ABSTRACT Based on the findings of epidemiological surveys in western countries, the number of person with suspected xerostomia in Japan is estimated to be 30,000,000. Xerostomia is caused by: 1) Systemic diseases; 2) Medications; 3) Tumors or trauma; 4) Radiotherapy; and 5) Neurological factors. Its symptoms can be alleviated, and its progression can be stopped by close cooperation between the dental and medical departments. However, at present, symptomatic treatment methods such as water drinking, oral rinsing with water, and administration of Kampo medicines or parasymptomimetic drugs are mainly used, and a standard treatment has not been established. On the other hand, previous studies on xerostomia have reported improvement in dry mouth symptoms using dental approaches or a relationship between the development of candidiasis and the salivary flow rate. Therefore, in this study, to establish a dental method useful for improving xerostomia associated with systemic diseases and medications for them, we restored occlusal function, and as a result, increased the salivary flow rate, and evaluated changes in oral findings.
Cite this paper
Mori, H. , Hoshi, N. , Taniguchi, M. , Banka, M. and Kimoto, K. (2012) Evaluation of xerostomia closely associated with systemic diseases using a dental approach. Open Journal of Stomatology, 2, 269-276. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2012.24047.
 Saito I. (2010) Dry mouth as a systemic disease progress in medicine, 11, 2853-2857.
Hoshi, N., Mori, H., and Kimoto, K. (2011) Management of oral candidiasis in denture wearers. Journal of Prost-hodontic Research, 55, 48-52. doi:10.1016/j.jpor.2010.03.004
Hoshi, N. (2009) An Attempt to Recover Mastication in a Patient Having a Strong Vomiting Reflex. Japanese Journal of Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine, 22, 303-306.
Mori, H., Hoshi, N. and Kimoto, K. (2011) Oral hygiene instruction and prosthetic treatment is related to improvement of salivary flow and oral symptoms. Japanese Journal of Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine, 24, 283-290.
James, G. and Moore, P.A. (2003) Xerostomia: Etiology, recognition and treatment. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 1234, 61-69.
Shigeo, Y. (2010) Infiuence of hyposalivation on oral Candida colonization. Oral Therapy of Pharmacology, 29, 19.
Cerchiari, D.P., De Moricz, R.D., Sanjar F.A., et al. (2006) Burning mouth syndrome: Etiology. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, 72, 419-423.
Heintze, U., Birkhed, D. and Bjorn, H. (1983) Secretion rate and buffer effect of resting and stiniulated whole saliva as function of age and sex. Swedish Dental Journal, 7, 227-238.
Ntirhi, T.O., Meuman, J.H., Ainamo, A., et al. (1992) Association between salivary flow rate and the use of systemic medication among 76-, 81-, and 86-year-old inhabitants in Helsinki. Journal of Dental Research, 71, 1875-1880. doi:10.1177/00220345920710120401
Kawaguchi, M. and Yamagishi, H. (2006) Coupling of benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors in the salivary glands is a factor of drug-induced xerostomia. Drug Research, 11, 291-296.
Ogawa, T., Takadaa, K., Satoa, Y. and Chibab, H. (2010) The influence of causes of hyposalivation on clinical outcome of nizatidine in patients with dry mouth. Asian Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 31, 399-405.
Watanabe, M., Kawaguchi, M. and Ishikawa, Y. (2006) Salivary glands and diabetic stress. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica, 127, 273-277.
Sandberg, G.E., Sundberg, H.E. and Fjellstrom. C.A. (2000) Type 2 diabetes and oral health. A comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 50, 27-34. doi:10.1016/S0168-8227(00)00159-5
 WADA, T. (2009) Two diabetic patients diagnosed through oral manifestati. Medical Society, 60, 22-25.
Bernardi, M.J., Reis, A. and Loguercio, A.D. (2007) Study of the buffering capacity, pH and salivary flow rate in type 2 well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetic patients. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 5, 73-78.
Chabez, E.M., Taylor, G.W. and Borrell, L.N. (2000) Salivary function and glycemic control in older persons with diabetes. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, 89, 305-311. doi:10.1016/S1079-2104(00)70093-X
Kao, C.H., Tsai, S.C. and Sun, S.S. (2001) Scintigraphic evidence of poor salivary function in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 24, 952-953. doi:10.2337/diacare.24.5.952-a
Watanabe, S. and Dawes, C. (1988) A comparison of the effects of testing and chewing foods on the flow rate of whole saliva in man. Archives of Oral Biology, 33, 761-764. doi:10.1016/0003-9969(88)90010-6
Watanabe, A. (1995) Immunohistochemical study on irradiated human submandibular glands. Morphometrical Analysis of Histological Changes, Tsurumi University Dental Journal, 21, 247-265.
Epstein, J.B. Pearsall, N.N. and Truelove, E.L. (1980) Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 12, 475-476.
Navazesh, M. (1995) Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endo-dontology, 80, 284-288. doi:10.1016/S1079-2104(05)80384-1
Torres, S.R., Peixoto, C.B., Caldas, D.M., et al. (2002) Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endo-dontology, 93, 149-154. doi:10.1067/moe.2002.119738