Miniature microbial fuel cells have recently drawn lots of attention as portable power generation devices due to their short startup time and environmentally-friendly process which could be used for powering small integrated biosensors. We designed and fabricated a microbial fuel cell in a microfluidic platform. The device was made in polydimethylsiloxane with a volume of 4 μL and consisted of two carbon cloth electrodes and proton exchange membrane. Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 was chosen to be the electrogenic bacterial strain and inoculated into the anode chamber. Ferricyanide was used as the catholyte and pumped into the cathode chamber at a constant flow rate during the experiment. The mi- niature microbial fuel cell generated a maximum current of 2.59 μA and had a significantly short startup time.
Cite this paper
Wagner, L. , Yang, J. , Ghobadian, S. , Montazami, R. and Hashemi, N. (2012) A Microfluidic Reactor for Energy Applications. Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, 1, 21-25. doi: 10.4236/ojab.2012.13003.
 I. Ivanov, T. Vidakovic-Koch and K. Sundmacher, “Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling,” Energies, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2010, pp. 803-846.
 N. Hashemi, J. S. Erickson, J. P. Golden, K. M. Jackson, and F. S. Ligler, “Microflow Cytometer for Optical Analysis of Phytoplankton,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 26, No. 11, 2011, pp. 4263-4269.
 N. Hashemi, J. S. Erickson, J. P. Golden and F. S. Ligler, “Optofluidic Characterization of Marine Algae Using a Microflow Cytometer,” Biomicrofluidics, Vol. 5, 2011, Article ID: 032009. doi:10.1063/1.3608136
 Y. Lei, W. Chen and A. Mulchandani, “Microbial Biosensors,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 568, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 200-210. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2005.11.065
 S. C. Barton, J. Gallaway and P. Atanassov, “Enzymatic Biofuel Cells for Implantable and Microscale Devices,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 104, No. 10, 2004, pp. 4867- 4886. doi:10.1021/cr020719k
 S. Boland and D. Leech, “A Glucose/Oxygen Enzymatic Fuel Cell Based on Redox Polymer and Enzyme Immobilisation at Highly-Ordered Macroporous Gold Electrodes,” Analyst, Vol. 137, 2012, pp. 113-117.
 P. Jenkins, S. Tuurala, A. Vaari, M. Valkiainen, M. Smolander and D. Leech, “A Mediated Glucose/Oxygen Enzymatic Fuel Cell Based on Printed Carbon Inks Containing Aldose Dehydrogenase and Laccase as Anode and Cathode,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2012, pp. 181-187.
 L. Su, W. Jia, C. Hou and Y. Lei, “Microbial Biosensors: A Review,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1788-1799. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2010.09.005
 S. d’Souza, “Microbial Biosensors,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2001, pp. 337-353.
 I. L. Medintz and J. R. Deschamps, “Maltose-Binding Protein: A Versatile Platform for Prototyping Biosensing,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2006, pp. 17-27. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2006.01.002
 H. H. Park, W. K. Lim and H. J. Shin, “In Vitro Binding of Purified NahR Regulatory Protein with Promoter Psal,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, Vol. 1725, No. 2, 2005, pp. 247-255.
 E. R. Choban, L. J. Markoski, A. Wieckowski and P. J. A. Kenis, “Microfluidic Fuel Cell Based on Laminar Flow,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 128, No. 1, 2004, pp. 54- 60. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2003.11.052
 R. S. Jayashree, L. Gancs, E. R. Choban, A. Primak, D. Natarajan, L. J. Markoski and P. J. A. Kenis, “Air-Breathing Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Fuel Cell,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 127, No. 48, 2005, pp. 16758-16759. doi:10.1021/ja054599k
 K. Rabaey, G. Lissens, S. D. Siciliano and W. Verstraete, “A Microbial Fuel Cell Capable of Converting Glucose to Electricity at High Rate and Efficiency,” Biotechnology letters, Vol. 25, No. 18, 2003, pp. 1531-1535.
 F. Qian, M. Baum, Q. Gu and D. E. Morse, “A 1.5 μL Microbial Fuel Cell for On-Chip Bioelectricity Generation,” Lab on a Chip, Vol. 9, No. 21, 2009, pp. 3076-3081.
 F. Qian, Z. He, M. P. Thelen and Y. Li, “A Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 102, No. 10, 2011, pp. 5836-5840. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.02.095
 B. R. Ringeisen, E. Henderson, P. K. Wu, J. Pietron, R. Ray, B. Little, J. C. Biffinger and J. M. Jones-Meehan, “High Power Density from a Miniature Microbial Fuel Cell Using Shewanella oneidensis DSP10,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 8, 2006, pp. 2629-2634. doi:10.1021/es052254w
 Z. He, N. Wagner, S. D. Minteer and L. T. Angenent, “An Upflow Microbial Fuel Cell with an Interior Cathode: Assessment of the Internal Resistance by Impedance Spectroscopy,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 17, 2006, pp. 5212-5217. doi:10.1021/es060394f
 S. B. Velasquez-Orta, T. P. Curtis and B. E. Logan, “Energy from Algae Using Microbial Fuel Cells,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 103, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1068-1076. doi:10.1002/bit.22346
 Z. Ren, T. E. Ward and J. M. Regan, “Electricity Production from Cellulose in a Microbial Fuel Cell Using a Defined Binary Culture,” Environmental Science & Techno logy, Vol. 41, No. 13, 2007, pp. 4781-4786.