OJN  Vol.2 No.3 A , November 2012
Predictors of critical care nurses’ intention to leave the unit, the hospital, and the nursing profession
ABSTRACT
Nursing turnover and shortage are acknowledged as worldwide issues: understanding the factors that foster nurses’ intention to leave (ITL) is essential in retaining them. The present study aims at providing insight into the factors influencing critical care and intensive care nurses’ ITL the unit, the hospital, and the nursing profession. The study was conducted in two hospitals, by a questionnaire administered to all nurses employed in critical and intensive care units. 512 questionnaires (89.4%) were returned. Results revealed that a low job satisfaction (JS) for interaction with physicians and nurses, seniority ≥20 years, and working in Emergency are related to higher ITL the unit. Low JS for work organization policies, seniority ≥11 years, working in a private hospital, and higher educational level are related to higher levels of ITL the hospital. Low JS for professional status, for pay, and for work organization policies, age ≥40 years, part-time schedule are related to higher ITL the nursing profession. The research permitted detection of various predictors of different kinds of ITL, enhancing the importance of regular monitoring of ITL. In order to limit ITL, it would be important to work on the relationship with physicians and colleagues, work demands, organizational policies, and acknowledgement of competence.

Cite this paper
Cortese, C. (2012) Predictors of critical care nurses’ intention to leave the unit, the hospital, and the nursing profession. Open Journal of Nursing, 2, 311-326. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2012.223046.
References
[1]   Flinkman, M., Leino-Kilpi, H. and Salanter?, S. (2010) Nurses’ intention to leave the profession: Integrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66, 1422-1434. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05322.x

[2]   Simoens, S., Villeneuve, M. and Hurst, J. (2005) Tackling nurse shortages in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, 19. http://www.oecd.org/health/healthpoliciesanddata/34571365.pdf

[3]   World Health Organization (2008) The world health report 2008—now more than ever. http://www.who.int/whr/2008/whr08_en.pdf

[4]   Oulton, J.A. (2006) The global nursing shortage: An overview of Issues and Actions. Policy Politics Nursing Practice, 7, 34S-39S. doi:10.1177/1527154406293968

[5]   Dubois, C.-A., McKee, M. and Rechel, B. (2006) Critical challenges facing the health care workforce in Europe. In: Rechel, B., Dubois, C.-A. and McKee, M. Eds, World Health Organization, on Behalf of the European Observatory on Heath Systems and Policies, The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, 1-18. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/91475/E89156.pdf

[6]   Strachota, E., Normandin, P., O’Brien, N., Clary, M. and Krukow, B. (2003) Reasons registered nurses leave or change employment status. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33, 111-117. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2003/02000/Reasons_Registered_Nurses_Leave_or_Change.8.aspx

[7]   Clarke, S. and Aiken, L. (2003) Failure to rescue: Needless deaths are prime examples of the need for more nurses at the bedside. American Journal of Nursing, 103, 42- 47. http://www.uic.edu/depts/oce/OCEweb/04FA/ClarkeAiken.pdf

[8]   Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P., Sloane, D.M., Sochalski, J.A. and Silber, J.H. (2002) Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1987-1993. doi:10.1001/jama.288.16.1987.

[9]   Wagner, C.M. (2010) Predicting nursing turnover with catastrophe theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66, 2071- 2084. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05388.x

[10]   Rivers, P.A., Tsai, K.-L. and Munchus, G. (2005) The financial impacts of the nursing shortage. Journal of Health Care Finance, 31, 52-64. http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf9/pdf/2005/HLT/01Mar05/16946431.pdf

[11]   Jones, C.B. (2005) The costs of nurse turnover, part 2: Application of the nursing turnover cost calculation methodology. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35, 41-49. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Abstract/2005/01000/The_Costs_of_Nurse_Turnover,_Part_2__Application.14.aspx

[12]   Stone, P.W., Larson, E.L., Mooney-Kane, C., Smolowitz, J., Lin, S.X. and Dick, A. (2009) Organizational climate and intensive care unit nurses’ intention to leave. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39, S37-S42. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000218411.53557.29

[13]   van Dam, K., Meewis, M. and van der Heijden, B.I. (2012) Securing intensive care: towards a better understanding of intensive care nurses’ perceived work pressure and turnover intention. Journal of Advanced Nursing, in press. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.05981.x.

[14]   Odom, J. (2000) Nursing shortage: Impending doom or challenging opportunity. Journal Perianesthesia Nursing, 15, 348-349. doi:10.1053/jpan.2000.18206

[15]   Bertinato, L., Glinos, I.A., Boscolo, E. and Ciato, L. (2009) Oversupplying doctors but seeking carers: Italy’s demographic challenges and health professional mobility. Health Professional Mobility and Health Systems Observatory Studies, 23, 243-262. http://www.sfes.info/IMG/pdf/Health_professional_mobility_and_Health_systems.pdf#page=276

[16]   Chaloff, J. (2008) Mismatches in the formal sector, expansion of the informal sector: Immigration of health professionals to Italy. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Working Papers, Paris, 34. http://www.oecd.org/italy/41431698.pdf

[17]   Ghizzoni, A.M. and Avenati, L. (2010) La professione infermieristica, una scelta che paga. L’infermiere, 1, 18-23.

[18]   Regione Emilia Romagna (2011) Dinamiche del personale infermieristico nelle Aziende sanitarie. Permanenza in servizio e mobilità in uscita. http://asr.regione.emiliaromagna.it/wcm/asr/collana_dossier/doss100.htm

[19]   Wismar, M., Maier, C.B., Glinos, I.A., Dussault, G. and Figueras, J. (2011) Health professional mobility and health systems. Evidence from 17 European countries. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/152324/e95812.pdf

[20]   Sourdif, J. (2004) Predictors of nurses’ intent to stay at work in a university health center. Nursing and Health Sciences, 6, 59-68. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2018.2003.00174.x

[21]   Tourangeau, A.E. and Cranley, L.A. (2006) Nurse intention to remain employed: Understanding and strengthening determinants. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55, 497-509. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03934.x

[22]   Beecroft, P.C., Dorey, F. and Wenten, M. (2008) Turnover intention in new graduate nurses: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 41-52. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04570.x

[23]   Galletta, M., Portoghese, I., Penna, M.P., Battistelli, A. and Saiani, L. (2011) Turnover intention among Italian nurses: The moderating roles of supervisor support and organizational support. Nursing & Health Sciences, 13, 184-191. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00596.x

[24]   Krausz, M., Koslowsky, M., Shalom, N. and Elyakim, N. (1995) Predictors of intentions to leave the ward, the hospital, and the nursing profession: an longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 16, 277-288. doi:10.1002/job.4030160308

[25]   Morrell, K. (2005) Towards a typology of nursing turnover: The role of shocks in nurses’ decisions to leave. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49, 315-322. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03290.x

[26]   Hasselhorn, H.-M., Muller, B.H., Tackenberg, P., Wittenberg, J., Kuemmerling, A., Simon, M. and the NEXT Study Group (2005) Nursing in Europe: Intention to leave the nursing profession. In: Hasselhorn, H.-M., Muller, B.H. and Tackenberg, P. Eds., NEXT Scientific Report, Elanders Gotab AB, Vallingby, 17-24.

[27]   Lum, L., Kervin, J., Clark, K., Reid, F. and Sirola, W. (1998) Explaining nursing turnover intent: Job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, on organizational commitment? Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, 305-320. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199805)

[28]   Tham, P. (2007) Why are they leaving? Factors affecting intention to leave among social workers in child welfare. British Journal of Social Work, 37, 1225-1246. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcl054

[29]   McCarthy, G., Tyrrel, M.P. and Lehane, E. (2007) Intention to “leave” or “stay” in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management, 15, 248-255. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2007.00648.x

[30]   Shields, M.A. and Ward, M. (2001) Improving nurse retention in the National Health Service in England: The impact of job satisfaction on intention to quit. Journal of Health Economics, 20, 677-701. doi:10.1016/S0167-6296(01)00092-3

[31]   Borda, B. and Norman, I. (1997) Factors influencing turnover and absence of nurses: A research review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 34, 385-394. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(97)00031-X,

[32]   Cowin, L. (2002) The effects of nurses’ job satisfaction on retention: An Australian perspective. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32, 283-291. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Abstract/2002/05000/The_Effects_of_Nurses__Job_Satisfaction_on.8.aspx

[33]   Destrebecq, A., Terzoni, S., Colosso, C., Neri, L. and Brambilla, G. (2009) Intention to leave nursing in a major Milan hospital: Current situation and future perspectives. La medicina del Lavoro, 100, 109-119.

[34]   Hsiao, Y. and Lu, M. (1996) A study of organizational commitment, organizational retention and professional retention of clinical nurses? Nursing Research, 4, 137-150.

[35]   Ingersoll, G.L., Olsan, T., Drew-Cates, J., DeVinney, B.C. and Davies, J. (2002) Nurses’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment and career intent. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32, 250-263. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Abstract/2002/05000/Nurses__Job_Satisfaction,_Organizational.5.aspx

[36]   Price, J.L. (2004) The development of a causal model of voluntary turnover. In: Griffeth, and Hom, P. Eds, Innovative Theory and Empirical Research on Employee Turnover, Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, 3-32.

[37]   Barron, D. and West, A.E. (2005) Leaving nursing: An eventhistory analysis of nurses’ career. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 10, 105-157.

[38]   Lacey, L.M. (2003) Called into question: What nurses want? Nursing Management, 34, 25-26.

[39]   Santos, S.R. and Cox, K. (2000) Workplace adjustment and intergenerational differences between nurses, boomers and Xers. Nursing Economics, 18, 7-13.

[40]   Roberts, B.J., Jones, C. and Lynn, M. (2004) Job satisfaction of new baccalaureate nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, 34, 428-435. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2004/09000/Job_Satisfaction_of_New_Baccalaureate_Nurses.9.aspx

[41]   Larrabee, J.H., Janney, M.A., Ostrow, C.L., Withrow, M.L., Hobbs, G.R. and Burant, C. (2003) Predicting registered nurse job satisfaction and intent to leave. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33, 271-283. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2003/05000/Predicting_Registered_Nurse_Job_Satisfaction_and.3.a s px

[42]   Flinkman, M., Laine, M., Leino-Kilpi, H., Hasselohorn, H.-M. and Salanter?, S. (2008) Explaining young registred Finnish nurses’ intention to leave the profession: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Study, 45, 727-739. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.12.006

[43]   Joshua-Amadi, M. (2002) Recruitment and retention: A study in motivation. Nursing Management, 9, 17-21. http://nursingmanagement.rcnpublishing.co.uk/archive/article-recruitment-and-retention-a-study-in-motivation

[44]   Blegen, M.A. (1993) Nurses’ job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of related variables. Nursing Research, 42, 36-41. doi:10.1097/00006199-199301000-00007

[45]   Hu, J., Herrick, C. and Allard H.K. (2004) Managing the multigenerational nursing team. The Health Care Manager, 23, 334-340. http://journals.lww.com/healthcaremanagerjournal/Abstract/2004/10000/Managing_the_Multigenerational_Nursing_Team.8.aspx

[46]   Kuokkanen, L., Leino-Kilpi, H. and Katajisto, J. (2003) Nurse empowerment, job-related satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 18, 184-193.

[47]   Laine, M. (2005) Hoitajana huomennakin. Hoitajien tyopaikkaan ja ammattiin sitoutuminen/Organizational and professional commitment of nurses. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. University of Turku, Scripta lingua Finnica edita 0082-6995.

[48]   Chan, E. and Morrison, P. (2000) Factors influencing the retention and turnover intentions of registered nurses in a Singapore hospital. Nursing and Health Sciences, 2, 113-121. doi:10.1046/j.1442-2018.2000.00046.x

[49]   Shader, K., Broome, M.E., Broome, C.D., West, M.E. and Nash, M. (2001) Factors influencing satisfaction and anticipated turnover for nurses in an academic medical center. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31, 210-217. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2001/04000/Factors_Influencing_Satisfaction_and_Anticipated.10. as px

[50]   Takase, M., Maude, P. and Manias, E. (2006) The impact of role discrepancy on nurses’ intention to quit their jobs. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 1071-1080. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2005.01508.x

[51]   Ito, H., Eisen, S.V., Sederer, L.I., Yamada, O. and Tachimori, H. (2001) Factors affecting psychiatric nurses’ intention to leave their current job. Psychiatric Services, 52, 232-234. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.2.232

[52]   Acker, G.M. (2004) The effect of organizational conditions (role conflict, role ambiguity, opportunities for professional development, and social support) on job satisfaction and intention to leave among social workers in mental health care. Community Mental Health Journal, 40, 65-73. doi:10.1023/B:COMH.0000015218.12111.26

[53]   Adams, A. and Bond, S. (2000) Hospital nurses’ job satisfaction, individual and organizational characteristics. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 536-543. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01513.x.

[54]   Hemingway, M.A. and Smith, C.S. (1999) Organizational climate and occupational stressors as predictors of withdrawal behaviours and injuries in nurse. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 285-299. doi:10.1348/096317999166680

[55]   AbuAlRub, R.F. and Al-Zaru, I.M. (2008) Job stress, recognition, job performance and intention to stay at work among Jordanian hospital nurses. The Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 227-236. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2007.00810.x

[56]   Barnett, R.C., Gareis, K.C. and Carr, P.L. (2005) Career satisfaction and retention of women physicians who work reduced hours. Journal of Women’s Health, 14, 146-153. doi:10.1089/jwh.2005.14.146.

[57]   Camerino, D., Conway, P.M., van der Heijden, B.I.J.M., Estryn-Béhar, M., Costa, G. and Hasselhorn, H.-M. (2008) Age-dependent relationship between work ability, thinking of quitting the job, and actual leaving among Italian nurse: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45, 1645-1659. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.03.002

[58]   Estryn-Be’har, Van der Heijden, B.I., Oginska, H., Camerino, D., Le Nèzet, O., Conway, P.M., Fry, C., Hassel-horn, H.-M. and NEXT Study Group (2007) The impact of social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors upon intent to leave among European nurse. Medical Care, 45, 939-950. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e31806728d8

[59]   Hasselhorn, H.-M., Muller, B.H. and Tackenberg, P. (2005) NEXT Scientific Report. http://www.econbiz.de/archiv1/2008/53602_nurses_work_europe.pdf

[60]   Hasselhorn, H.M., Tackenberg, P. and Müller, B.H. (2003) Working conditions and intent to leave the profession among nursing staff in Europe. SALTSA—Joint Programme for Working Life Research in Europe Report No 7, 7. http://nile.lub.lu.se/arbarch/saltsa/2003/wlr2003_07.pdf

[61]   Simon, M., Kummerling, A., Hasselhorn, H.M. and NEXT Study Group (2004) Work-home conflict in the European nursing profession. International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health, 10, 384-391.

[62]   Balloch, S., Pahl, J. and McLean, J. (1998) Working in the social services: Job satisfaction, stress and violence. British Journal of Social Work, 28, 329-350. http://bjsw.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/3/329.short

[63]   Zeytinoglu, I.U., Denton, M., Davies, S., Baumann, A., Blythe, J. and Boos, L. (2006) Retaining nurses in their employing hospitals and in the profession: Effects of job preference, unpaid overtime, importance of earnings and stress. Health Policy, 79, 57-72. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.12.004

[64]   Spector, P.E. (1997) Job satisfaction. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

[65]   Weiss, H.M. (2002) Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00045-1

[66]   Williams, J. (2004) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=244&area=academics

[67]   Cortese, C.G. (2007) Job satisfaction of Italian nurses: An exploratory study. Journal of Nursing Management, 15, 303-312. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2007.00694.x

[68]   Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P. and Sloane, D.M. (2000) Hospital restructuring: does it adversely affect care and outcomes? The Journal of Nursing Administration, 30, 457- 465. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Abstract/2000/10000/Hospital_Restructuring__Does_It_Adversely_Affect.3.aspx

[69]   Aiken, L.H., Smith, H.L. and Lake, E.T. (1994) Lower medicare mortality among a set of hospitals known for good nursing care. Medical care, 32, 771-787. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3766652?uid=3738296&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101282535247

[70]   Hellman, C.M. (1997) Job satisfaction and the intent to leave. Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 677-689. doi:10.1080/00224549709595491

[71]   Kramer, M. and Schmalenberg, C. (1991) Job satisfaction and retention. Insight for the 90’s. Nursing, 21(3), 50-55.

[72]   Ruggiero, J.S. (2005) Health, work variables, and job satisfaction among nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35, 254-263. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2005/05000/Health,_Work_Variables,_and_Job_Satisfaction_Among.9.aspx

[73]   Sochalski, J. (2001) Nursing’s valued resources: Critical issues in economics and nursing care. The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 33, 11-18.

[74]   Tzeng, H.M. (2002) Satisfying nurses on job factors they care about. A Taiwanese perspective. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(, 306-309. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2002/06000/Satisfying_Nurses_on_Job_Factors_They_Care_About.5. aspx

[75]   Bowling, N.A., Eschleman, K.J. and Wang, Q. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the relationship between job satisfaction and subjective well-being. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 915-934. doi:10.1348/096317909X478557

[76]   Jenkins, J.M. (1993) Self monitoring and turnover: The impact of personality on intent to leave. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 14, 83-91. doi:10.1002/job.4030140108

[77]   Stamps, P.L. (1997) Nurses and work satisfaction: An index for measurement. Healt Administration Press, Chicago.

[78]   Adams, A., Bond, S. and Hale, C.A. (1998) Nursing organizational practice and its relationship with other features of ward organization and job satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27, 1212-1222. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00657.x

[79]   Irvine, D.M. and Evans, M.G. (1995) Job-satisfaction and turnover among nurses—Integrating research findings across studies. Nursing Research, 44, 246-253. doi:10.1097/00006199-199507000-00010

[80]   Kangas, S., Kee, C.C. and McKee-Waddle, R. (1999) Organizational factors, nurses’ job satisfaction, and patient satisfaction with nursing care. Journal of Nursing Administration, 29, 32-42. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/1999/01000/Organizational_Factors,_Nurses__Job_Satisfaction,.6.asp x

[81]   M?kinen, A., Kivim?ki, M., Elovainio, M., Virtanen, M. and Bond, S. (2003) Organization of nursing care as a determinant of job satisfaction among hospital nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 11, 299-306. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2834.2003.00399.x

[82]   Mills, A. and Blaesing, S. (2000) A lesson from the last nursing shortage. Journal of Nursing Administration, 30, 309-315. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2000/06000/A_Lesson_from_the_Last_Nursing_Shortage__The.9.aspx

[83]   Tovey, E.J. and Adams, A.E. (1999) The changing nature of nurses’ job satisfaction: An exploration of sources of satisfaction in the 1990s. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30, 150-158. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01059.x

[84]   Cavanagh, S.J. (1992) Job satisfaction of nursing staff working in hospitals. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, 704-711. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1992.tb01968.x

[85]   Best, M.F. and Thurston, N.E. (2004) Measuring nursing job satisfaction. Journal of Nurcing Administration, 34, 283-290. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Abstract/2004/06000/Measuring_Nurse_Job_Satisfaction.7.aspx

[86]   Ma, C.C., Samuels, M.E. and Alexander, J.W. (2003) Factors that influence nurses’ job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33, 293-299. http://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Abstract/2003/05000/Factors_That_Influence_Nurses__Job_Satisfaction.5.aspx

[87]   Cortese, C.G., Colombo, L. and Ghislieri, C. (2010) Determinants of nurses’ job satisfaction: The role of work-family conflict, job demand, emotional charge and social support. Journal of Nursing Management, 18, 35-43. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.01064.x

[88]   Ganster, D.C. and Schaubroeck, J. (1991) Work stress and employee health. Journal of Management, 17, 235-271. doi:10.1177/014920639101700202

[89]   Netemeyer, R.G., McMurrian, R. and Boles, J.S. (1996) Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 400-410. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.400

[90]   Chan, M.F., Luk, A.L., Leong, S.M., Yeung, S.M. and Van, I.K. (2008) Factors influencing Macao nurses’ intention to leave current employment. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 893-901. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02463.x

[91]   Hosmer, D. W. and Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied logistic regression. Wiley, New York.

[92]   Camerino, D., Conway, P.M. and Lusignani, M. (2005) Condizioni di lavoro e intenzione di cambiare: Risultati dello studio europeo NEXT in Italia. Giornale Italiano di Scienze Infermieristiche, 1, 12-25. http://air.unimi.it/handle/2434/5427

[93]   Camerino, D., Lusignani, M., Conway, P., Bertazzi, P.A. and Gruppo NEXT (2004) L’intenzione di lasciare la professione infermieristica. La Medicina del Lavoro, 95, 354-364. http://www.lamedicinadellavoro.it/summary/2004/vol_95_05/02_vol_95_05.pdf

[94]   Ferrari, F. (2010) The nurse job satisfaction. Comparison between ideal job and organizational reality: A preliminary study. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper. http://mpra.ub.unimuenchen.de/24798/

[95]   Tabolli, S., Ianni, A., Renzi, C., Di Pietro, C. and Puddu, P. (2006) Job satisfaction, burnout and stress amongst nursing staff: A survey in two hospitals in Rome. Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia, 28, 49-52. http://gimle.fsm.it/28/1s_psi/07.pdf

[96]   Steel, R.P. (2002) Turnover theory at the empirical interface: Problem of fit and function. Academic of Management Review, 27, 346-360. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4134383?uid=3738296&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101293632717

[97]   Tai, T.W., Bame, S.I. and Robinson, C.D. (1998) Review of nursing turnover research, 1977-1996. Social Science & Medicine, 47, 1905-1924. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00333-5

[98]   Wilson, B., Squires, M., Widger, K., Cranley, L. and Tourangeau, A. (2008) Job satisfaction among a multigenerational nursing workforce. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 716-723. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00874.x

[99]   Polit, D.F. and Beck, C.T. (2004) Nursing research: Principles and methods. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

[100]   O’Brien-Pallas, L., Griffin, P., Shamion, J., Buchan, L., Duffield, C., Hughes, F. et al. (2006) The impact of nurse turnover on patient, nurse, and system outcomes: A pilot study and focus for a multicenter international study. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 7, 169-179. doi:10.1177/1527154406291936

 
 
Top