ABSTRACT Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the changes in serum cholesterol levels at the onset of bloodstream infection (BSI) and to determine whether serum cholesterol levels were associated with patients’ clinical backgrounds and the prognosis of BSI; Methods: A retrospective chart review was done to collect demographic information and the subjects’ medical history, invasive procedures, and medications; Patients and Methods: From April 2003 to March 2006, all patients aged ≥20 years with positive blood cultures in the University of Tokyo Hospital (a tertiary teaching hospital with 1200 beds) were enrolled; Results: Average cholesterol levels before the onset of BSI were 166.5 ± 46.5 mg/dL, and, at the onset of BSI, they decreased to 134.4 ± 45.0 mg/dL (p < 0.001). Thirty-day survivors had higher cholesterol levels both before and at the onset of BSI than non-survivors. Cholesterol levels at the onset of BSI were associated with the organisms of BSI. Patients with lower cholesterol levels tended to have higher 30-day mortality rates and longer medical treatment than patients with higher cholesterol levels (13% vs 3%, p = 0.12; 24.3 days vs 18.4 days, p = 0.15); Conclusion: Cholesterol levels at the onset of BSI could be used as a prognostic marker in patients with BSI.
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