Optimization of Osmotic Drying Parameters for Button Mushroom (*Agaricus bisporus*)

Author(s)
Birendra Kumar Mehta,
Sanjay Kumar Jain,
Gyanendra Prakash Sharma,
Vishvambhar Dayal Mudgal,
Radha Charan Verma,
Anila Doshi,
Hemant Kumar Jain

Abstract

Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of brine concentration (10% - 20%) solution temperature (35℃ - 55℃), and duration of osmosis (30 - 60 min) with respect to water loss (WL) and salt gain (SG). The solu- tion to sample ratio of 5/1 (w/w) was used. The Box-Behnken design of three variables and three levels including seventeen experiments formed by five central points were used for optimizing input parameters. Linear, quadratic and interaction effects of three variables were analyzed with respect to water loss and solid gain. For each response, second order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was per- formed to check the adequacy and accuracy of the fitted models. The response surfaces and contour maps showing the interaction of process variables were constructed. The optimum operating conditions were: solution temperature 44.89℃, brine concentration of 16.53 per cent and duration of osmosis of 47.59 min. At this optimum point, water loss and salt gain were predicted to be 44.55 per cent and 2.98 percent respectively.

Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of brine concentration (10% - 20%) solution temperature (35℃ - 55℃), and duration of osmosis (30 - 60 min) with respect to water loss (WL) and salt gain (SG). The solu- tion to sample ratio of 5/1 (w/w) was used. The Box-Behnken design of three variables and three levels including seventeen experiments formed by five central points were used for optimizing input parameters. Linear, quadratic and interaction effects of three variables were analyzed with respect to water loss and solid gain. For each response, second order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was per- formed to check the adequacy and accuracy of the fitted models. The response surfaces and contour maps showing the interaction of process variables were constructed. The optimum operating conditions were: solution temperature 44.89℃, brine concentration of 16.53 per cent and duration of osmosis of 47.59 min. At this optimum point, water loss and salt gain were predicted to be 44.55 per cent and 2.98 percent respectively.

Cite this paper

B. Mehta, S. Jain, G. Sharma, V. Mudgal, R. Verma, A. Doshi and H. Jain, "Optimization of Osmotic Drying Parameters for Button Mushroom (*Agaricus bisporus*)," *Applied Mathematics*, Vol. 3 No. 10, 2012, pp. 1298-1305. doi: 10.4236/am.2012.330186.

B. Mehta, S. Jain, G. Sharma, V. Mudgal, R. Verma, A. Doshi and H. Jain, "Optimization of Osmotic Drying Parameters for Button Mushroom (

References

[1] Anonymous, “The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,” 1971.

[2] M. E. Venturini, J. E. Reyes, C. S. Rivera, R. Oria and D. Blanco, “Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fresh Cultivated and Wild Mushrooms Commercialized in Spain,” Food Microbiology, Vol. 28. No. 8, 2011, pp. 1492-1498. doi:10.1016/j.fm.2011.08.007

[3] B. D. Shukla and S. P. Singh, “Osmo-Convective Drying of Cauliflower, Mushroom and Green Pea,” Food Engineering, Vol. 80, No. 2, 2007, pp. 741-747.
doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.06.025

[4] [4] L. Shi, C. H. Xue, Y. Zhao, Z. J. Li, X. Y. Wang and D. L. Luan, “Optimization of Processing Parameters of Horse Mackerel (Trachurus Japonicus) Dried in a Heat Pump Dehumidifier Using Response Surface Methodology,” Food Engineering, Vol. 87, 2008 pp. 74-81.

[5] A. Lenart and J. M. Flink, “Osmotic Concentration of Potato. I Criteria for the End Point of the Osmotic Process,” Food Technology, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1984, pp. 45-63.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb00326.x

[6] S. Kaleemullah, R. Kailappan and N. Varadharaju, ”Studies an Osmotic Air Drying Characteristics of Papaya Cubes,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2002, pp. 82-84.

[7] P. S. Pisalkar, N. K. Jain and S. K. Jain, “Osmo-convective Drying of Aloe-Vera Gel,” Food Science Technology, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2011, pp. 183-189.
doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0121-2

[8] S. K. Jain, R. C. Verma, L. K. Murdia, H. K. Jain and G. P. Sharma, “Optimization of Process Parameters for Osmotic Dehydration of Papaya Cubes,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2011, pp. 211-217.
doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0161-7

[9] G. E. Box and D. W. Behnken, “Some New Three Level Designs for the Study of Quantitative Three Variables,” Technometrics, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1960, pp. 455-475.
doi:10.1080/00401706.1960.10489912

[10] G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran, “Statistical Methods,” 6th Edition, Oxford & IBH Co., Bombay/New Delhi, 1967.

[11] K. Vishal, K. Gunjan and P. D. Sharma, “Effect of OsmoConvective Drying on Quality of Litchi,” Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2009, pp. 31-35.

[12] M. B. Uddin, P. Amswrth and S. Ibanoglu, “Evlauation of Mass Exchange during Osmotic Dehydration of Carrots Using Response Surface Methodology,” Food Engineering, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2004, pp. 473-477.
doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.02.007

[13] A. Kar and D. K. Gupta, “Osmotic Dehydration Characteristics of Button Mushroom,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2001, pp. 23-27.

[14] R. P. Murumkar, S. K. Jain, P. S. Pilaskar and R. C. Verma, “Osmo-Fluid Bed Drying of White Button Mushroom,” Bioved—An International Bi-Annual Journal of Life Science, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, 2007 pp. 47-52.

[15] S. M. Pokharkar and S. Prasad, “Air Drying Behaviour of Osmotically Dehydrated Pineapple,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2002, pp. 384-387.

[16] B. M. Dehkordi, “Optimization the Process of OsmoConvective Drying of Edible Button Mushroom,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 38, 2010, pp. 153-157.

[17] J. Hawkes and J. M. Flink, “Osmotic Concentration of Fruit Slices Prior to Dehydration,” Food Process Preservation, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1978, pp. 265-267.
doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.1978.tb00562.x

[18] P. K. Ghosh, Y. C. Agrawal, D. S. Jayas and B. K. Kumbhar, “Process Development for Osmo Hot Air Drying of Carrot,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2006, pp. 65-68.

[19] M. S. Alam, A. Singh and B. K. Sawhney, “Response Surface Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration Process for Anola Slices,” Food Science Technology, Vol. 47, No.1, 2010, pp. 47-54. doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0014-4

[20] B. I. O. Ade-Omowaye, N. K. Rastogi, A. Angersbach and D. Knorr, “Osmotic Dehydration Behaviour of Red Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.),” Food Science, Vol. 67, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1790-1796.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb08724.x

[21] R. V. Tonon, A. F. Baroni and M. D. Hubinges. “Osmotic Dehydration of Tomato in Ternary Solutions: Influence of Process Variables on Mass Transfer Kinetics and an Evaluation of the Retention of Arytenoids,” Food Engineering, Vol. 82, No. 4, 2007, pp. 509-517.