OJVM  Vol.2 No.4 , December 2012
Experimental Intramammary Infection with a Strain of Escherichia coli Isolated from a Cow with Persistent E. coli Mastitis
Abstract: Transient E. coli intramammary infections (IMI) are usually associated with rapid onset of clinical signs including mammary gland swelling and abnormal milk with rapid clearance of bacteria from milk. Conversely, reports have described strains of E. coli showing very different clinical trends. Persistent E. coli IMI are associated with mild clinical symptoms that disappear shortly after the onset of infection, possibly flaring-up intermittently during lactation. In the present study, we evaluated a strain of E. coli isolated from a cow with persistent mastitis to determine if the experimental infection model mimics naturally occurring persistent E. coli IMI. Uninfected mammary quarters of 7 Holstein heifers were infused within 10 days of calving with 50 colony-forming units of a persistent E. coli strain. Six of 7 heifers developed mild clinical mastitis with elevated rectal temperatures within 9 to 36 h after infusion. The challenge strain was isolated intermittently in milk from all infected mammary quarters during the first two weeks after infusion and 3 animals continued to shed E. coli periodically during the sampling period. One animal shed E. coli intermittently in milk for 172 d after challenge and developed clinical mastitis four times during this period. The isolated strain had an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile as the E. coli strain used to infuse mammary glands. The experimental IMI model described here mimics very closely naturally occurring persistent E. coli IMI, thus providing an excellent in vivo model to better understand pathogenesis and to facilitate development of control strategies for this important mastitis pathogen.
Cite this paper: S. P. Oliver, S. I. Headrick, M. J. Lewis, B. E. Gillespie, D. L. Johnson and R. A. Almeida, "Experimental Intramammary Infection with a Strain of Escherichia coli Isolated from a Cow with Persistent E. coli Mastitis," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 186-190. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24029.

[1]   S. Pyorala, L. Kaartinen, H. K?ck and V. Rainio, “Efficacy of Two Therapy Regimens for Treatment of Experimentally Induced Escherichia coli Mastitis in Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77, No. 2, 1994, pp. 453-461. doi:/jds.S0022-0302(94)76973-3

[2]   D. J.Wilson, Y. T. Grohn, G. J. Bennett, R. N. Gonzales,Y. H. Schukken and J. Spatz, “Comparison of J5 Vaccinates and Controls for Incidence, Etiologic Agent, Clinical Severity, and Survival in the Herd Following Naturally Occurring Cases of Clinical Mastitis,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 90, No. 9, 2007, pp. 4282-4288. doi:/jds.2007-0160

[3]   B. Dogan, S. Klaessig, M. Rishniw, R. A. Almeida, S. P. Oliver, K. Simpson and Y. H. Schukken, “Adherent and Invasive Escherichia coli are Associated with Persistent Bovine Mastitis,” Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 116, No. 4, 2006, pp. 270-282. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.023

[4]   D. D?pfer, H. W. Barkema,T. J. G. M. Lam, Y. H. Schukken and W. Gaastra, ”Recurrent Clinical Mastitis Caused by Escherichia coli in Dairy Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 82, No. 2, 1999, pp. 80-85. doi:/jds.S0022-0302(99)75211-2

[5]   D. Dopfer, R. A. Almeida, T. J. G. M. Lam, H. Nederbragt, S. P. Oliver and W. Gaastra “Adhesion and Invasion of Escherichia coli from Recurrent Clinical Cases of Bovine Mastitis,” Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2000, pp. 331-343. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00191-7

[6]   S. Passey, A. Bradley and H. Mellor, “Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Invade Mammary Cells by a Modified Endocytic Pathway,” Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 130, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 151-164. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.01.003

[7]   R. A. Almeida, B. Dogan, S. Klaessing, Y. H. Schukken and S. P. Oliver, “Intracellular Fate of Strains of Escherichia coli Isolated from Dairy Cows with Acute or Chronic Mastitis,” Veterinary Research Communications, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2011, pp. 89-101. doi:10.1007/s11259-010-9455-5

[8]   S. E. Murinda, S. D. Batson, L. T. Nguyen, B. E. Gillespie and S. P. Oliver, “Phenotypic and Genetic Markers for Serotype-Specific Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26 strains from North America,” Foodborne Pathogen and Disease, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2004, pp. 125-135. doi:10.1089/153531404323143657

[9]   S. P. Oliver and B. A. Mitchell, “Prevalence of Mastitis Pathogens in Herds Participating in a Mastitis Control Program,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 67, No. 10, 1984, pp. 2436-2440. doi:/jds.S0022-0302(84)81592-1

[10]   D. A., Todhunter, K. L. Smith and J. S. Hogan, ”Environmental Streptococcal Intramammary Infections of the Bovine Mammary Gland,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 78, No. 11, 1995, pp. 2366-2374.

[11]   Y. T. Grohn, D. J. Wilson, R. N. González, J. A. Hertl, H. Schulte, G. Bennett and Y. H. Schukken, “Effect of Pathogen-Specific Clinical Mastitis on Milk Yield in Dairy Cows,” Journal Dairy Science, Vol. 87, No. 10, 2004, pp. 3358-3374. doi:/jds.S0022-0302(04)73472-4

[12]   Y. T. Gr?hn, R. N. González, D. J. Wilson, J. A. Hertl, H. Schulte, G. Bennett and Y. H. Schukken, “Effect of Pathogen-Specific Clinical Mastitis on Herd Life in two New York State Dairy Herds,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 71, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 105-125. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.06.002

[13]   J. A. Makovec and P. L. Ruegg, “Results of Milk Samples Submitted for Microbiological Examination in Wisconsin from 1994 to 2001,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 86, No. 11, 2003, pp. 3466-3472. doi:/jds.S0022-0302(03)73951-4

[14]   M. J. Green, L. E. Green, A. J. Bradley, P. R. Burton, Y. H. Schukken and G. F. Medley, “Prevalence and Associations between Bacterial Isolates from Dry Mammary Glands of Dairy Cows,” Veterinary Record, Vol. 156, No. 10, 2005, pp. 71-77.