Health  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2012
Overview of fluoride distribution in major aquifer units of northern Nigeria
Abstract: Symptoms of dental fluorosis such as mottled teeth are common among adults, youth and children in several rural communities in northern Nigeria. This has inspired the Authors to investigate the concentration of fluoride in the natural water systems of the major aquifer units (Basement, Sedimentary, Volcanic and Younger Granites) in some parts of northern Nigeria and to delineate areas of high risk of dental fluorosis, crippling skeletal fluorosis and dental caries. Six hundred and twenty seven analytical values for water were obtained from the literature and from analysis of samples from the major aquifer units of northern Nigeria: Basement-232, Sedimentary-328, Younger Granites-38 and Volcanic-28. Fluoride concentrations range from 0.03 to 10.30 mg/L in the Basement Aquifer; 0.00 to 5.00 mg/L in the Sedimentary Aquifer; 0.00 to 0.89 mg/L in the Younger Granites Aquifer; and 0.00 to 0.78 mg/L in the Volcanic Aquifer. A background value of 1.0 mg/L for fluoride concentration for northern Nigeria has been determined in this study. Areas identified with high fluoride in their waters above the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended maximum permissible level in drinking water of 1.5 mg/L are: Dzuma, Dilchidima, Ngalbi, Udin, Kaltungo Biliri, Shongwom, Dass in the the northeast basement aquifers; Maiduguri, Mafa, Mobbar, Ngala, Logomani, Gombe in the northeast sedimentary aquifers: Langtang, Dorong, Furzi in the north-central basement aquifers and Pakoro in the northcentral sedimentary aquifers: Shawo and Barkin Lamba in the northwest basement aquifers. No anomalously high values of fluoride were recorded in the northwest sedimentary aquifers. All waters sampled in the Younger Granites and the Volcanic Aquifers have fluoride contents lower than the WHO recommended maximum permissible level in drinking water of 1.5 mg/L; and over ninety percent of the waters have fluoride concentration below the 0.5 mg/L recommended by WHO for the prevention of dental caries. Positive correlation between dental fluorosis and high fluoride water consumption has been established in all the areas with high fluoride in their waters. Positive correlation has also been established between genu valgum (bowing of legs) and consumption of high fluo-ride waters in Langtang Area. These data have been used to delineate areas of the Younger Granites Province and the Volcanic Province where inhabitants are at high risk of having dental caries.
Cite this paper: Dibal, H. , Schoeneich, K. , Garba, I. , Lar, U. and Bala, E. (2012) Overview of fluoride distribution in major aquifer units of northern Nigeria. Health, 4, 1287-1294. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.412189.

[1]   WHO (2004) Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[2]   Zheng, B.S., Wu, D.S., Wang, B.B., Liu, X.J. and Wang, M.S. (2005) The main geochemical process leading to the prevalent of endemic fluorosis. China Journal of Endemics, 24, 468-471.

[3]   Yang, L.S., Peterson, P.J., Williams, W.P., Wang, W., Li, R.B. and Tan, J.A. (2003) Developing environmental health indicators as policy tools for endemic fluorosis management in the People Republic of China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 25, 281-295.

[4]   Yang, J.Y. (2000) The study on dynamic characteristics of fluoride migration in unsaturated soil. Journal of Taiyuan University of Technology, 31, 107-109.

[5]   Dissanayake, C.B. (1991) The fluoride problem in ground waters of Sri Lanka. Environmental problems and health. International Journal and Environmental Studies, 19, 195. doi:10.1080/00207238208709990

[6]   Hussain, J., Sharma, K.C. and Hussain, I. (2004) Fluoride in the groundwaters of Rajastan. Indian Journal Environmental Health, *, 84-87.

[7]   Richard, J.R., Martin, A.A.S. and Antonio, L. (2006) Metal speciation and its role in bioaccessibility and bio-availability. In: Nita and Martin Ed Medical Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 64, 15-21.

[8]   Fung, K., Zhang, Z. and Wong, M. (1999) Fluoride contents in tea and soils from tea plantation into tea Liquor during infusion. Environmental Pollution, 104, 197-412. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(98)00187-0

[9]   Dibal, H.U. and Lar, U.A. (2005) Preliminary survey of fluoride concentrations in the groundwaters of Kaltungo Town and Environs. Gombe State. Northeastren Nigeria: Water quality and health implications. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 9, *.

[10]   Lar, U.A., Dibal, H.U., Daspan, R. and Jaryum, S.W. (2007) Fluoride occurrence in the surface and groundwater of Fobur area of Jos East LGA of Plateau States. Journal of Environmental Sciences II, 2, 99-105.

[11]   Wongdem, J.G., Aderinokun, G.A., Sridhar, M.R. and Selkur. S. (2002) Prevalence and distribution pattern of enamel fluorosis in Langtang Town. African Journal of Medical Science, Fluoride, 35, 120-135.

[12]   Offodile, M.E. (1976) Ground water study and development in Nigeria. Mecon Geology and Engineering Ltd., Jos, 453.

[13]   Schoeneich, K. and Mbonu, W.C. (1991) Excursion guide book: On the geology of the Jos Plateau and the Yankari Game reserve. The Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society 27th Annual Conference and 30th Anniversary Celebrations, Jos.

[14]   Oteze. G.E. (1976) The hydrogeology of northwestern Nigeria Basin. In: Kogbe, C.A., Ed., Geology of Nigeria, Elizabethan Publishing Company, Lagos.

[15]   Adeleye, D.R. (1972) Stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Upper Cretaceous Strata around Bida. In: Offodile, M.E., Ed., Ground Water Study and Development in Nigeria, Mecon Geology and Engineering Ltd., Jos.

[16]   Dibal, H.U. (2012) Fluoride concentration in some parts of northern Nigeria. PhD Dissertation, Department of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

[17]   Izeze, E. (2005) Geology and fluoride concentration in the groundwaters of Dass area. Unpublished BSc Project, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Jos.

[18]   Barber, W. (1965) Pressure water in the Chad Formation of Bornu and Dikwa Emirate, Northeast Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria Bulletin, 35, 62- 68.

[19]   Oteze, G.E. and Ayegbusi, M.S. (2002) The continental terminal aquifer in Northeast Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologist, 13, 62-69.

[20]   Thompson, J.H. (1958) The geology and hydrogeology of Gombe, Bauchi Province. Records of the Geology Survey of Nigeria, 46-56.

[21]   ICOH (2003-2004) Fluoride content of waters in some parts of Nigeria. International Center for Oral Health Reports, Jos.

[22]   Chibuzor, E.B. (2011) Geology and water quality of some ponds around Gazon Village and environs, Plateau State. Unpublished BSLT Project, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Jos.

[23]   Chilota, E.R. (2011) Geology and trace elements content in abandoned mined ponds waters of Bargada Area, Plateau State. Unpublished BSLT Project, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Jos.

[24]   Dibal, H.U. (2000) Fluctuation and quality of groundwater in the Biu area. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Department of Geology, University of Maiduguri.

[25]   Guskit, R.B. (2010) Major and trace element distribution in natural waters and soils in Panyam Volcanic Province-Health Implication. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Jos.