FNS  Vol.3 No.12 , December 2012
Protein Fortification of Corn Tortillas: Effects on Physicochemical Characteristics, Nutritional Value and Acceptance
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the texture of corn dough as well as the nutritional quality and acceptance of corn cakes (tortillas) made either with a readymade commercial corn flour (CCF) or with a traditional way (nixtamal) both fortified with lys + tryp (L + T) or with a protein concentrate from Phaseolus lunatus added with L + T (PC + L + T). All treatments were analyzed to investigate the physical properties of the dough and tortillas as well as their physicochemical and nutritional quality. Results showed that cohesion was affected (p < 0.05) in the fortified tortillas made with CCF decreasing from 34.3 to 28.4 and 27.4 N for Control, L + T and PC + L + T, respectively; tortillas made with nixtamal showed no difference. Adhesion was not affected by treatments. Weight loss increased only in the fortified tortillas made with CCF (p < 0.05). Rolling capacity was not affected by fortification. The tension of tortillas increased with the fortification being the highest value 0.96 N. Color was not affected in tortillas made with CCF (p < 0.05); changes observed in those made with nixtamal remained in an acceptable range. In vitro digestibility was improved by the fortification obtaining the highest values in tortillas made with CCF and fortified with PC + L + T. Acceptance was greater for tortillas fortified with L+T alone. Protein fortification of tortillas made with either CCF or nixtamal is feasible using either L + T together or in combination with a PC from Phaseolus lunatus improving their nutritional value without negative effects on their physicochemical characteristics or acceptance.
Cite this paper: A. Lecuona-Villanueva, D. Betancur-Ancona, L. Chel-Guerrero and A. Castellanos-Ruelas, "Protein Fortification of Corn Tortillas: Effects on Physicochemical Characteristics, Nutritional Value and Acceptance," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 12, 2012, pp. 1658-1663. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.312217.

[1]   INEGI (National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics), “Population and Housing Census,” México DF, 2010.

[2]   M. Sierra-Macías, A. Palafox-Caballero, G. Vázquez-Carrillo, F. Rodríguez-Montalvo and A. Espinosa-Calderón, “Agronomic Characterization, Industrial and Nutritional Quality of Corn Cultivated in Tropical areas of México,” Agronomy in Mesoamérica,Vol. 21, 2010, pp. 21-29.

[3]   S. S. Serna, “Nutritive Value of Tortillas Fortified with Soybeans,” Soyanoticias, Vol. 251, 1997, pp. 1-6.

[4]   E. Cruz-Huerta and I. Verdalet-Guzmán, “Corn Tortillas: A Nutritivetradition,” The Magazine of Science and Mankind, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007, pp. 41-44.

[5]   J. Landry and T. Moureaux, “Distribution and Amino Acid Composition of Protein Fractions in Opaque-2 Maize-grain,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 21, No. 8, 1982, pp. 1865-1869. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)83004-5

[6]   FAO/WHO, “Protein Quality Evaluation. Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Food and Nutrition,” Paper No. 51, Food Agriculture Organizations and the World Health Organization, Rome, Italy, 1991.

[7]   FAO, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World,” 2009.

[8]   Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición, “Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey,” Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, 2006.

[9]   J. D. Figueroa-Cárdenas, M. G. Acero-Godínez, N. L. Vasco-Méndez, A. Lozano-Guzmán, L. M. Flores-Acosta and J. González-Hernández, “Fortification and Evaluation of the Nixtamal Tortillas,” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2001, pp. 293-302.

[10]   G. Massieu, O. Y. Cravioto, R. O. Cravioto and F. de M. Figueroa, “Evaluation of Protein and Amino Acids in Mexican Diets. 111. Protein Efficiency of Tortilla-Based Diets Supplemented with Beans, Peas or Milk Using the Growing White Rat Methodology,” Science (Mexican Journal), Vol. 14, 1954, pp. 93-97.

[11]   R. O. Cravioto and M. M. Cervantes, “Protein Efficiency Corn Dough Enriched with Soybean Flour or with Sesame Protein,” Science (Mexican Journal), Vol. 24, 1965, pp. 159-162.

[12]   M. A. Sánchez and S. Maya, “Industrial Corn Flour Enrichment with Whole Amaranth Flour and Milling Fractions in Corn-Based Products,” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1985, pp. 518-537.

[13]   H. Uc-Cetz, V. Pérez-Flores, L. Chel-Guerrero and A. Betancur-Ancona, “Production of Corn Tortillas Added with a Protein Concentrate Form Phaseolus lunatus,” Food Technology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2003, pp. 7-16.

[14]   V. A. Obatolu, A. Okoruwa and J. E. Iken, “Improvement of Home-Made Maize Tortilla with Soybean,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2007, pp. 420-426. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01242.x

[15]   M. L. Hurtado, B. A. Escobar and A. M. Estévez, “Deep Frying Snack Product of Legume/Cereal Mixture Based on Corn and Three Varieties of Beans,” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2001, pp. 303308.

[16]   A. M. Estévez, B. Escobar, I. Zacarras and M. L. Hurtado, “Nutritional Evaluation and Accelerated Storage at 37?C of Fried Bean and Corn Mixtures,” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 53, No.1, 2003, pp. 70-73.

[17]   J. E. Briones, M. I.Cuatzo, F. López and Y. T. Gallardo, “Development of Tamales (Corn Patties) from Precooked Corn-Soybean Flour by Extrusion,” Proceedings of the XII Food Science and Technology Congress, Guanajuato, 27-28 May 2010.

[18]   L. Chel-Guerrero, V. Pérez-Flores, D. Betancur-Ancona and G. Dávila-Ortiz, “Functional Properties of Flours and Protein Isolates from Phaseolus lunatus and Canavalia ensiformis Seeds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2002, pp. 584-591. doi:10.1021/jf010778j

[19]   B. Ramirez-Wong, V. E. Sweat, P. I. Torres and L. W. Rooney, “Development of Two Instrumental Methods for Corn Masa Texture Evaluation,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1993, pp. 286-290.

[20]   S. Bedolla, “Development and Characterization of Instant Tortilla Flours from Sorghum and Corn by Infra-Red Cooking (Micronixing) and Extrusion Cooking,” Ph.D. Dissertation, A&M University, College Station, 1983.

[21]   V. G. Arámbula, A. L. Barrón, H. J. González and M. E. Moreno, “Effects of Cook and Steep Time of Nixtamalized Corn Grain (Zea mayz L.) on the Physicochemical, Rheological, Structural and Textural Characteristics of Grain, Masa and Tortillas,” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2001, pp. 187-194.

[22]   V. H. Booth, “Problems in the Determination of FDNB-Available Lysine,” Journal of Food Science and Agriculture, Vol. 22, No. 12, 1972, pp.658-665. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740221214

[23]   R. J. Spies and D. C. Chambers, “Chemical Determination of Tryptophan in Proteins,” Analytical Chemestry, Vol. 21, No. 10, 1949, pp. 1249-1246. doi:10.1021/ac60034a033

[24]   H. Hsu, O. Vavak, L. Satterlee and G. A. Miller, “Multienzime Technique for Estimating Protein Digestibility,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 42, 1977, pp. 1269-1279. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1977.tb14476.x

[25]   M. R. Torricela, U. E. Zamora and A. H. Pulido, “Sensory Evaluation Applied to the Development of Quality in the Food Industry,” Research Institute for the Food Industry, La Habana, 1989.

[26]   D. Montgomery, “Designs and Analysis of Experiments,” Limusa-Wiley, México DF, 2004.

[27]   E. Rangel-Meza, A. Mu?oz-Orozco, G. Vázquez-Carrillo, J. Cuevas-Sánchez, J. Merino-Castillo and S. MirandaColin, “Alkaline Cooking, Preparation and Quality of Corn Tortillas form Ecatlán, Puebla, México,” Agroscience, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2004, pp. 53-61.

[28]   F. J. Solorza, L. Chel, P. J. Parra, D. Betancura and A. F. Castellanos, “Rheological and Mechanical Evaluation of Maize Dough and Tortillas Containing Cassava and Malanga Flour,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2012, In Press.

[29]   R. A. Mauricio-Sánchez, J. Figueroa-Cárdenas, S. Taba, M. Reyes-Vega, F. Rincón-Sánchez and A. Mendoza-Galván, “Characterization of Maize Accessions by Grain and Tortilla Quality Traits,” Crop Production Magazine, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2004, pp. 213-222.

[30]   R. Flores-Farías, F. Martínez-Bustos, Y. Salinas-Moreno, Y. Kil-Chang, J. González-Hernández and E. Ríos, “Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Commercial Nixtamalized Mexican Maize Flours for Tortillas,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 80, 2000, pp. 657-664. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000501)80:6<657::AID-JSFA576>3.0.CO;2-J

[31]   O. J. J. Ordaz and C. G. M. Vázquez, “Shelf Life and Sensory Evaluation in Corn Tortillas Made with Preservative Enhancers,” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 4, 1997, pp. 372-376.

[32]   K. N. Waliszewski, Y. Estrada and V. Pardío, “Sensory Properties Changes of Fortified Nixtamalized Corn Flour with Lysine and Tryptophan during Storage,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 59, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 23-31.

[33]   V. Quitral, L. Abugoch, J. Vinagre and M. Larraín, “Effect of Thermal Treatments on the Chemical Characteristics of Mora Crab Meat (Homalaspisplana)],” American Archives of Nutrition, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2003, pp. 90-95.