OJPM  Vol.2 No.4 , November 2012
Tobacco use among population sub-groups: A gender analysis
ABSTRACT
Women comprise 20% of world’s billion smokers. Especially troubling is raising prevalence of tobacco use among girls. In fact, it is expected that 20% of women in developing/developed countries will be smokers by 2025. This study analytically compares knowledge, attitudes, and practices of tobacco use, by gender, among 4 sub-populations in Alexandria, Egypt. Methods: A cross sectional approach was used for 4 subgroups (high school students, university students, shopping malls/clubs’ attendees, employees of health-related facilities), 1000 each (total sample size = 4000). A modified version of WHO questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Smoking prevalence was generally higher among males (29%-44%) compared to females (2% - 9%) in the studied groups. Cafeterias were preferable smoking places for both genders, especially among high school/university students. Most smokers in the 4 subgroups reported that most or all their friends were smokers. Mean knowledge scores were found to be higher among male employees/high school students, compared to females in the same sub-groups. Mean attitude scores towards smoking were higher among females (i.e. against smoking) in the 4 sub-samples. Conclusion & Recommendations: Tobacco use among males is generally higher among males, but females seem to be catching up. Social gatherings seem to attract many youngsters, of both genders, to smoke in public, especially waterpipe (which is a growing epidemic of tobacco use in our communities). Mass community- and gender-based health awareness campaigns are needed, using different channels, including school-based health education interventions, at the earliest age possible.

Cite this paper
Mandil, A. , Maqsoud, S. , Tayel, K. and Shama, M. (2012) Tobacco use among population sub-groups: A gender analysis. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 468-477. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24066.
References
[1]   Shafey, O., Eriksen, M., Ross, H. and Mackay, J. (2009) The tobacco atlas. 3rd Edition, American Cancer Society, Atlanta.

[2]   WHO (2009) Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2009. Implementing smoke-free environments. WHO, Geneva.

[3]   WHO (2008) Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008. The MPOWER package. WHO, Geneva.

[4]   WHO (2006) Tobacco: Deadly in any form or disguise. WHO, Geneva.

[5]   Guidon, G. and Boisclair, D. (2003) Past, current and future trends in tobacco use. HNP Discussion Paper, Economics of Tobacco Control Paper, No. 6, WHO, Geneva.

[6]   Lwanga, S.K. and Lemeshow, S. (1991) Sample size determination in health studies. A practical manual. WHO, Geneva.

[7]   WHO (1983) Guidelines for the conduct of tobacco smoking surveys of the general population. WHO, Geneva.

[8]   Egyptian Smoking Prevention Research Institute (2002) Tools for tobacco consumption surveys in Egypt. Ministry of Health & Population, Cairo.

[9]   WHO (1996) Guidelines for controlling and monitoring the tobacco epidemic. WHO, Geneva.

[10]   Jekel, J.F., Katz, D.L. and Elmore, J.G (2001) Epidemiology, biostatistics and preventive medicine. 2nd Edition, WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

[11]   Feinstein, A.R. (2002) Principles of medical statistics. 1st Edition, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton.

[12]   Islam, S.M. and Johnson, C.A (2005) Influence of known psychosocial smoking risk factors on Egyptian adolescents’ cigarette smoking behavior. Health Promotion International, 20, 135-145. doi:10.1093/heapro/dah604

[13]   Global Youth Tobacco Survey Egypt (2001) Global youth tobacco survey fact sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/global/gyts/factsheets/emr/2005/Egypt_factsheets.htm

[14]   Smoking and Tobacco Use (2005) Fact sheet: EMR global youth tobacco survey, Egypt. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/global/gyts/factsheets/emr/2005/Egypt_factsheets.htm

[15]   Gadalla, S., Aboul-Fotouh, A., El-Setouhy, M., Mikhail, N., Abdel Aziz, F. and Mohamed M.K. (2003) Prevalence of smoking among rural secondary students in Qualyobia. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 33, 1031-1050.

[16]   Islam, S.M. and Johnson, C.A. (2003) Correlates of smoking behavior among Muslims Arab-American adolescents. Ethnicity and Health, 8, 319-337. doi:10.1080/13557850310001631722

[17]   Tawfik, H.A. (2006) Assessment of smoking behavior among university students using the social learning theory. University of Alexandria, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria.

[18]   Gadalla, M.A., Gabal, M.S. and Khella, A.K. (1992) When and why Ain Shams university students started smoking? Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association, 67, 267-290.

[19]   Refaat, A. (2004) Practice and awareness of health risk behaviors among Egyptian university students. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 10, 72-81.

[20]   Mandil, A., Hussein, A., Omar, H., Turki, G. and Gaber, I (2007) Characteristics and risk factors of tobacco consumption among University of Sharjah students. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 13, 1449-1458.

[21]   Haddad, L.G. and Malak, M.Z (2002) Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39, 793- 802. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(02)00016-0

[22]   Mandil, A., BinSaeed, A., Ahmad, S., Al-Dabbagh, R., Alsaadi, M. and Khan, M. (2010) Smoking among university students: A gender analysis. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 3, 179-187. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2010.10.003

[23]   Edrogan, N. and Edrogan, I. (2009) Smoking at school: Views of Turkish university students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6, 36-50.

[24]   Youssef, R.M., Abou-Khatwa, S.A. and Fouad, H.M (2002) Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 8, 626-637.

[25]   Maziak, W., Rastam, S., Eissenberg, T., Asfar, T., Hammal, F., Bachir, M., et al. (2004) Gender and smoking status based analysis of views regarding waterpipe and cigarette smoking in Aleppo, Syria. Preventive Medicine, 38, 479-484.

[26]   Maziak, W., Ward, K.D., Afifi-Soweid, R.A. and Eissenberg, T. (2004) Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: A re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tobacco Control, 13, 327-333. doi:10.1136/tc.2004.008169

[27]   Omair, A., Kazmi, T. and Alam, S.E. (2004) Smoking prevalence and awareness about tobacco related diseases among medical students of Ziauddin Medical University. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 52, 389-392.

[28]   Al-Haqwi, A.I., Tamim, H. and Asery, A. (2010) Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Thoracic Medicine, 5, 145-148.

[29]   Lim, K.H., Sumami, M.G., Amal, N.M., Hanjeet, K., Wan Rozita, W.M., and Nrhamimah, A. (2009) Tobacco use, knowledge and attitude among Malaysians age 18 and above. Tropical Biomedicine, 26, 92-99.

[30]   Ma, G.X., Fang, C.Y., Tan, Y. and Feeley, R.M (2003) Perceptions of risks of smoking among Asian Americans. Preventive Medicine, 37, 349-355. doi:10.1016/S0091-7435(03)00143-9

[31]   Cortenay, W.H. (2000) Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men’s well being: A theory of gender and health. Social Science & Medicine, 50, 1385-1401. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00390-1

[32]   Carrao, M.A., Guindon, G.E., Cokkinides, V. and Sharma, N. (2000) Building the evidence base for global tobacco control. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 884-890.

[33]   Waldron, I. (1991) Pattern and causes of gender differences in smoking. Social Science & Medicine, 32, 989-1005. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(91)90157-8

[34]   Tayel, K.Y. (1990) The problem of smoking among secondary students in Alex-andria. University of Alexandria, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria.

 
 
Top