ABB  Vol.3 No.7 A , November 2012
Oxidative stress and human health
Abstract: Redox degenerative reactions of the biological system inevitably produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their derivatives. Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis that leads to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, organic hydro peroxides, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals etc. Information are accumulating steadily, supporting the general importance of oxidative damage of tissue and cellular components as a primary or secondary causative factor in many different human diseases and aging processes. Many of the recent landmarks in scientific research have shown that in human beings, oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of major health problems by inactivating the metabolic enzymes and damaging important cellular components, oxidizing the nucleic acids, leading to cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, joint disorders, neurological diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), atherosclerosis, lung and kidney disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, cancer, ageing, disease of the reproductive system including the male and female infertility etc. The advent of a growing number of in vitro and in vivo models for evaluating the human disease pathology is aiding scientists in deciphering the detailed mechanisms of the point of intersection of the oxidative stress with other cellular components or events in the growing roadmap leading to different human disorders. The toxic effect of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in human is balanced by the antioxidant action of non-enzymatic antioxidants, as well as by antioxidant enzymes. Such antioxidant defences are extremely important as they represent the direct removal of free radicals (prooxidants), thus providing maximal protection for biological sites. These systems not only assert with the problem of oxidative damage, but also play a crucial role in wellness, health maintenance, and prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. In this review we have tried to generate a gross picture on the critical role of ROS in deteriorating human health and the importance of antioxidative defense system in ameliorating the toxicity of ROS.
Cite this paper: Rahman, T. , Hosen, I. , Islam, M. and Shekhar, H. (2012) Oxidative stress and human health. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 997-1019. doi: 10.4236/abb.2012.327123.

[1]   Sies, H. (1985) Oxidative stress. Academic Press, San Diego, 1-8.

[2]   Sies, H. (1986) Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, 25, 1058-1071. doi:10.1002/anie.198610581

[3]   Sies, H. and Cadenas, E. (1985) Oxidative stress: Damage to intact cells and organs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lond: Biological Sciences, 311, 617-631. doi:10.1098/rstb.1985.0168

[4]   Nathan, C. (2003) Specificity of a third kind: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in cell signalling. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111, 769-778.

[5]   Kroncke, K.D. (2003) Nitrosative stress and transcription. Biological Chemistry, 384, 1365-1377. doi:10.1515/BC.2003.153

[6]   Garrido, N., Meseguer, M., Simon, C., Pellicer, A. and Remohi, J. (2004). Pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative imbalance in human semen and its relation with male fertileity. Asian Journal of Andrology, 6, 59-65.

[7]   Fridovich, I. (1997) Superoxide anion radical, superoxide dismutase, and related matters. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272, 18515-18517. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.30.18515

[8]   Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine. 3rd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

[9]   Beckman, K.B. and Ames, B.N. (1999) Endogenous oxi- dative damage of mtDNA. Mutation Research. 424, 51-58. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(99)00007-X

[10]   Wei, Y.-H., Lu, C.-Y., Wei, C.-Y., Ma, Y.-S. and Lee, H.-C. (2001) Oxidative stress in human aging and mitochon- drial disease-consequences of defective mitochondrial respiration and impaired antioxidant enzyme system. Chinese Journal of Physiology, 44, 1-11.

[11]   Evans, J.L., Goldfine, I.D., Maddux, B.A. and Grodsky, G.M. (2005) Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction? Diabetes, 52, 1-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.1.1

[12]   Finkel, T. and Holbrook, N.J. (2000) Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature, 408, 239-247. doi:10.1038/35041687

[13]   Vaziri, N.D., Dicus, M., Ho, N.D., Boroujerdirad, L. and Sindhu, R.K. (2003) Oxidative stress and dysregulation ofsuperoxide dismutase and NADPH oxidase in renal insufficiency. Kidney International, 63, 179-185. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00702.x

[14]   Apel, K. and Hirt, H. (2004) Reactive oxygen species: Metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 55, 373-399. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141701

[15]   Meister, A. and Anderson, M.E. (1983) Glutathione. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 52, 711-760. doi:10.1146/

[16]   Raghuvanshi, R., Kaul, A., Bhakuni, P., Mishra, A. and Misra, M.K. (2007) Xanthine oxidase as a marker of myocardial infarction. Indian Journal of Clinical Bio-chemistry, 22, 90-92. doi:10.1007/BF02913321

[17]   Sevanian, A. and Hochstein, P. (1985) Mechanisms and consequences of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Annual Review of Nutrition, 5, 365-390. doi:10.1146/

[18]   Jamieson, D. (1986) The relation of Free radical production to Hyperoxia. Annual Review of Physiology, 48, 703-719. doi:10.1146/

[19]   Sharma, R.K. and Agarwal, A. (2004) Role of reactive oxygen species in gynecologic diseases. Reproductive medicine and Biology, 4, 177-199.

[20]   Kunwar, A., et al. (2011) Free radicals, oxidative stress and importance of antioxidants in human health. Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences, 1, 53-60.

[21]   Chaitanya, K.V., Pathan, A.A.K., Mazumdar, S.S., Chakravarthi, G.P., Parine, N. and Bobbarala, V. (2010) Role of oxidative stress in human health: An overview. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 3, 1330-1333.

[22]   Zhang, J., Perry, G. and Smith, M.A. (1999) Parkinson’s disease is associated with oxidative damage to cytoplasmic DNA and RNA in substantia nigra neurons. American Journal of Pathology, 154, 1423-1429.

[23]   Yudoh, K., Trieu, N.V., Nakamura, H., Kayo, H.-M., Tomohiro, K. and Kusuki, N. (2005) Potential involvement of oxidative stress in cartilage senescence and development of osteoarthritis: Oxidative stress induces chondrocyte telomere instability and downregulation of chondrocyte function. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 7, 380-391. doi:10.1186/ar1499

[24]   Haydent, M.R. and Tyagi, S.C. (2002) Neural redox stress and remodeling in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes. Journal of the Pancreas, 3, 126-138.

[25]   Vasavidevi, V.B., Kishor, H.D., Adinath, N.S., Rajesh, D.A. and Raghavendra, V.K. (2006) Depleted nitrite and enhanced oxidative stress in urolithiasis. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 21, 177-180. doi:10.1007/BF02912938

[26]   Yudoh, K., Trieu, N.V., Nakamura, H, Kayo, H.-M., Tomohiro, K. and Kusuki, N. (2005) Potential involvement of oxidative stress in cartilage senescence and development of osteoarthritis: Oxidative stress induces chondrocyte telomere instability and downregulation of chondrocyte function. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 7, 380-391. doi:10.1186/ar1499

[27]   Haydent, M.R. and Tyagi, S.C. (2002) Neural redox stress and remodeling in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes. Journal of the Pancreas, 3, 126-138.

[28]   Pena-Silva, R.A., Miller, J.D., Chu, Y. and Heistad, D.D. (2009) Serotonin produces monoamine oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in human heart valves. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 297, 1354-1360. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00570.2009

[29]   Vasavidevi, V.B., Kishor, H.D., Adinath, N.S., Rajesh, D.A. and Raghavendra, V.K. (2006) Depleted nitrite and enhanced oxidative stress in urolithiasis. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 21, 177-180. doi:10.1007/BF02912938

[30]   Verzola, D., Maria, B.B., Barbara, V., Luciano, O., Franco, D., Francesca, S., Valeria, B., Maria, T.G., Giacomo, G. and Giacomo, D. (2004) Oxidative stress mediates apoptotic changes induced by hyperglycemia in human tubular kidney cells. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, l15, S85-S87 doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000093370.20008.BC

[31]   Bailey, D.M. and Davies, B. (2001) Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of antioxidant vitamin supplementation at high altitude. High Altitude Medicine & Biology, 2, 21-29. doi:10.1089/152702901750067882

[32]   Baumgartner, R.W., Eichenberger, U. and Bartsch, P. (2002) Postural ataxia at high altitude is not related to mild to moderate acute mountain sickness. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 322-326. doi:10.1007/s00421-001-0534-8

[33]   Chao, W.H., Askew, E., Roberts, D.E., Wood, S.M. and Perkins, J.B. (1999) Oxidative stress in humans during work at moderate altitude. Journal of Nutritiion, 129, 2009-2012.

[34]   Selley, M.L., Close, D.R. and Stern, S.E.(2002) The effect of increased concentrations of homocysteine on the concentration of (E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 23, 383-388. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(01)00327-X

[35]   Butterfield, D.A., Castegna, A., Lauderback, C.M. and Drake, J. (2002) Evidence that amyloid β-peptide-induced lipid peroxidation and its sequelae in Alzheimer’s disease brain contribute to neuronal death. Neurobiology of Aging, 23, 655-664. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(01)00340-2

[36]   Arlt, S., Beisiegel, U. and Kontush, A. (2002) Lipid per-oxidation in neurodegeneration: New insights into Alzheimer’s disease. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 13, 289- 294. doi:10.1097/00041433-200206000-00009

[37]   Gabbita, S.P., Lovell, M.A. and Markesbery, W.R. (1998) Increased nuclear DNA oxidation in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, 71, 2034- 2040. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71052034.x

[38]   Alam, Z.I., et al. (1997) Oxidative DNA damage in the parkinsonian brain: An apparent selective increase in 8-hydroxyguanine levels in substantia nigra. Journal of Neurochemistry, 69, 1196-1203 doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.69031196.x

[39]   Zemlan, F.P., Thienhaus, O.J. and Bosmann, H.B. (1989) Superoxide dismutase activity in Alzheimer’s disease: Possible mechanism for paired helical filament formation. Brain Research, 476, 160-162. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(89)91550-3

[40]   Pappolla, M.A., Omar, R.A., Kim, K.S. and Robakis, N.K. (1992) Immunohistochemical evidence of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Pathology, 140, 621-628.

[41]   Spillantini, M.G., et al. (1997) α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. Nature, 388, 839-840. doi:10.1038/42166

[42]   Gasser, T. (2001) Genetics of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, 248, 833-840. doi:10.1007/s004150170066

[43]   Marsden, C.D. (1983) Neuromelanin and Parkinson’s disease. J. Neural. Transm. Suppl, 19, 121-141.

[44]   Hirsch, E., Graybiel, A.M. and Agid, Y.A. (1988) Melanized dopaminergic neurons are differentially susceptible to degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Nature, 334, 345-348. doi:10.1038/334345a0

[45]   Wakamatsu, K., Fujikawa, K., Zucca, F.A., Zecca, L. and Ito, S. (2003) The structure of neuromelanin as studied by chemical degradative methods. Journal of Neurochemistry, 86, 1015-1023. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01917.x

[46]   Zecca, L., et al. (2003) The neuromelanin of human substantia nigra: Structure, synthesis and molecular behaveiour. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum, 65, 145-155. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-0643-3_8

[47]   Lotharius, J., et al. (2002) Effect of mutant α-synuclein on dopamine homeostasis in a new human mesencephalic cell line. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 38884-38894. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205518200

[48]   Lotharius, J. and Brundin, P. (2002) Impaired dopamine storage resulting from α-synuclein mutations may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Human Molecular Genetics, 11, 2395-2407. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.20.2395

[49]   Baptista, M.J., et al. (2003) Coordinate transcriptional regulation of dopamine synthesis genes by α-synuclein in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Journal of Neurochemistry, 85, 957-968. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01742.x

[50]   Wersinger, C., Prou, D., Vernier, P. and Sidhu, A. (2003) Modulation of dopamine transporter function by α-synuclein is altered by impairment of cell adhesion and by induction of oxidative stress. The FASEB Journal, 17, 2151-2153.

[51]   Perez, R.G., et al. (2002) A role for α-synuclein in the regulation of dopamine biosynthesis. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 3090-3099.

[52]   Braak, E., et al. (2001) α-synuclein immunopositive Parkinson’s disease-related inclusion bodies in lower brain stem nuclei. Acta Neuropathology, 101, 195-201.

[53]   Bruijn, L.I., et al. (1998) Aggregation and motor neuron toxicity of an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant independent from wild-type SOD1. Science, 281, 1851-1854. doi:10.1126/science.281.5384.1851

[54]   Gurney, M.E., et al. (1994) Motor neuron degeneration in mice that express a human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase mutation. Science, 264, 1772-1775. doi:10.1126/science.8209258

[55]   Valentine, J.S. and Hart, P.J. (2003) Misfolded CuZnSOD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 100, 3617-3622. doi:10.1073/pnas.0730423100

[56]   Wiedau-Pazos, M., et al. (1996) Altered reactivity of superoxide dismutase in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science, 271, 515-518. doi:10.1126/science.271.5248.515

[57]   Klein, J.A. and Ackerman, S.L. (2003) Oxidative stress, cell cycle, and neurodegeneration. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111, 785-793.

[58]   Linke, A., Adams, V., Schulze, P.C., Erbs, S. and Gielen, S., et al. (2005) Antioxidative effects of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: Increase in radical scavenger enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. Circulation, 111, 1763-1770. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000165503.08661.E5

[59]   Cristina Polidori, M., Pratico, D., Savino, K., Rokach, J., Stahl, W. and Mecocci, P. (2004) Increased F2 iso-prostane plasma levels in patients with congestive heart failure are correlated with antioxidant status and disease severity. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 10, 334-338. doi:10.1016/j.cardfail.2003.11.004

[60]   de Champlain, J., Wu, R., Girouard, H., et al. (2004) Oxidative stress in hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 26, 593-601.

[61]   Rizzo, M., Kotur-Stevuljevic, J., et al. (2009) Atherogenic dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Translational Research, 153, 217-223 doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2009.01.008

[62]   Steinberg, D. (1997) Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272, 20963-20966.

[63]   Devasagayam, T.P.A., Tilak, J.C., Boloor, K.K., Sane, K.S., Ghaskadbi, S.S. and Lele, R.D. (2004) Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: Current status and future prospects. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 52, 794-804.

[64]   Tribble, D.L. (1999) Antioxidant consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: Emphasis on vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene. Circulation, 99, 591-595. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.99.4.591

[65]   Alexandrova, M., Bochev, P., Markova, V., Bechev, B., Popova, M., Danovska, M. and Simeonova, V. (2004) Dynamics of free radical processes in acute ischemic stroke: Influence on neurological status and outcome. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 501-506. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2003.10.015

[66]   Piantadosi, C.A. and Zhang, J. (1996) Mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species after brain ischemia in the rat. Stroke, 27, 327-332 doi:10.1161/01.STR.27.2.327

[67]   Van Gaal, L.F., Vertommen, J. and De Leeuw, I.H. (1998) The in vitro oxidizability of lipoprotein particles in obese and non-obese subjects. Atherosclerosis, 137, S39-S44. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(97)00316-X

[68]   Bakker, S.J., IJzerman, R.G., Teerlink, T., Westerhoff, H.V., Gans, R.O. and Heine, R.J. (2000) Cytosolic triglycerides and oxidative stress in central obesity: The missing link between excessive atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and beta cell failure? Atherosclerosis, 148, 17-21. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00329-9

[69]   Coppack, S.W. (2001) Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60, 349-356. doi:10.1079/PNS2001110

[70]   Dandona, P., Mohanty, P., Ghanim, H., Aljada, A., Browne, R., Hamouda, W., Prabhala, A., Afzal, A. and Garg, R. (2001) The suppressive effect of dietary restriction and weight loss in the obese on the generation of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86, 355-362. doi:10.1210/jc.86.1.355

[71]   Menon, M. and Resnick, M.I. (2002) Urinary lithiasis: Etiology, diagnosis and medical management. In: Walsh, P.C., Ed., Campbell’s Urology, Saunder’s, 4, 3229-3305.

[72]   Halliwell, B. (1991) Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source, biochemistry and role in human disease. American Journal of Medicine, 91, 14s-21s. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(91)90279-7

[73]   Selvam, R. and Kalaiselvi, P. (2001) Studies on calcium oxalate binding proteins: Effect of lipid peroxidation. Nephron, 88, 163-167. doi:10.1159/000045978

[74]   Muthukumar, A. and Selvam, R. (1997) Renal injury mediated calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: Role of lipid peroxidation. Renal Failure, 19, 401-408. doi:10.3109/08860229709047726

[75]   Thamilselvan, S., Khan, S.R. and Menon, M. (2003) Oxalate and calcium oxalate mediated free radical toxicity in renal epithelial cells: Effect of antioxidants. Urological Research, 31, 3-9.

[76]   Singh, P.P. and Barjatia, M.K. (2002) Peroxidative stress and antioxidant status in relation to age in normal population and renal stone formers. Indian Journal of Nephrology, 12, 10-15.

[77]   Thamilselvan, S., Hackett, R.L. and Khan, S.R. (1997) Lipid peroxidation in ethylene glycol induced hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Journal of Urology, 157, 1059-1063. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)65141-3

[78]   Pillai, C.K. and Pillai, K.S. (2002) Antioxidants in health. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 46, 1-5.

[79]   Adler, A.I, Stevens, R.J, et al. (2003) Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The Unitsed Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64). Kidney International, 63, 225-232. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00712.x

[80]   Robert, C. and Stanton, T. (2011) Oxidative stress and diabetic kidney disease. Current Diabetes Reports, 11, 330-336. doi:10.1007/s11892-011-0196-9

[81]   Anderson, S. and Brenner, B.M. (1988) Pathogenesis of diabetic glomerulopathy: Hemodynamic considerations. Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews, 4, 163-177. doi:10.1002/dmr.5610040206

[82]   Zatz, R., Dunn, B.R, Meyer, T.W., et al. (1986) Prevention of diabetic glomerulopathy by pharmacological amelioration of glomerular capillary hypertension. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 77, 1925-1930. doi:10.1172/JCI112521

[83]   Garrido, A.M. and Griendling, K.K. (2009) NADPH oxidases and angiotensin II receptor signaling. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 302, 148-158. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2008.11.003

[84]   Mehta, P.K. and Griendling, K.K. (2007) Angiotensin II cell signaling: Physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system. American Journal of Physiology, 292, C82-C97. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00287.2006

[85]   Mansouri, E., Panahi, M., Ghaffari, M.A. and Ghorbani, A. (2011) Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rat kidney. Iranian Biomedical Journal, 15, 100-106.

[86]   Sadi, G., Eryilmaz, N., Tütüncüoglu, E., Cingir, S. and Güray, T. (2012) Changes in expression profiles of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rat kidneys. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 28, 228-235. doi:10.1002/dmrr.1302

[87]   Chen, Y.J. and Quilley, J. (2008) Fenofibrate treatment of diabetic rats reduces nitrosative stress, renal cyclooxy-genase-2 expression, and enhanced renal prostaglandin release. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 324, 658-663. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.129197

[88]   Peterson, J.D., Herzenberg, L.A., Vasquez, K. and Waltenbaugh, C. (1998) Glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells modulate Th1 versus Th2 response patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 95, 3071-3076. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.6.3071

[89]   Kim, H.J., Barajas, B., Chan, R.C. and Nel, A.E. (2007) Glutathione depletion inhibits dendritic cell maturation and delayed-type hypersensitivity: Implications for systemic disease and immunosenescence. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunologyl, 119, 1225-1233. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.01.016

[90]   Murata, Y., Shimamura, T. and Hamuro, J.( 2002) The polarization of T(h)1/T(h)2 balance is dependent on the intracellular thiol redox status of macrophages due to the distinctive cytokine production. International Immunology, 14, 201-212. doi:10.1093/intimm/14.2.201

[91]   Rahman, I. (2003) Oxidative stress, chromatin remodeling and gene transcription in inflammation and chronic lung diseases. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 36, 95-109. doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.095

[92]   Comhair, S.A., Ricci, K.S., Arroliga, M., et al. (2005) Correlation of systemic superoxide dismutase deficiency to airflow obstruction in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 172, 306-313. doi:10.1164/rccm.200502-180OC

[93]   Battaglia, S., den Hertog, H., Timmers, M.C., Lazeroms, S.P., Vignola, A.M., Rabe, K.F., Bellia, V., Hiemstra, P.S. and Sterk, P.J. (2005) Small airways function and molecular markers in exhaled air in mild asthma. Thorax, 60, 639-644. doi:10.1136/thx.2004.035279

[94]   Ercan, H., Birben, E., Dizdar, E.A., Keskin, O., Karaaslan, C., Soyer, O.U., Dut, R., Sackesen, C., Besler, T. and Kalayci, O. (2006) Oxidative stress and genetic andepi-demiologic determinants of oxidant injury in childhood asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 118, 1097-1104. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.08.012

[95]   Fogarty, A., Lewis, S., Weiss, S. and Britton, J. (2000) Dietary vitamin E, IgE concentrations, and atopy. Lancet, 356, 1573-1574. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03132-9

[96]   Cho, Y.S. and Moon, H.-B. (2010) The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of asthma. Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, 2, 183-187. doi:10.4168/aair.2010.2.3.183

[97]   Cantin, A.M., North, S.L., Fells, G.A., Hubbard, R.C. and Crystal, R.G. (1987) Oxidant-mediated epithelial cell injury in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 79, 1665-1673. doi:10.1172/JCI113005

[98]   Montuschi, P., Ciabattoni, G., Paredi, P., Pantelidis, P., du Bois, R.M., et al. (1998) 8-Isoprostane as a biomarker of oxidative stress in interstitial lung diseases. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 158, 1524-1527.

[99]   Fattman, C.L. (2008) Apoptosis in pulmonary fibrosis: Too much or not enough? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10, 379-385. doi:10.1089/ars.2007.1907

[100]   Sturrock, A., Cahill, B., Norman, K., Huecksteadt, T.P., Hill, K., et al. (2006) Transforming growth factor-beta1 induces Nox4 NAD(P)H oxidase and reactive oxygen species dependent proliferation in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology Lung Cellular and Molecular, 290, L661-L673. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00269.2005

[101]   Rottoli, P., Magi, B., Cianti, R., Bargagli, E., Vagaggini, C., et al. (2005) Carbonylated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis associated with systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Proteomics, 5, 2612-2618. doi:10.1002/pmic.200401206

[102]   Lenz, A.G., Costabel, U. and Maier, K.L. (1996) Oxidized BAL fluid proteins in patients with interstitial lung diseases. European Respiratory Journal, 9, 307-312. doi:10.1183/09031936.96.09020307

[103]   Gao, F., Kinnula, V.L., Myllarniemi, M. and Oury, T.D. (2008) Extracellular superoxide dismutase in pulmonary fibrosis. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10, 343-354. doi:10.1089/ars.2007.1908

[104]   Rahman, I., Skwarska, E., Henry, M., Davis, M., O’Connor, C.M., et al. (1999) Systemic and pulmonary oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 27, 60-68. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00035-0

[105]   Szabo, E., Riffe, M.E., Steinberg, S.M., Birrer, M.J. and Linnoila, R.I. (1996) Altered cJUN expression: An early event in human lung carcinogenesis. Cancer Research, 56, 305-315.

[106]   Volm, M., van Kaick, G. and Mattern, J. (1994) Analysis of c-fos, c-erbB1, c-erbB2 and c-myc in primary lung carcinomas and their lymph node metastases. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, 12, 329-334. doi:10.1007/BF01753840

[107]   Stewart, Z.A. and Pietenpol, J.A. (2001) p53 Signaling and cell cycle checkpoints. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 14, 243-263. doi:10.1021/tx000199t

[108]   Roberts, L.J. 2nd and Morrow, J.D. (1995) The isoprostanes: Novel markers of lipid peroxidation and potential mediators of oxidant injury. Advances in Prostaglandin, Thromboxane, and Leukotriene Research, 23, 219-224.

[109]   Babizhayev, M.A. (1996) Failure to withstand oxidative stress induced by phospholipid peroxides as a possible cause of lens opacities in systemic diseases and aging. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1315, 87-99. doi:10.1016/0925-4439(95)00091-7

[110]   Lodovici, M., Raimondi, L., Guqlielmi, F., Gemignani, S. and Dolara, P. (2003) Protection against ultraviolet B-induced oxidative DNA damage in rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) by 4-counmaric acid. Toxicology, 184, 141- 147. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00572-3

[111]   Ho, M.-C., Peng, Y.-J., Chen, S.-J. and Chiou, S.-H. (2010) Senile cataract and oxidative stress. Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, 1, 17-21. doi:10.1016/j.jcgg.2010.10.006

[112]   Lodovici, M., Caldini, S., Morbidelli, L., Ziche, M. and Dolara, P. (2009) Protective effect of 4-coumaric acid from UVB ray damage in the rabbit eye. Toxicology, 255, 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2008.09.011

[113]   Ohira, A., Ueda, T., Ohishi, K., Hiramitsu, T., Akeo, K. and Obara, Y. (2008) Oxidative stress in ocular disease. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi, 112, 22-29.

[114]   Vinson, J.A. (2006) Oxidative stress in cataract. Pathophysiol, 13, 151-162.

[115]   Zoric, L. (2003) Parameters of oxidative stress in the lens. Aqueous humor and blood in patients with diabetes and senile cataracts. Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo, 131, 137-142. doi:10.2298/SARH0304137Z

[116]   Berthoud, V.M. and Beyer, E.C. (2009) Oxidative stress, lens gap junctions, and cataract. Antioxid Redox Signal, 11, 339-353. doi:10.1089/ars.2008.2119

[117]   Javitt, J.C. and Taylor, H.R. (1994) Cataract and latitude. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 88, 307-325. doi:10.1007/BF01203684

[118]   Sawada, H., Fukuchi, T. and Abe, H.( 2009) Oxidative stress in aqueous humor of patients with senile macular degeneration. Current Eye Research, 34, 36-41. doi:10.1080/02713680802500960

[119]   Chalam, K.V., Khetpal, V., Rusovici, R. and Balaiy, S. (2011) A review: Role of ultraviolet radiation in age-related macular degeneration. Eye & Contact Lens, 37, 225-232. doi:10.1097/ICL.0b013e31821fbd3e

[120]   Ohia, S.E., Opere, C.A., Leday, A.M. (2005) Pharmacological consequences of oxidative stress in ocular tissues. Mutatation Research, 579, 22-36. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.03.025

[121]   Beatty, S., Koh, H., Henson, D. and Boulton, M. (2000) The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Survey of Ophthalmology, 45, 115-134. doi:10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00140-5

[122]   Klein, R., Klein, B.E., Wong, T.Y., Tomany, S.C. and Cruickshanks, K.J. (2002) The association of cataract and cataract surgery with long term incidence of age-related maculopathy. The beaver dam study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 120, 1551-1558.

[123]   Ambati, J., Ambati, B., Yoo, S.H., Lanchuley, S. and Adamis, A.P. (2003) Age-related macular degeneration: Etiology, pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. Survey of Ophthalmology, 48, 257-293. doi:10.1016/S0039-6257(03)00030-4

[124]   Gottsch, J.D., Bynoe, L.A., Harlan, J.B., Rencs, E.V. and Green, W.R. (1993) Light-induced deposits in the Bruch’s membrane of proptoporphyric mice. Archives of Ophthalmology, 111, 126-129. doi:10.1001/archopht.1993.01090010130039

[125]   Nowak, M., Gnitecki, W. and Jurowski, P. (2005) The role of retinal oxygen in the origin of macular degeneration (AMD). Klinika Oczna, 107, 715-718.

[126]   Wu, J., Seregard, S. and Algvere, P.V. (2006) Photo-chemical damage of the Retina. Survey of Ophthalmology, 51, 461-481. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2006.06.009

[127]   Janik-Papis, K., Ulińska, M., Krzyzabowska, A., Stockzyńska, E., Borucka, A., Wozniak, K., Malgorzata, Z., Szaflik, J.P. and Blasiak, J. (2009) Role of oxidative mechanisms in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Klinika Oczna, 111, 168-173.

[128]   Drobek-Slowik, M., Karczewicz, D. and Safranow, K. (2007) The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej, 61, 28-37.

[129]   Winkler, B.S., Boulton, M.E., Gottsch, J.D. and Sternberg, P. (1999) Oxidative damage and age-related macular degeneration. Molecular Vision, 5, 32-42.

[130]   Roehlecke C, Schaller A, Knels L, Funk RH. (2009) The influence of sublethal blue light exposure on human RPE cells. Molecular Vision, 15, 1929-1938.

[131]   SanGiovanni, J.P. and Chew, E.Y. (2005) The role of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 24, 87-138. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2004.06.002

[132]   Feldmen, E.L. (2003) Oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy: A new understanding of an old problem. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111, 431-433.

[133]   Brownlee, M. (2005) The pathophysiology of diabetic implications: A unifying mechanism. Diabetes, 54, 1615-1625. doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.6.1615

[134]   Kowluru, R.A. and Kanwar, M. (2009) Oxidative stress and the development of diabetic retinopathy: Contributory role of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 46, 1677-1685. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.03.024

[135]   Yue, K.K.M., Chung, W.S., Leung, A.W.N. and Cheung, C.H.K. (2003) Redox changes precede the occurrence of oxidative stress in eyes and aorta, but not kidneys of diabetic rats. Life Sciences, 73, 2557-2570. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00662-3

[136]   Baynes, J.W. (1991) Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes. Diabetes, 40, 405-412. doi:10.2337/diabetes.40.4.405

[137]   Caspi, R.R. (2010) A look at autoimmunity and inflamemation of the eye. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 120, 3073-3083. doi:10.1172/JCI42440

[138]   Zamir, E., Zhang, Z., Samuni, A., Kogan, M. and Pe’er, J. (1999) Nitroxide stable radical suppresses autoimmune uveitis in rats. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 27, 7-15. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00026-X

[139]   Sarawathy, S. and Rao, N.A. (2009) Mitochondrial proteomics in experimental autoimmune uveitis oxidative stress. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 50, 5559-5566.

[140]   Komeima, K., Rogers, B.S. and Campochiaro, P.A. (2007) Antioxidants slow photoreceptor cell death in mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 213, 809-815. doi:10.1002/jcp.21152

[141]   Usui, S., Ovesson, B.C., Lee, S.Y., Jo, Y.J., Yoshida, T., Miki, A., Miki, K., Iwase, T., Lu, L. and Compochiaro, P.A. (2009) NADPH oxidase plays a central role in cone cell death in retinitis pigmentosa. Journal of Neurochemistry, 110, 1028-1037. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06195.x

[142]   Makker, K., Agarwal, A. and Sharma, R. (2009) Oxidative stress and male infertility. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 129, 357-367.

[143]   Sun, J.G., Jurisicova, A. and Casper, R.F. (1997) Detection of deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation in human sperm: Correlation with fertilization in vitro. Biology of Reproduction, 56, 602-607. doi:10.1095/biolreprod56.3.602

[144]   Vine, M.F., Tse, C.K., Hu, P. and Truong, K.Y. (1996) Cigarette smoking and semen quality. Fertility and Steril- ity, 65, 835-842.

[145]   Potts, R.J., Newbury, C.J., Smith, G., Notarianni, L.J. and Jefferies, T.M. (1999) Sperm chromatin damage associated with male smoking. Mutation Research, 423, 103-111. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(98)00242-5

[146]   Barrington, J.W., Lindsay, P., James, D., et al. (1996) Selenium deficiency and miscarriage: A possible link? British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 103, 130-132. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1996.tb09663.x

[147]   Vural, P., Akgul, C., Yildirim, A. and Canbaz, M. (2000) Antioxidant defence in recurrent abortion. Clinica Chimica Acta, 295, 169-177. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(99)00255-7

[148]   Plessinger, M.A., Woods, J.R. Jr. and Miller, R.K. (2000) Pretreatment of human amnion-chorion with vitamins C and E prevents hypochlorous acid-induced damage. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 183, 979-985. doi:10.1067/mob.2000.106676

[149]   Bilodeau, J.F. and Hubel, C.A. (2003) Current concepts in the use of antioxidants for the treatment of preeclampsia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 25, 742-750.

[150]   Chappell, L.C., Seed, P.T., Briley, A., et al. (2002) A longitudinal study of biochemical variables in women at risk of preeclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 187, 127-136. doi:10.1067/mob.2002.122969

[151]   Shazia, Q., Mohammad, Z.H., Rahman, T. and Shekhar, H.U. (2012) Correlation of oxidative stress with serum trace element levels and antioxidant enzyme status in beta thalassemia major patients: A review of the literature. Anemia, 2012, 7 pages. doi:10.1155/2012/270923

[152]   Pavlova, L.E., Savov, V.M., Petkov, H.G. and Charova, I.P. (2007) Oxidative stress in patients with beta-thalassemia major. Prilozi, 28, 145-154.

[153]   Suryakar, A.N., Katkam, R.V. and Joshi, N.G. (2008) Oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant balance in beta thalassemia major. Indian Journal of Clinical Bio- chemistry, 23, 337-340. doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0074-7

[154]   Battisti, V., Maders, L.D., Bagatini, M.D., Santos, K.F., Spanevello, M., Maldonado, P.A., Brulé, A.O., Araújo Mdo, C., Schetinger, M.R. and Morsch, V.M. (2008) Measurement of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Clinical Bio- chemistry, 41, 511-518. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2008.01.027

[155]   Papiez, M.A., Dybala, M., Sowa-Kucma, M., Krzysciak, W., Taha, H.M. and Alicja, G.N. (2009) Evaluation of oxidative status and depression-like responses in Brown Norway rats with acute myeloid leukemia. Progress Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 33, 596-604.

[156]   El-Sabagh, M.E., Ramadan, K.S., El-slam, I.M.A. and Ibrahim, A.M. (2011) Antioxidants status in acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 1, 1-6.

[157]   Altindag, O., Karakoc, M., Kocyigit, A., Celik, H. and Soran, N. (2007) Increased DNA damage and oxidative stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Bio-chemistry, 40, 167-171. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.10.006

[158]   Pedersen-Lane, J.H, Zurier, R.B. and Lawrence, D.A. (2007) Analysis of the thiol status of peripheral blood leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Leukoc Biol, 81, 934-941. doi:10.1189/jlb.0806533

[159]   Kalpakcioglu, B. and Senel, K. (2008) The interrelation of glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Rheumatology, 27, 141-145. doi:10.1007/s10067-007-0746-3

[160]   Vasanthi, P., Nalini, G. and Rajasekhar, G. (2009) Status of oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 12, 29-33. doi:10.1111/j.1756-185X.2009.01375.x

[161]   Ku, I.A., Imboden, J.B., Hsue, P.Y. and Ganz, P. (2009) Rheumatoid arthritis: Model of systemic inflammation driving atherosclerosis. Circulation Journal, 73, 977-985. doi:10.1253/circj.CJ-09-0274

[162]   Rho, Y.H., Chung, C.P., Oeser, A., et al. (2010) Interaction between oxidative stress and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with severity of coronary artery calcification in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care & Research, 62, 1473-1480. doi:10.1002/acr.20237

[163]   Khan, F. and Siddiqui, A.A. (2006) Prevalence of anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibodies in the joint synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinica Chimica Acta, 370, 100-107. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2006.01.020

[164]   Leitinger, N. (2008) The role of phospholipid oxidation products in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases: Evidence from animal models and in humans. Subcellular Biochemistry, 49, 325-350. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8830-8_12

[165]   Lemarechal, H., Allanore, Y., Chenevier-Gobeaux, C., Ekindjian, O.G., Kahan, A. and Borderie, D. (2006) High redox thioredoxin but low thioredoxin reductase activities in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinica Chimica Acta, 367, 156-161. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2005.12.006

[166]   Hitchon, C.A. and El-Gabalawy, H.S. (2004) Oxidation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 6, 265-278. doi:10.1186/ar1447

[167]   Fay, J., Varoga, D., Wruck, C.J., et al. (2006) Reactive oxygen species induce expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in chondrocytes and human articular cartilage explants. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 8, R189. doi:10.1186/ar2102

[168]   De Bandt, M., Grossin, M., Driss, F., et al. (2002) Vitamin E uncouples joint destruction and clinical infl ammation in a transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 46, 522-532. doi:10.1002/art.10085

[169]   Zwerina, J., Tzima, S., Hayer, S., et al. (2005) Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. FASEB Journal, 19, 2011-2013

[170]   Hitchon, C.A. and El-Gabalawy, H.S. (2004) Oxidation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 6, 265-278. doi:10.1186/ar1447

[171]   Baskol, G., Demir, H. and Baskol, M. (2005) Assessment of paraoxonase 1 activity and malondialdehyde levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Biochemistry, 38, 951-955. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2005.06.010

[172]   Griffiths, HR. (2005) ROS as signalling molecules in T cells-evidence for abnormal redox signalling in the autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis. Redox Report, 10, 273-280. doi:10.1179/135100005X83680

[173]   Pedersen-Lane, J.H., Zurier, R.B. and Lawrence, D.A. (2007) Analysis of the thiol status of peripheral blood leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 81, 934-941. doi:10.1189/jlb.0806533

[174]   Wright, H.L., Moots, R.J., Bucknall, R.C. and Edwards, S.W. (2010) Neutrophil function in inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Rheumatology, 49, 1618-1631. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keq045

[175]   Frears, E.R., Zhang, Z., Blake, D.R., O’Connell, J.P., Winyard, P.G. (1996) Inactivation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 by peroxynitrite. FEBS Letters, 381, 21-24. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96)00065-8

[176]   Nissim, A., Winyard, P.G. and Corrigall, V. (2005) Generation of neoantigenic epitopes after posttranslational modification of type II collagen by factors present within the inflamed joint. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 52, 3829- 3838. doi:10.1002/art.21479

[177]   Eggleton, P., Haigh, R. and Winyard, P.G. (2008) Consequence of neo-antigenicity of the “altered self”. Rheumatology, 47, 567-571. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ken014

[178]   Edwards, S.W. and Hallett, M.B. (1997) Seeing the wood for the trees: The forgotten role of neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis. Immunology Today, 18, 320-324. doi:10.1016/S0167-5699(97)01087-6

[179]   Klebanoff, S.J. (1999) Oxygen metabolites from phagocytes: In Inflammation: Basic principles and clinical correlates. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 721-768.

[180]   Milam, S.B., Zardeneta, G. and Schmitz, JP. (1998) Oxidative stress and degenerative temporomandibular joint disease: A proposed hypothesis. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 56, 214-223. doi:10.1016/S0278-2391(98)90872-2

[181]   Kawai, Y., Kubota, E. and Okabe, E. (2000) Reactive oxygen species participation in experimentally induced arthritis of the temporomandibular joint in rats. Journal of Dental Research, 79, 1489-1495. doi:10.1177/00220345000790071001

[182]   Lee, M.C., Kawai, Y., Shoji, H., Yoshino, F., Miyazaki, H. and Kato, H. (2004) Evidence of reactive oxygen species generation in synovial fluid from patients with temporo-mandibular disease by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Redox Report, 9, 331-336. doi:10.1179/135100004225006830

[183]   Chandra, H. and Symons, M.C. (1987) Sulphur radicals formed by cutting alpha-keratin. Nature, 328, 833-834. doi:10.1038/328833a0

[184]   Nitzan, D.W. (1994) Intraarticular pressure in the functioning human temporomandibular joint and its alteration by uniform elevation of the occlusal plane. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 52, 671-679. doi:10.1016/0278-2391(94)90476-6

[185]   Matsuo, W., Kimura, H., Komatsu, K., Kobayashi, W., Sakuraba, Y. and Suzuki, M. (1993) The scavenging effects of TMJ synovial fluids onactive oxygen generation. Journal of Japanese Society for TMJ, 5, 347-355.

[186]   Guarda, N.L., Oliviero, F., Ramonda, R. and Ferronato, G. (2004) Influence of intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate on clinical features and synovial fluid nitric oxide levels of temporomandibular osteoarthritis. Reumatismo, 56, 272-277.

[187]   Nitzan, D.W. (2001) The process of lubrication impairment and its involvement in temporomandibular joint disc displacement: A theoretical concept. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 59, 36-45. doi:10.1053/joms.2001.19278

[188]   Roberts, C.R., Roughley, P.J. and Mort, J.S. (1989) Degradation of human proteoglycan aggregate induced by hydrogen peroxide. Protein fragmentation, amino acid modification and hyaluronic acid cleavage. Biochemical Journal, 259, 805-811.

[189]   Yoshiaki, K., Lee, M.C. and Kubota, E. (2008) Oxidative stress and temporomandibular joint disorders. Japanese Dental Science Review, 44, 145-150. doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2008.08.001

[190]   Xie, D. and Homandberg, G.A. (1993) Fibronectin fragments bind to and penetrate cartilage tissue resulting in proteinase expression and cartilage damage. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1182, 189-196. doi:10.1016/0925-4439(93)90140-V

[191]   Finkelstein, E., Rosen, G.M. and Rauckman, E.J. (1982) Production of hydroxyl radical by decomposition of superoxide spin-trapped adducts. Molecular Pharmacology, 21, 262-265.

[192]   Buettner, G.R. (1987) Spin trapping: ESR parameters of spin adducts. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 3, 259-303. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(87)80033-3

[193]   Ames, P.R., Alves, J., Murat, I., Isenberg, D.A. and Nourooz-Zadeh, J. (1999) Oxidative stress in systemic lupus erythematosus and allied conditions with vascular involvement. Rheumatology, 38, 529-534. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/38.6.529

[194]   Nuttall, S.L., Heaton, S., Piper, M.K., Martin, U. and Gordon, C. (2003) Cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus-evidence of increased oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia. Rheumatology, 42, 758-762. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg212

[195]   Taysi, S., Gul, M., Sari, R.A., Akcay, F. and Bakan, N. (2002) Serum oxidant/antioxidant status of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 40, 684-688. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2002.117

[196]   Iuliano, L., Pratico, D., Ferro, D., et al. (1997) Enhanced lipid peroxidation in patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. Blood, 90, 3931-3935.

[197]   Soep, J.B., Mietus-Snyder, M., Malloy, M.J., Witztum, J.L. and von Scheven, E. (2004) Assessment of athero-sclerotic risk factors and endothelial function in children and young adults with pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 51, 451-457. doi:10.1002/art.20392

[198]   Mansour, R.B., Lassoued, S., Gargouri, B., El Gaid, A., Attia, H. and Fakhfakh, F. (2008) Increased levels of autoantibodies against catalase and superoxide dismutase associated with oxidative stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 37, 103-108. doi:10.1080/03009740701772465

[199]   Kurien, B.T. and Scofield, R.H. (2006) Lipid peroxidetion in systemic lupus erythematosus. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 44, 349-356.

[200]   Turgay, M., Durak, I., Erten, S., Ertugrul, E., Devrim, E. and Avci, A. (2007) Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in a Turkish group of patients with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus. APLAR Journal of Rheumatology, 10, 101-106. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8077.2007.00268.x

[201]   Turi, S., Nemeth, I., Torkos, A., Saghy, L., Varga, I. and Matkovics, B. (1997) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense mechanism in glomerular diseases. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 22, 161-168. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(96)00284-5

[202]   Ballatori, N., Krance, S.M., Notenboom, S., Shi, S., Tieu, K. and Hammond, C.L. (2009) Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biological Chemistry, 390, 191-214. doi:10.1515/BC.2009.033

[203]   Peterson, J.D., Herzenberg, L.A., Vasquez, K. and Waltenbaugh, C. (1998) Glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells modulate Th1 versus Th2 response patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 95, 3071-3076. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.6.3071

[204]   Perl, A., Gergely, P. Jr. and Banki, K. (2004) Mitochondrial dysfunction in T cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. International Reviews of Immunology, 23, 293-313. doi:10.1080/08830180490452576

[205]   Chang, D.M., Su, W.L. and Chu, S.J. (2002) The expression and significance of intracellular T helper cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunological Investigations, 31, 1-12. doi:10.1081/IMM-120003217

[206]   Viallard, J.F., Pellegrin, J.L., Ranchin, V., Schaeverbeke, T., Dehais, J. and Longy-Boursier, M. (1999) Th1 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)) and Th2 (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with systemic lupus erythe- matosus (SLE). Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 115, 189-195. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.1999.00766.x

[207]   Liu, T.F. and Jones, B.M. (1998) Impaired production of IL-12 in systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Excessive production of IL-10 suppresses production of IL-12 by monocytes. Cytokine, 10, 140-147. doi:10.1006/cyto.1997.0268

[208]   Hochberg, M.C. (1997) Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 40, 1725. doi:10.1002/art.1780400928

[209]   Bombardier, C., Gladman, D.D., Urowitz, M.B., Caron, D. and Chang, C.H. (1992) Derivation of the SLEDAI. A disease activity index for lupus patients. The Committee on Prognosis Studies in SLE. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 35, 630-640. doi:10.1002/art.1780350606

[210]   Lohr, G.W. and Waller, H.D. (1974) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Methods in Enzymology Analysis, 2, 636-643.

[211]   Buege, J.A. and Aust, S.D. (1978) Microsomal lipid per-oxidation. Methods in Enzymology, 52, 302-310. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(78)52032-6

[212]   Kono, Y. (1978) Generation of superoxide radical during auto-oxidation of hydroxylamine and an assay for super-oxide dismutase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 186, 189-195. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(78)90479-4

[213]   Luck, H. (1971) Catalase. In: Hu, B., Ed., Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, 3, 279.

[214]   Paglia, D.E. and Valentine, W.N. (1967) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 70, 158-169.

[215]   Beutler, E., Duron, O. and Kelly, B.M. (1963) Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 61, 882-888.

[216]   Taub, R. (2004) Liver regeneration: From myth to mechanism. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 5, 836-847. doi:10.1038/nrm1489

[217]   Irshad, M. (2002) Oxidative stress in liver diseases. Tropical Gastroenterology, 23, 6-8.

[218]   Brown, G.C. and Borutaite, V. (2012) There is no evidence that mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells. Mitochondrion, 12, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2011.02.001

[219]   Curran, R.D., Billiar, T.R., Stuehr, D.J., Hofmann, K. and Simmons, R.L. (1989) Hepatocytes produce nitrogen oxides from L-arginine in response to inflammatory products of Kupffer cells. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 170, 1769-1774. doi:10.1084/jem.170.5.1769

[220]   Diesen, D.L. and Kuo, P.C. (2010) Nitric oxide and redox regulation in the liver: Part I. General considerations and redox biology in hepatitis. Journal of Surgical Research, 162, 95-109. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2009.09.019

[221]   Diesen, D.L. and Kuo, P.C. (2011) Nitric oxide and redox regulation in the liver: Part II. Redox biology in pathologic hepatocytes and implications for intervention. Journal of Surgical Research, 167, 96-112. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2009.10.006

[222]   Klatt, P. and Lamas, S. (2000) Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stress. European Journal of Biochemistry, 267, 4928-4944. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01601.x

[223]   Niki, E. (2009) Lipid peroxidation: Physiological levels and dual biological effects. Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 47, 469-484. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.05.032

[224]   Stehbens, W.E. (2004) Oxidative stress in viral hepatitis and AIDS. Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 77, 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.yexmp.2004.04.007

[225]   Stehbens, W.E. (2003) Oxidative stress, toxic hepatitis, and antioxidants with particular emphasis on zinc. Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 75, 265-276. doi:10.1016/S0014-4800(03)00097-2

[226]   Osman, H.G., Gabr, O.M., Lotfy, S. and Gabr, S. (2007) Serum levels of bcl-2 and cellular oxidative stress in patients with viral hepatitis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 25, 323-329. doi:10.4103/0255-0857.37333

[227]   Halliwell, B. (1997) Antioxidants and human disease: A general introduction. Nutrition Reviews, 55, S44-S49, Discussion S9-S52.

[228]   Poli, G. (2000) Pathogenesis of liver fibrosis: Role of oxidative stress. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 21, 49-98. doi:10.1016/S0098-2997(00)00004-2

[229]   Rogowski, O., Shnizer, S., Wolff, R., Lewis, B.S. and Amir, O. (2011) Increased serum levels of oxidative stress are associated with hospital readmissions due to acute heart failure. Cardiology, 118, 33-37. doi:10.1159/000324192

[230]   Ali EMM, Shehata HH, Ali-Labib R., Esmail Zahra LM. (2009) Oxidant and antioxidant of arylesterase and paraoxonase as biomarkers in patients with hepatitis C virus. Clinical Biochemistry, 42, 1394-400. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.06.007

[231]   Lu, Y., Zhuge, J., Wang, X., Bai, J. and Cederbaum, A.I. (2008) Cytochrome P450 2E1 contributes to induced fatty liver in mice. Hepatology, 47, 1483-1494. doi:10.1002/hep.22222

[232]   Nanji, A.A. (2002) Role of Kupffer cells in alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol, 27, 13-15. doi:10.1016/S0741-8329(02)00207-0

[233]   Zhu, R., Wang, Y., Zhang, L. and Guo, Q. (2012) Oxidative stress and liver disease. Hepatology Research, 42, 741-749. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2012.00996.x

[234]   John, W.B. and Suzanne, R.T. (1999) Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Diabetes, 48, 1-9. doi:10.2337/diabetes.48.1.1

[235]   Lipinski, B. (2001) Pathophysiology of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 15, 203-210. doi:10.1016/S1056-8727(01)00143-X

[236]   Poli, G. (1993) Liver damage due to free radicals. British Medical Bulletin, 49, 604-620.

[237]   Loudianos, G. and Gitlin, J.D. (2000) Wilson’s disease. Seminars in Liver Disease, 20, 353-364. doi:10.1055/s-2000-9389

[238]   Ozsoylu, S. and Kocak, N. (1985) Wilson disease in Turkish children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 147, 334. doi:10.1007/BF00442714

[239]   Hochstein, P., Kuma, S. and Forman, S.J. (1980) Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of copper. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 355, 240-248. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21342.x

[240]   Sokol, R.J., Devereaux, M. and Mierau, G.W. (1990) Oxidant injury to hepatic mitochondrial lipids in rats with hereditary copper overload. Modification by vitamin E deficiency. Gastroenterology, 99, 1061-1071.

[241]   Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C. and Cross, E.S. (1992) Free radicals and human disease: Where are we now? Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 119, 598-620.

[242]   Bianchi, G., Marchesini, G. and Fahbri, A. (1997) Lipoperoxide plasma levels in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepato Gastroenterol, 44, 784-788.

[243]   Sokol, R.J., Twedt, D. and McKim, J.M. (1994) Oxidant injury to hepatic mitochodria in patients with Wilson’s disease and Bedlington terriers with copper toxicosis. Gastroenterology, 107, 1788-1798.