NS  Vol.4 No.11 , November 2012
Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic influenza reported in Yemen
Abstract: Objectives: This study describes the incidence of all fatal cases associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Yemen. It sets out to highlight the factors associated with poor prognosis *The authors declare that they have no competing interests. to enhance the implementation of prevention and control programs. Methods: The study is based on retrospective analysis of available data until 14 March 2010, as compiled by the disease control and surveillance team in Yemen. Results: Between 16 June 2009 and 14 March 2010, a total of 33 laboratory-confirmed death cases associated with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were reported to the Diseases Control and Surveillance in the Ministry of Public Health and Population. During this period, a total of 6049 suspected influenza A (H1N1) cases were recorded. With this denominator, the case fatality rate (CFR) was 0.54%. During June through August, H1N1 confirmed cases were infrequently detected, including only 30; however, from September through December, over 200 confirmed cases were reported each month. Of the 33 cases recorded, 25 were male (76%) and 8 were female (24%), male to female ratio being 3:1. Overall median age of the death cases was 30.8 years (range 1 - 55). The most common diagnosis upon admission was pneumonia. Out of the deaths, twenty five (75.8%) had no documented underlying diseases. Chronic cardiovascular disease (9.1%) was the most commonly reported disease and 2 deaths (6.1%) were recorded as pregnant women. Conclusions: The most common diagnosis upon admission was pneumonia. Chronic cardiovascular diseases were the most commonly reported underlying conditions, while the most identified risk factor was pregnancy. These findings should be taken into consideration, when vaccination strategies are employed.
Cite this paper: Thabet, A. , Moulhee, N. , Al-kohlani, A. and Jahaf, M. (2012) Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic influenza reported in Yemen. Natural Science, 4, 803-807. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.411107.

[1]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Introduction and biology of influenza.

[2]   WHO (2009) Clinical management of human infection with new influenza A (H1N1) virus: Initial guidance.

[3]   WHO (2009) Human infection with new influenza A (H1N1) virus: Clinical observations from Mexico and other affected countries. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 21, 185-196.

[4]   Dawood, F.S., Jain, S., Finelli, L., Shaw, M.W., Lindstrom, S., Garten, R.J., Gubareva. L.V., Xu, X., Bridges, C.B. and Uyeki, T.M. (2009) Emergence of novel swineorigin influenza A (H1N1) virus humans. New England Journal of Medicine, 361, 102.

[5]   O’Riordan, S., Barton, M., Yau, Y., Read, S.E., Allen, U. and Tran, D. (2010) Risk factors and outcomes among children admitted to hospital with pandemic H1N1 influenza. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182, 39-44. doi:10.1503/cmaj.091724

[6]   (2004)Yemen population census

[7]   Garske, T., Legrand, J., Donnelly, C.A., Ward, H., Cauchemez, S., Fraser, C., Ferguson, N.M. and Ghani, A.C. (2009) Assessing the severity of the novel influenza A/ H1N1 pandemic. British Medical Journal, 339, 2840. doi:10.1136/bmj.b2840

[8]   Vaillant, L., La Ruche, G., Tarantola, A. and Barboza, P. (2009) Epidemic intelligence team at InVS.Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009. Euro Surveillance, 14, 19309.

[9]   Fajardo-Dolci, G.E., Hernández-Torres, F., SantacruzVarela, J., Rodríguez-Suárez, J., Lamy, P., Arboleya-Casanova, H., Gutiérrez-Vega, R., Manuell-Lee, G. and Córdova-Villalobos, J.A. (2009) Epidemiological profile of mortality due to human influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico. Salud Pública de México, 51, 361-371.

[10]   Wong, C.M., Yang, L., Chan, K.P., Leung, G.M., Chan, K.H., Guan, Y., Lam, T.H., Hedley, A.J. and Peiris, J.S. (2006) Influenza associated hospitalization in a subtropical city. PLOS Medicine, 3, e121. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030121

[11]   European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2009) Announced number of new and cumulative confirmed fatal 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) cases in EU and EFTA countries, as of week 17-2010. fatalcases.aspx

[12]   Muhammad Ismail, H.I., Tan, K.K., Lee, Y.L., Pau, W.S.C., Razali, K.A.M., Mohamed, T., Adnan, T., Subramaniam P. and J. Hanif (2011) Characteristics of Children Hospitalized for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 708-710.

[13]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Hospitalized patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection—California, April-May. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 58, 536-541.

[14]   Hewagama, S., Walker, S.P., Stuart, R.L., Gordon, C., Johnson, P.D., Friedman, N.D., O’Reilly, M., Cheng, A.C. and Giles, M.L. (2010) H1N1 influenza A and pregnancy outcomes in Victoria, Australia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50, 686-690. doi:10.1086/650460

[15]   Lytras, T., Theocharopoulos, G., Tsiodras, S., Mentis, A., Panagiotopoulos, T. and Bonovas, S. (2009) Influenza surveillance report group. Enhanced surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) in Greece during the containment phase. Euro Surveillance, 14, 19275.

[16]   Kumar, A., Zarychanski, R., Pinto, R., Cook, D.J., Marshall, J., Lacroix, J., Stelfox, T., Bagshaw, S., Choong, K., Lamontagne, F., Turgeon, A.F., Lapinsky, S., Ahern, S.P., Smith, O., Siddiqui, F., Jouvet, P., Khwaja, K., McIntyre, L., Menon, K., Hutchison, J., Hornstein, D., Joffe, A., Lauzier, F., Singh, J., Karachi, T., Wiebe, K., Olafson, K., Ramsey, C., Sharma, S., Dodek, P., Meade, M., Hall, R. and Fowler, R.A. (2009) Canadian critical care trials group H1N1 collaborative. Critically ill patients wit

[17]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Surveillance for pediatric deaths associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection—United States, April-August 2009. April-May. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 58, 941-947.