ABSTRACT Anisotropic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in a simple, environmentally benign process under ambient conditions of temperature and atmospheric pressure using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as both the reductant and biotemplate. Two types of anisotropic nanoparticles were produced in the system, namely larger two dimensional plates and smaller three-dimensional nanoparticles. Since the characteristics of nanoparticles are largely determined by their morphology, a simple centrifugation step was included to roughly separate the larger plate-like particles from the smaller more compact particles. In an attempt to identify potential applications, the properties of the particles were determined by TEM, SEM, STEM-EDS, UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The results of this study identified several optical properties of gold nanoparticles.
Cite this paper
Grewar, T. and Gericke, M. (2012) Technical Note: Synthesis and Characterization of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles. Advances in Nanoparticles, 1, 15-20. doi: 10.4236/anp.2012.13003.
 P. Mukherjee, S. Senapati, D. Mandal, A. Ahmad, M. I. Khan, R. Kumar and M. Sastry, “Extracellular Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum,” ChemBioChem, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2002, pp. 461-463.
 J. Panyam and Y. Labhasetwar, “Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery to Cells and Tissue,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2003, pp.329-347. doi:/10.1016/S0169-409X(02)00228-4
 Z. P. Xu, Q. H. Zeng, G. Q. Lu and A. B. Yu, “Inorganic Nanoparticles as Carriers for Efficient Cellular Delivery,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 61, No. 3, 2006, pp. 1027-1040. doi:/10.1016/j.ces.2005.06.019
 D. Pissuwan, C. H. Cortie, S. M. Valenzuela and M. B. Cortie, “Gold Nanosphere-Antibody Conjugates for Hyperthermal Therapeutic Applications,” Gold Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2007, pp.121-129. doi:/10.1007/BF03215568
 Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. DuanMu, L. Xu, S. Xie and N. Gu, “Facile Synthesis of Micrometer-Sized Gold Nanoplates through an Aniline-Assisted Route in Ethylene Glycol Solution,” Colloid Surface A, Vol. 278, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 33-38. doi:/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.11.075
 A. V. Singh, B. M. Bandgar, M. Kasture, B. L. V. Prasad and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of Gold, Silver and Their Alloy Nanoparticles Using Bovine Serum Albumin as Foaming and Stabilizing Agent,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 15, No. 48, 2005, pp. 5115-5121.
 K. Fujiwara, H. Watarai, H. Itoh, E. Nakahama and N. Ogawa, “Measurement of Antibody Binding to Protein Immobilized on Gold Nanoparticles by Localized Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 386, No. 3, 2006, pp. 639-644.
 A. Mocanu, I. Cernica, G. Tomoaia, L. D. Bobos, O. Horovitz and M. Tomoaia-Cotisel, “Self-Assembly Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles in the Presence of Cysteine,” Colloid Surface A, Vol. 338, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 93-101. doi:/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.12.041
 L. Au, B. Lim, P. Colletti, Y. Jun and Y. Xia, “Synthesis of Gold Microplates Using Bovine Serum Albumin as a Reductant and Stabilizer,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010, pp.123-129.
 A. Ahmad, S. Senapati, M. I. Khan, R. Kumar, R. Ramani, V. Srinivas and M. Sastry, “Intracellular Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by a Novel Alkalotolerant Actinomycete, Rhodococcus Species,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2003, pp. 824-828.
 P. Mukherjee, A. Ahmad, D. Mandal, S. Senapati, S. R. Sainkar, M. I. Khan, R. Ramani, R. Parischa, P. V. Ajayakumar, M. Alam, M. Sastry and R. Kumar, “Bioreduction of AuCl4– Ions by the Fungus, Verticillium sp. and Surface Trapping of the Gold Nanoparticles Formed,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 40, No. 19, 2003, pp. 3585-3588.
 M. Sastry, A. Ahmad, M. Islam Khan and R. Kumar, “Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Fungi and Actinomycete,” Current Science, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2003, pp. 162-163.
 H. Yoshimura, “Protein-Assisted Nanoparticle Synthesis,” Colloids and Surfaces A, Vol. 282-283, 2006, pp. 464-470. doi:/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.037
 D. Takagi, A. Yamazaki, Y. Otsuka, H. Yoshimura, Y. Kobayashi and Y. Homma, “Gold Filled Apo-Ferritin for Investigation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Growth on Substrate,” Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 445, No. 4-6, 2007, pp. 213-216. doi:/10.1016/j.cplett.2007.07.104
 N. Basu, R. Bhattacharya and P. Mukherjee, “Protein-Mediated Autoreduction of Gold Salts to Gold Nanoparticles,” Biomedical Materials, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2008, p. 034105. doi:/10.1088/1748-6041/3/3/034105
 M. D. Gouda, M. A. Kumar, M. S. Thakur and N. G. Karanth, “Enhancement of Operational Stability of an Enzyme Biosensor for Glucose and Sucrose using Protein Based Stabilizing Agent,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 17, No. 6-7, 2002, pp. 503-507.
 N. Wangoo, K. K. Bhasin, R. Boro and C. Raman Suri, “Facile Synthesis and Functionalization of Water-Soluble Gold Nanoparticles for a Bioprobe,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 610, No. 1, 2008, pp. 142-148.
 X. Bai, L. Zheng, N. Bin Dong and H. Liu, “Synthesis and Characterization of Microscale Gold Nanoplates Using Langmuir Monolayers of Long-Chain Ionic Liquid,” Crystal Growth and Design, Vol. 8, No. 10, 2008, pp. 3840-3846. doi:/10.1021/cg800549e
 D. Philip, “Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A, Vol. 71, No. 1, 2008, pp 80-85. doi:/10.1016/j.saa.2007.11.012
 T. Tang and I.W. Hamley, “Multiple Morphologies of Gold Nanoplates by High Temperature Polyol Synthesis,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 336, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 1-7.
 S. Shankar, A. Rai, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Rapid Synthesis of Au, Ag, and Bimetallic Au Core—Ag Shell Nanoparticles Using Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Broth,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 275, No. 2, 2005, pp. 496-502.
 X. Bai, L. Zheng, N. Li, B. Dong and H. Liu, “Synthesis and Characterization of Microscale Gold Nanoplates Using Langmuir Monolayers of Long-Chain Ionic Liquid,” Crystal Growth and Design, Vol. 8, No. 10, 2008, pp. 3840-3846. doi:/10.1021/cg800549e
 L. Liu, H-Z. Zheng, Y-M. Huang, S-M. Chen and Y-F, Hu, “Photoluminescence from Water-Soluble BSA-Protected Gold Nanoparticles, Spectrochimica Acta Part A, Vol. 69, No. 3, 2003, pp. 701-705.
 S. L. Smitha, K. M. Nissamudeen, D. Philip and K. G. Gopchandran, “Studies on Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photoluminescence of Silver Nanoparticles,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A, Vol. 71, No. 1, 2008, pp 186-190. doi:/10.1016/j.saa.2007.12.002