratrol in Microglial Activation,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 636, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.043

[57]   S. L. Albarracin, B. Stab, Z. Casas, J. J. Sutachan, I. Samudio and J. Gonzalez, “Effects of Natural Antioxidants in Neurodegenerative Diseases,” Nutritional Neuroscience, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2012, pp.1-9.

[58]   T. Mizoue, K. Tanaka, I. Tsuji, K. Wakai, C. Nagataand and T. Otani, “Alcohol Drinking and Colo-Rectal Cancer Risk: An Evaluation Based on a Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Evidence among the Japanese Population,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 36, No. 9, 2006, pp. 582-597. doi:10.1093/jjco/hyl069

[59]   K. Tanaka, I. Tsuji, K. Wakai, C. Nagata, T. Mizoue and M. Inoue, “Alcohol Drinking and Liver Cancer Risk: An Evaluation Based on a Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Evidence among the Japanese Population,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 38, No. 12, 2008, pp. 816-838.

[60]   E. T. Chang, and H. O. Adami, “The Enigmatic Epidemiology of Naso-Pharyngeal Carcinoma,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 15, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1765-1777. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0353

[61]   M. P. Purdue, M. Hashibe, J. Berthiller, C. La Vecchia, L. Dal Maso and R. Herrero, “Type of Alcoholic Beverage and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer—A Pooled Analysis within the Inhance Consortium,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 169, No. 2, 2008, pp. 132-142. doi:10.1093/aje/kwn306

[62]   J. E. Lee, D. J. Hunter, D. Spiegelman, H. O. Adami, D. Albanes and L. Bernstein, “Alcohol Intake and Renal Cell Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of 12 Prospective Studies,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 99, No. 10, 2007, pp. 801-810. doi:10.1093/jnci/djk181

[63]   T. Sharif, C. Auger, M. Alhosin, C. Ebel, M. Achour and N. Eienne-Selloum, “Red Wine Polyphenols Cause Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Cells by Inducing a Redoxsensitive Up-Regulation of p73 and Down-Regulation of UHRF1,” European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2010, pp. 983-994. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2009.12.029

[64]   E. Utreras, A. Terse, J. Keller, M. J. Iadarola and A. B. Kulkarni, “Resveratrol Inhibits cdk5 Activity through Regulation of p35 Expression,” Molecular Pain, Vol. 7, 2011, pp. 49-63. doi:10.1186/1744-8069-7-49

[65]   A. Keys, “Diet and Coronary Heart Disease,” Lancet, Vol. 264, No. 6827, 1954, pp. 37-38. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(54)90023-9

[66]   B. Simini and S. Renaud, “From French Paradox to Cretan Miracle,” Lancet, Vol. 355, No. 9197, 2000, p. 48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71990-5

[67]   C. Lazarou, D. Panagiotakos and A. L. Matalas, “The Role of Diet in Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Implications for Public Health,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 52, No. 5, 2012, pp. 382-389. doi:10.1080/10408398.2010.500258

[68]   L. Dauchet, P. Amouyel and J. Dallongeville, “Fruit, Vegetables and Coronary Heart Disease,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2009, pp. 599-608. doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2009.131

[69]   J. F. He, C. A. Nowson and G. A. MacGregor, “Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Stroke: Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies,” Lancet, Vol. 367, No. 9507, 2006, pp. 320-326. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68069-0

[70]   J. López-Miranda, F. Pérez-Jiménez, E. Ros, R. De Caterina, L. Badimón and M. I. Covas, “Olive Oil and Health: Summary of the II International Conference on Olive Oil and Health Consensus Report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008,” Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2010, pp. 284-294. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.12.007

[71]   M. I. Covas, “Bioactive Effects of Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in Humans: Reduction of Heart Disease Factors and Oxidative Damage,” Inflammapharmacol, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2008, pp. 216-218. doi:10.1007/s10787-008-8019-6

[72]   V. Demarin, M. Lisak and S. Morovic, “Mediterranean Diet in Healthy Lifestyle and Prevention of Stroke,” Acta Clinica Croatica, Vol. 50, No.1, 2011, pp. 67-77.

[73]   V. Solfrizzi, V. Frisardi, D. Seripa, G. Logroscino, B. P. Imbimbo and G. D’Onofrio, “Mediterranean Diet in Predementia and Dementia Syndromes,” Current Alzheimer Research, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2011, pp. 520-542. doi:10.2174/156720511796391809

[74]   C. E. Murry, R. B. Jennings and K. A. Reimer, “New Insights into Potential Mechanisms of Ischemic Preconditioning,” Circulation, Vol. 84, 1991, pp. 442-445.

[75]   J. W. Starnes and R. P. Taylor, “Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: Endogenous Mechanisms,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Vol. 39, 2007, pp. 1537-1543. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180d099d4

[76]   G. G. Abdukeyum, A. J. Owen and P. L. McLennan, “Dietary (n-3) Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibit Ischemia and Reperfusion Arrhythmia and Infarction in Rat Heart not Enhanced by Ischemic Preconditioning,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 138, 2008, pp. 747-752.

[77]   L. M. Braden and K. K. Carroll, “Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat in Relation to Mammary Carcinogenesis in Rats,” Lipids, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1986, pp. 285-288. doi:10.1007/BF02536414

[78]   J. J. Kleinedler, J. D. Foley, J. S. Alexander, S. C. Roerig, V. Y. Hebert and T. R. Dugas, “Synergistic Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin Released from Drug-Eluting Polymer Coatings for Endovascular Devices,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, Vol. 99, No. 2, 2011, pp. 266-275. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.31894

[79]   A. Giocosa, R. Barale, L. Bavaresco, P. Gatenby, V. Gerbi and J. Janssens, “Cancer Prevention in Europe: The Mediterranean Diet as a Protective Choice,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2012, pp. 90-95.