ABSTRACT Titanium dioxide nanoparticle was synthesized by the reduction of titanium tetrachloride using borohydride, water as solvent, and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone as stabilizer. The average size of nano-TiO2 is estimated to be 5 - 10 nm using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); this was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Nano-TiO2 was impregnated into cotton fabric to impart multifunctional properties and this was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and scanning electron microscope coupled with high energy distribution X-Ray (SEM-EDX). The TiO2 nanoparticles loaded cotton fabrics showed excellent antibacterial activity against two representative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) 96.6% and Klebsiella pneumonia (Gram negative) 95.2%. Also, TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the self-cleaning and the protection of cotton fabrics against UV radiation in comparison with the untreated cotton fabrics. The TiO2 nanoparticles were durable in-situ cotton fabrics even after 20 laundering wash cycles.
Cite this paper
Gouda, M. and Aljaafari, A. (2012) Augmentation of Multifunctional Properties of Cellulosic Cotton Fabric Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles. Advances in Nanoparticles, 1, 29-36. doi: 10.4236/anp.2012.13005.
 E. Russell, “Nanotechnologies and the Shrinking World of Textiles,” Textile Horizons, Vol. 9, No. 10, 2002, pp. 7-9.
 R. D. Cramer, E. A. Ponomarenko, St. Laurent and J. C. T. R. Burckett, “Method of Applying Nanoparticles,” US Patent No. 6645569, 2003.
 J. H. Xin, W. A. Daoud and Y. Y. Kong, “A New Approach to UV-Blocking Treatment for Cotton Fabrics,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 74, No. 2, 2004, pp. 97- 100. doi:10.1177/004051750407400202
 S. Y. Yeo, H. J. Lee and S. H. Jeong, “Preparation of Nanocomposite Fibers for Permanent Antibacterial Effect,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 38, No. 10, 2003, pp. 2143-2147. doi:10.1023/A:1023767828656
 D. Draper, “Very Little to It,” World Sports Activewear, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2003, pp. 16-17.
 S. S. Kathiervelu, “Applications of Nanotechnology in Fibre Finishing,” Synthetic Fibres, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2003, pp. 20-22.
 J. Zhang, P. France, A. Radomyselskiy, S. Datta, J.-G. Zhao, and W. van Ooij, “Hydrophobic Cotton Fabric Coated by a Thin Nanoparticulate Plasma Film,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 88, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1473-1481. doi:10.1002/app.11831
 N. Burniston, C. Bygott and J. Stratton, “Nano Technology Meets Titanium Dioxide,” Surface Coatings International Part A, Vol. 88, No. A2, 2004, pp. 179-814.
 Sherman and Jonathan, “Nanoparticulate Titanium Dioxide Coatings, and Processes for the Production and Use thereof,” US Patent No. 736738, 2003.
 H. Y. Yang, S. K. Zhu and N. Pan, “Studying the Mechanisms of Titanium Dioxide as Ultraviolet-Blocking Additive for Films and Fabrics by an Improved Scheme,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2003, pp. 3201-3210. doi:10.1002/app.20327
 M. Saito, “Antibacterial, Deodorizing, and UV Absorbing Materials Obtained with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Coated Fabrics,” Journal of Coated Fabrics, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1993, pp. 150-164.
 M. N. Xiong, G. X. Gu, B. You and L. M. Wu, “Preparation and Characterization of Poly (Styrene Butylacrylate) Latex/Nano-ZnO Nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 90, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1923-1931.
 W. A. Daoud and J. H. Xin, “Nucleation and Growth of Anatase Crystallites on Cotton Fabrics at Low Temperatures,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 87, No. 5, 2004, pp. 953-955.
 R. H. Wang, J. H. Xin, X. M. Tao and W. A. Daoud, “ZnO Nanorods Grown on Cotton Fabrics at Low Temperature,” Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 398, No. 1-3, 2004, pp. 250-255. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2004.09.077
 E. L. Romero, “The Involvement of Nano-Drug Delivery in Biosafety Issues,” Biosafety, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2012, pp. 1-5
 L. Hua and Q. G. Li, “Development of Nano-TiO2 Coating on Titanium Alloy Substrate for Biomedical Applications,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 528, No. 1, 2012, pp. 27-30
 W. A. Daoud and J. H. Xin, “Low Temperature Sol-Gel Processed Photocatalytic Titania Coating,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2004, pp. 25-29. doi:10.1023/B:JSST.0000016134.19752.b4
 A. Bozzi, T. Yuranova and J. Kiwi, “Self-Cleaning of Wool-Polyamide and Polyester Textiles by TiO2-Rutile Modification under Daylight Irradiation at Ambient Temperature,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, Vol. 172, No. 1, 2005, pp. 27-34.
 S. Y. Cui, Y. D. Zu, H. Q. Hui and J. Y. Zhang, “Study on Anti-Bacteria Properties of Nano-Ceramics,” Journal of Hebei University of Science and Technology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2003, pp. 19-22.
 R. Q. Chen, “Nanometer Materials and Health-Care Textiles,” Dyestuff Industry, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2002, pp. 24-28.
 R. H. Wang, J. H. Xin, Y. Yang, H. F. Liu, L. M., Xu, and J. H. Hu, “The Characteristics and Photocatalytic Activities of Silver Doped ZnO Nanocrystallites,” Vol. 227, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 312-317.
 Y. Yasuhide, N. Masahiko and S. Kenji, “Composite Material Carrying Zinc Oxide Fine Particles Adhered Thereto and Method for Preparing Same,” EP Patent No. 0791681, 1997.
 N. Vigneshwaran, S. Kumar, A. A. Kathe, P. V. Varadarajan and V. Prasad, “Functional Finishing of Cotton Fabrics Using Zinc Oxide-Soluble Starch Nanocomposites,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 17, No. 20, 2006, pp. 5087-5095. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/17/20/008
 Y. W. H. Wong, C. W. M. Yuen, M. Y. S. Leung, S. K. A. Ku and H. L. I., Lam, “Selected Applications of Nanotechnology in Textiles,” Autex Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-10.
 A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional Finishing in Cotton Fabrics Using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles,” Bulletin of Material Science, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2006, pp. 641-645. doi:10.1007/s12034-006-0017-y
 S. Kathirvelu, L. D’Souza and B. Dhurai, “Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Applications to Textiles for Microbe Resistance,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 1 No. 7, 2008, pp. 1-12
 M. Turkoglu, S. Yener, “Design and in Vivo Evaluation of Ultrafine Inorganic Oxide Containing Sun-Screen Formulations,” International Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1997, pp. 193-201.
 Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of Semiconducting Oxides,” Science, Vol. 291, No. 5510, 2001, pp. 1947-1949. doi:10.1126/science.1058120
 M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan and Z. L. Wang, “Field-Effect Transistors Based on Single Semiconducting Oxide Nanobelts,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 107, No. 3, 2003, pp. 659-663.
 J. Sawai, “Quantitative Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Metallic Oxide Powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by Conductimetric Assay,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2003, pp. 177-182.
 M. A. Behnajady, N. Modirshahla and R. Hamzavi, “Kinetic Study on Photo-Catalytic Degradation of C. I. Acid Yellow 23 by ZnO Photocatalyst,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 133, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 226-232.
 Y. Q. Li, S. Y. Fu and Y. M. Mai, “Preparation and Characterization of Transparent ZnO/Epoxy nanocomposites with High-UV Shielding Efficiency,” Polymer, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2006, pp. 2127-2132.
 E. Tang, G. Cheng, X. Pang, X. Ma and F. Xing, “Synthesis of Nano-ZnO/Poly (Methylmethacrylate) Composite Microsphere through Emulsion Polymerization and Its UV Shielding Property,” Colloid & Polymer Science, Vol. 284, No. 4, 2006, pp. 422-428.
 L. Guo, S. H. Yang, C. L. Yang, P. Yu, J. N. Wang, W. K. Ge and G. K. L. Wong, “Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Vinylpyrrolidone)-Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 12, No. 8, 2000, pp. 2268-2274. doi:10.1021/cm9907817
 Y. J. Kwon, K. H. Kim, C. S. Lim and K. B. Shim, “Characterization of ZnO Nanopowders Synthesized by the Polymerized Complex Method via an Organochemical Route,” Journal of Ceramic Processing Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2002, pp. 146-149.
 Y. Wang, C. Ma, X. Sun and H. Li, “Preparation of Nanocrystalline Metal Oxide Powders with the Surfactant Mediated Method,” Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Vol. 5, No. 10, 2002, pp. 751-755.
 S. C. Liufu, H. Xiao and Y. Li, “Investigation of PEG Adsorption on the Surface of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles,” Powder Technology, Vol. 145, No. 1, 2004, pp. 20-24.
 E. Tang, G. X. Cheng and X. Ma, “Preparation of Nano- ZnO/PMMA Composite Particles via Grafting of the Copolymer onto the Surface of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles,” Powder Technology, Vol. 161, No. 3, 2006, pp. 209-214.
 V. Parthasarathi and Thilagavathi, “Synthesis and Characterization and Their Application to Textile for Microbe Resistance,” Journal of Textile Apparel Technology and Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2009, pp. 1-8.
 B. D. Cullity, “Elements of X-Ray Diffraction,” Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, 1978.
 A. Aksit, N. Onar, M. F. Ebeoglugil, I. Kayatekin and E. Celik, “Proceedings of the 7th World Textile Conference AUTEX,” Tampere University of Technology Publications, Tampere, 2007
 S. S. Subhranshu, P. Jeyaraman and V. Vinita, “Sonochemical Coating of Ag-TiO2 Nanoparticles on Textile Fabrics for Stain Repellency and Self-Cleaning—The Indian Scenario: A Review,” Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2010, pp. 519-525.