OJPM  Vol.2 No.4 , November 2012
The effect of sustained, long-term changes in alcohol intake on cardiovascular risk
ABSTRACT
Objective: To investigate whether sustained long-term changes in alcohol intake are predictive of cardiovascular risk. Methods: The study population was a subpopulation of the five-year intervention study, Inter99 study, (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 2117; 30 - 60 years). Alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires at baseline, one-, three- and five-year follow-up. The associations between sustained long-term changes in alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors (HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP); the absolute risk of ischemic heart disease (CRS)) at five-year follow-up were explored by linear regression models. The alcohol variables were tested for linear association with the response variable. Results: Sustained increased alcohol intake was significantly associated with increased CRS (β = 0.0028; P = 0.006) and a decreased HDL cholesterol (β = -0.0028; P = 0.005). Among participants with a moderate overall alcohol in-take at baseline increased alcohol intake was significantly associated with an increased plasma triglyceride (β = 0.0069; P = 0.04). No association with triglyceride was found for participants with a high alcohol intake. Change in wine intake was significantly negatively associated with changes in diastolic BP (β = 0.0015; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Sustained increase in the long-term intake of alcohol was a significant risk factor for an increased CRS, increased triglyceride level and decreased HDL cholesterol. Increased wine intake was associated with decreased diastolic BP.

Cite this paper
Toft, U. , Pisinger, C. , Aadahl, M. , Linneberg, A. , Lau, C. and Jørgensen, T. (2012) The effect of sustained, long-term changes in alcohol intake on cardiovascular risk. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 444-451. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24063.
References
[1]   Fillmore, K.M., Stockwell, T., Chikritzhs, T., Bostrom, A. and Kerr, W. (2007) Moderate alcohol use and reduced mortality risk: Systematic error in prospective studies and new hypotheses. Annals of Epidemiology, 17, S16-S23. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.01.005

[2]   Naimi, T.S., Brown, D.W., Brewer, R.D., et al. (2005) Cardiovascular risk factors and confounders among non-drinking and moderate-drinking US adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 369-373. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.01.011

[3]   Zarkin, G.A., French, M.T., Mroz, T. and Bray, J.W. (1998) Alcohol use and wages: New results from the national household survey on drug abuse. Journal of Health Economics, 17, 53-68. doi:10.1016/S0167-6296(97)00023-4

[4]   Tjonneland, A., Gronbaek, M., Stripp, C. and Overvad, K. (1999) Wine intake and diet in a random sample of 48763 Danish men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 49-54.

[5]   Jorgensen, T., Borch-Johnsen, K., Thomsen, T.F., Ibsen, H., Glumer, C. and Pisinger, C. (2003) A randomized nonpharmacological intervention study for prevention of ischaemic heart disease: Baseline results Inter99 (1). European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 10, 377-386. doi:10.1097/01.hjr.0000096541.30533.82

[6]   Thomsen, T., Borch-Johnsen, K., Davidsen, M. and Ibsen, H. (1997) The “PRECARD” study: Identificattion and management of individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 13, 286B-287B.

[7]   World Health Organisation (1999) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Report of a WHO consulation, part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus, Geneva, WHO/ NCD/NCS/99.2, World Health Organisation.

[8]   Thomsen, T.F., Davidsen, M., Ibsen, H., Jorgensen, T., Jensen, G. and Borch-Johnsen, K. (2001) A new method for CHD prediction and prevention based on regional risk scores and randomized clinical trials; PRECARD and the Copenhagen Risk Score. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk, 8, 291-297. doi:10.1097/00043798-200110000-00008

[9]   Toft, U., Kristoffersen, L., Lau, C., Borch-Johnsen, K. and J?rgensen, T. (2007) The dietary quality score: Validation and association with cardiovascular risk factors: The Inter99 study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 270-278. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602503

[10]   Klatsky, A.L. (2010) Alcohol and cardiovascular health. Physiology & Behavior, 100, 76-81. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.12.019

[11]   Barefoot, J.C., Gronbaek, M., Feaganes, J.R., Mcpherson, R.S., Williams, R.B. and Siegler, I.C. (2002) Alcoholic beverage preference, diet, and health habits in the UNC Alumni Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 466-472.

[12]   Johansen, D., Gronbaek, M., Overvad, K., Schnohr, P. and Andersen, P.K. (2005) Generalized additive models applied to analysis of the relation between amount and type of alcohol and allcause mortality. European Journal of Epidemiology, 20, 29-36. doi:10.1007/s10654-004-2172-z

[13]   Corrao, G., Rubbiati, L., Bagnardi, V., Zambon, A. and Poikolainen, K. (2000) Alcohol and coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. Addiction, 95, 1505-1523. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.951015056.x

[14]   Kodama, S., Saito, K., Tanaka, S., et al. (2011) Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 57, 427-436. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.08.641

[15]   Ronksley, P.E., Brien, S.E., Turner, B.J., Mukamal, K.J. and Ghali, W.A. (2011) Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 342, d671. doi:10.1136/bmj.d671

[16]   Feinman, L. and Lieber, C.S. (1999) Ethanol and lipid metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 791-792.

[17]   Pennington, J.S., Shuvaeva, T.I. and Pennington, S.N. (2002) Maternal dietary ethanol consumption is associated with hypertriglyceridemia in adult rat offspring. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 848-855. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2002.tb02614.x

[18]   Bessembinders, K., Wielders, J. and Van de Wiel, A. (2011) Severe hyper-triglyceridemia influenced by alcohol (SHIBA). Alcohol and Alcoholism, 46, 113-116. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agq088

[19]   Schroder, H., Ferrandez, O., Jimenez, C.J., Sanchez-Font, A. and Marrugat, J. (2005) Cardiovascular risk profile and type of alcohol beverage consumption: A population-based study. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 49, 100-106. doi:10.1159/000084889

[20]   Langer, R.D., Criqui, M.H. and Reed, D.M. (1992) Lipoproteins and blood pressure as biological pathways for effect of moderate alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease. Circulation, 85, 910-915. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.85.3.910

[21]   Rimm, E.B., Williams, P., Fosher, K., Criqui, M. and Stampfer, M.J. (1999) Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: Meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. British Medical Journal, 319, 1523-1528. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7224.1523

[22]   Klatsky, A.L., Friedman, G.D. and Armstrong, M.A. (1986) The relationships between alcoholic beverage use and other traits to blood pressure: A new Kaiser Permanente study. Circulation, 73, 628-636. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.73.4.628

[23]   Marques-Vida, P., Montaye, M., Haas, B., et al. (2001) Relationships between alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular risk factor levels in middle-aged men, the PRIME study. Atherosclerosis, 157, 431-440. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(00)00734-6

[24]   Stranges, S., Wu, T., Dorn, J.M., et al. (2004) Relationship of alcohol drinking pattern to risk of hypertension: A population-based study. Hypertension, 44, 813-819. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000146537.03103.f2

 
 
Top