APE  Vol.2 No.4 , November 2012
Digital Sport-Management Games and Their Contribution to Prospective Sport-Managers’ Competence Development
Author(s) Rolf Kretschmann
ABSTRACT
The immersive and engaging characteristics of digital games are leading current pedagogical discussions about digital media. Game scientists, (pedagogical) researches, and practitioners continue to attempt to embed digital games in pedagogical settings. They consider these games to be so called serious games. The idea of serious games is that a digital game is not only played for fun and entertainment, but to employ the specific game-play for serious learning processes and outcomes in a specific field of learning or work. Hence, the question arises, whether a digital sport-management game can assist prospective sport managers and students of sport management at the introduction to this complex field of work. To tackle the research question, it is necessary to investigate the profession of sport managers in “real” life and compare the game-play of a digital sport management game to them. Therefore, the best selling and most famous so-called commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) game FIFA Manager 09 by EA Sports is picked to be the subject of analysis. “Virtual” sport-manager competencies were compared to “real-world” sport- manager competencies to find any matching. As a result, there actually is a high congruence between sport- management competence-models and the digital game’s game-play.

Cite this paper
Kretschmann, R. (2012). Digital Sport-Management Games and Their Contribution to Prospective Sport-Managers’ Competence Development. Advances in Physical Education, 2, 179-186. doi: 10.4236/ape.2012.24031.
References
[1]   Appenzeller, H., & Lewis, G. (2000). Successful sport management (2nd ed.). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

[2]   Bakeman, R., & Gottman, J. M. (1997). Observing interaction. An introduction to sequential analysis. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511527685

[3]   Beck, J. C., & Wade, M. (2005). Got game. How the gamer generation is reshaping business forever. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

[4]   Becker, K. (2007). Pedagogy in commercial video games. In D. Gibson, C. Adrich, & M. Prensky (Eds.), Games and simulations in online learning. Research and development frameworks (pp. 21-47). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

[5]   Bj?rk, S., & Holopainen, J. (2005). Patterns in game design. Hingham, MA: Charles River Media.

[6]   Carter, N. (2006). The football manager. A history. London: Routledge.

[7]   Chalip, L. (2006). Toward a distinctive sport discipline. Journal of Sport Management, 20, 1-21.

[8]   Clifford, G. (2009). FIFA manager 09 review (PC). Can EA sports’ offering challenge FOOTBALL Manager for this year’s Title? URL (last checked 30 September 2010). http://pc.boomtown.net/en_uk/articles/art.view.php?id=17418

[9]   Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46. doi:10.1177/001316446002000104

[10]   Corner, P. D., Bowden, S., Clark, D., Collins, E., Gibb, J., Kearins, K., & Pavlovich, K. (2006). Grounded learning from a strategy case competition. Journal of Management Education, 30, 431-454. doi:10.1177/1052562905277789

[11]   Cunningham, G. B., Sagas, M., Dixon, M., Kent, A., & Turner, B. A. (2005). Anticipated career satisfaction, affective occupational commitment, and intentions to enter the sport management profession. Journal of Sport Management, 19, 43-57.

[12]   Dondi, C., Edvinsson, B., & Moretti, M. (2004). Why choose a game for improving learning and teaching processes? In M. Pivec, A. Koubek, & C. Dondi (Eds.), Guidelines for game-based learning (pp. 20-76). Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishing.

[13]   Field, S. (2010). Career opportunities in the sports industry (4th ed.). New York: Ferguson.

[14]   Fleiss, J. L. (1981). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York: Wiley.

[15]   Gee, J. P. (2003). What video-games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

[16]   Hassoun, R. (2008). Football manager 2009 review. URL (last checked 30 September 2010). http://www.megamers.com/pc/review.php?game_category=2&article_id=3407

[17]   Hoff, K. S., Kroll, J., & Fletcher, C. (2007). Developing a professional perspective. In J. B. Parks, J. Quarterman, & L. Thibault (Eds.), Contemporary sport management (pp. 27-46). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[18]   Kayali, F., & Purgathofer, P. (2008). Two halves of play. simulation versus abstraction and transformation in sports videogames design. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 2, 105-127. http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/24/44

[19]   Kirriemuir, J. (2005). A survey of cots games used in education. URL (last checked 30 September 2010). http://www.bris.ac.uk/education/research/networks/gern/gdc05.ppt

[20]   Korda, M. (2009). FIFA manager 09. URL (last checked 30 September 2010).http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/fifa-manager-09-review?page=1

[21]   Kretschmann, R. (2008). Development of competencies by playing digital sports-games! Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Games-Based Learning, Reading, NJ: Academic Publishing Limited.

[22]   Kretschmann, R. (2010). Developing competencies by playing digital sports-games. US-China Education Review, 7, 67-75.

[23]   Laird, J. E., & van Lent, M. (2005). The role of artificial intellegence in computer game genres. In J. Raessens, & F. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of computer game studies (pp. 205-218). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[24]   Lussier, R. N., & Kimball, D. C. (2009). Applied sport management skills. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[25]   McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A., & Heald, Y. (2002). Report on the educational use of games. TEEM (teachers evaluating educational multimedia). URL (last checked 30 September 2010). http://www.teem.org.uk/publications/teem_gamesined_full.pdf

[26]   Meisel, S., & Marx, B. (1999). Screen to screen versus face to face: Experiencing the differences in management education. Journal of Management Education, 23, 719-731. doi:10.1177/105256299902300609

[27]   Mitchell, A., & Savill-Smith, C. (2004). The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature. Learning and skills development agency. URL (last checked 30 September 2010). http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1529.pdf

[28]   Parks, J. B., Chopra, P. S., Quain, R. J., & Alguindigue, I. E. (1988). ExSport I: An expert system for sport management career counseling. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 21, 196-209.

[29]   Patterson, V., & Allen, C. (1996). Occupational outlook overview: Where will the jobs be in 2005? Journal of Career Planning and Employment, 56, 32-35.

[30]   Peterson, R., Verenikina, I., & Herrington, J. (2008). Standards for educational, edutainment, and developmentally beneficial computer games. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2008, Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

[31]   Pitts, B. G., & Stotlar, D. K. (2002). Fundamentals of sport marketing (2nd ed.). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.

[32]   Prensky, M. (2001). Digital game-based learning. London: McGraw Hill.

[33]   Prensky, M. (2006). Don’t bother me, Mom—I’m learning. How computer and video games are preparing your kids for 21st century success—And how you can help! Saint Paul, MN: Paragon House.

[34]   Proserpio, L., & Gioia, D. A. (2007). Teaching the virtual generation. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6, 69-80. doi:10.5465/AMLE.2007.24401703

[35]   Rollings, A., & Adams, E. (2007). Fundamentals of game design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

[36]   Rousseau, D. M., & McCarthy, S. (2007). Evidence-based management: educating managers from an evidence-based perspective. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6, 94-101. doi:10.5465/AMLE.2007.24401705

[37]   Salas, E., Wildman, J., & Piccolo, R. (2009). Using simulation-based training to enhance management education. Management: Educating managers from an evidence-based perspective. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8, 559-573. doi:10.5465/AMLE.2009.47785474

[38]   Stuart, K. (2011). Football manager and the future of the beautiful game. Football manager developer sports interactive is investing in grassroots football—Is it shrewd marketing, genuine altruism or a bit of both? URL (last checked 30 September 2011). http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gamesblog/2011/feb/21/football-manager-sports-interactive

[39]   Thibault, L. (2009). Globalization of sport: An inconvenient truth. Journal of Sport Management, 23, 1-20.

[40]   Wolf, M. J. P. (2005). Genre and the video game. In J. Raessens, & F. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of computer game studies (pp. 193-204). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[41]   Zwikael, O., & Gonen, A. (2007). Project execution game (PEG): Training towards managing unexpected events. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31, 495-512.

 
 
Top